ירמיהו לו-מ: 'ירמיה כתב ספרו'
1א
הדף מאת: נירה נחליאל / המדרשה באורנים
2ב
בפרקי השבוע מתואר כי נבואות ירמיהו, שניתנו עד כה בעל פה, הועלו על הכתב על ידי ברוך בן נריה הסופר. בדף הלימוד נעסוק בייחודיות של כתיבת הנבואה ובמשמעותה של 'תורה שבעל פה' מול 'תורה שבכתב'. כמה אירועים שהתרחשו בין ירמיהו למלך יהויקים ולמלך צדקיהו, המתוארים בפרקים אלה, מזכירים אירועים מקבילים שקרו לצמדים אחרים של נביא ומלך. נשווה בין הסיפורים וננסה להבין מה מלמדים הבדלים אלה על הנביא, על המלך, על התקופה שבה התרחשו ועל היחסים ביניהם.
3ג
1. פרק שלם (פרק לו) מוקדש לכתיבת נבואת ירמיהו במגילת ספר, ולהקראתה בפני קהלים שונים:
קַח לְךָ מְגִלַּת סֵפֶר וְכָתַבְתָּ אֵלֶיהָ אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל יְהוּדָה וְעַל כָּל הַגּוֹיִם מִיּוֹם דִּבַּרְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ מִימֵי יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וְעַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה.
’Take thee a roll of a book, and write therein all the words that I have spoken unto thee against Israel, and against Judah, and against all the nations, from the day I spoke unto thee, from the days of Josiah, even unto this day.
4ד
אריאל הירשפלד, המלאך, מתוך: רישומים של התגלות, הוצאת חרגול, עמ' 142-140, תשס"ו
הלימוד בעל-פה הוא הצורה המעמיקה ביותר ללימוד שירה. הוא, בעצם, הגשמתה. הוא הביצוע המתמודד עם תביעתה של השירה לעל-זמן. הוא סוג של חריתה. אלא שהאבן שלו היא התודעה החיה. מה יכול להיות מורכב יותר מן הצירוף הזה? בדרך הזאת הופך השיר בתודעה לצורה, להוויה חללית, והוא נצפה בעיני הרוח מתוכו ומסביבו כאחד, כאילו היה גוף תלת-מימדי. [...]
השירים שלמדתי בעל-פה בחיי, פרקי התנ"ך, סיפורים קצרים שאני זוכר בעל-פה, אינם בגדר השכלה, אלא הם חומרים לרוח להתגלם בהם, הם ממחישים אותה כפי שהמוזיקה ממחישה את הזמן. הם מעקה לרוח להישען עליו במחוזות הערפל, הם גזע להתלפף עליו, מסיכה להיכנס אל תוכה במקום של רדיפות, וגם, לפעמים, נוצת טווס נוצצת במקום שיש צורך בנוצת טווס.
© כל הזכויות שמורות להוצאת חרגול
xargol.co.il
5ה
דיון
שאלות לעיון
  • למה ירמיהו צריך לכתוב את הנבואה, שניתנה לשעתה?
  • היזכרו בנאומים ובהרצאות ששמעתם בהזדמנויות שונות. איזו השפעה יש על השומעים כאשר הנואם קורא מהכתב או כאשר הוא נואם בעל-פה?
  • האם למדתם פעם קטע כלשהו בעל פה? נסו לומר אותו מהזיכרון.
6ו
כתיבת דברי הנבואה הייתה, כפי הנראה, אירוע ראוי לציון, שמעורר השתאות, פחד וסקרנות. כך מתחקרים בפרקנו השרים המפוחדים את ברוך בן נריה, הסופר:
וְאֶת בָּרוּךְ שָׁאֲלוּ לֵאמֹר:
הַגֶּד נָא לָנוּ אֵיךְ כָּתַבְתָּ אֶת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה מִפִּיו.
וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם בָּרוּךְ: מִפִּיו יִקְרָא אֵלַי אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, וַאֲנִי כֹּתֵב עַל הַסֵּפֶר בַּדְּיוֹ.
And they asked Baruch, saying: ‘Tell us now: How didst thou write all these words at his mouth?’ Then Baruch answered them: ‘He pronounced all these words unto me with his mouth, and I wrote them with ink in the book.’
7ז
דיון
  • האם הנבואה של ירמיהו (ושל שאר הנביאים) היא 'תורה שבכתב' או 'תורה שבעל פה'? מה ההבדל בין השתיים בעיניכם?
  • כתיבת המגילה של ירמיהו הופכת את ה'תורה שבעל פה' שלו ל'תורה שבכתב'. מהלך דומה אך הפוך קורה כאשר אנו משננים פרקים מהתנ"ך או שירים - שהופכים מטקסט כתוב לטקסט שבעל-פה. האם יש הבדל בהשפעה התרבותית בין שתי ה'תורות'?
8ח
2. תיאור קריאת המגילה באזני יהויקים מזכיר מאורע דומה שאירע לאביו יאשיהו, כשקיבל את דברי הפורענות על ירושלים:
וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב בֵּית הַחֹרֶף בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַתְּשִׁיעִי וְאֶת הָאָח לְפָנָיו מְבֹעָרֶת. וַיְהִי כִּקְרוֹא יְהוּדִי שָׁלֹשׁ דְּלָתוֹת וְאַרְבָּעָה יִקְרָעֶהָ בְּתַעַר הַסֹּפֵר וְהַשְׁלֵךְ אֶל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֶל הָאָח עַד תֹּם כָּל הַמְּגִלָּה עַל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל הָאָח. וְלֹא פָחֲדוּ וְלֹא קָרְעוּ אֶת בִּגְדֵיהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל עֲבָדָיו הַשֹּׁמְעִים אֵת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה.

מילים
  • שלש דלתות - שלשה פסוקים
Now the king was sitting in the winter-house in the ninth month; and the brazier was burning before him.
9ט
וַיֹּאמֶר חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עַל שָׁפָן הַסֹּפֵר סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה מָצָאתִי בְּבֵית ה' וַיִּתֵּן חִלְקִיָּה אֶת הַסֵּפֶר אֶל שָׁפָן וַיִּקְרָאֵהוּ: ... וַיְהִי כִּשְׁמֹעַ הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה וַיִּקְרַע אֶת בְּגָדָיו: וַיְצַו הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת חִלְקִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶת אֲחִיקָם בֶּן שָׁפָן וְאֶת עַכְבּוֹר בֶּן מִיכָיָה וְאֵת שָׁפָן הַסֹּפֵר וְאֵת עֲשָׂיָה עֶבֶד הַמֶּלֶךְ לֵאמֹר: לְכוּ דִרְשׁוּ אֶת ה' בַּעֲדִי וּבְעַד הָעָם וּבְעַד כָּל יְהוּדָה עַל דִּבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר הַנִּמְצָא הַזֶּה כִּי גְדוֹלָה חֲמַת ה' אֲשֶׁר הִיא נִצְּתָה בָנוּ עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֲבֹתֵינוּ עַל דִּבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל הַכָּתוּב עָלֵינוּ.
And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe: ‘I have found the book of the Law in the house of the LORD.’ And Hilkiah delivered the book to Shaphan, and he read it. And Shaphan the scribe came to the king, and brought back word unto the king, and said: ‘Thy servants have poured out the money that was found in the house, and have delivered it into the hand of the workmen that have the oversight of the house of the LORD.’ And Shaphan the scribe told the king, saying: ‘Hilkiah the priest hath delivered me a book.’ And Shaphan read it before the king. And it came to pass, when the king had heard the words of the book of the Law, that he rent his clothes. And the king commanded Hilkiah the priest, and Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and Achbor the son of Micaiah, and Shaphan the scribe, and Asaiah the king’s servant, saying: ’Go ye, inquire of the LORD for me, and for the people, and for all Judah, concerning the words of this book that is found; for great is the wrath of the LORD that is kindled against us, because our fathers have not hearkened unto the words of this book, to do according unto all that which is written concerning us.’
10י
דיון
שאלות לעיון
  • מהו הדמיון בין האירועים ומהם ההבדלים בתגובות המלכים לקריאת הספר / המגילה שהוקראה באוזניהם?
  • למה שרף יהויקים את המגילה? אילו מעשים נוספים עשו המלכים בפרקים שלפנינו, כדי למנוע את נבואת ירמיהו מלהתקיים?
  • מה אפשר ללמוד מתגובת המלך יהויקים לשמע המגילה, על מצבו ומצב העם בתקופתו?
11יא
3. חכמים לומדים משני סיפורים אלה הלכות הנוגעות לביצוע 'קריעה' בבגד:
ואלו קרעין שאין מתאחין:
הקורע על אביו ועל אמו ועל רבו שלימדו תורה ועל נשיא ועל אב ב"ד
ועל שמועות הרעות
ועל ברכת השם
ועל ספר תורה שנשרף ועל ערי יהודה ועל המקדש ועל ירושלים.
וקורע על מקדש ומוסיף על ירושלים.
[...]
'קריעה' על שמועות רעות:
תנו רבנן: אחד השומע [שמועות רעות] ואחד השומע מפי השומע - חייב לקרוע. והעדים אינן חייבין לקרוע, שכבר קרעו בשעה ששמעו. ... דכתיב (מלכים ב יט, א) "ויהי כשמוע המלך חזקיהו ויקרע את בגדיו" - המלך קרע והם לא קרעו.
And these are the rents of mourning that may never be properly mended: One who rends his garments for the death his father, or for his mother, or for his teacher who taught him Torah, or for the Nasi, or for the president of the court; or upon hearing evil tidings; or hearing God’s name being blessed, which is a euphemism for hearing God’s name being cursed; or when a Torah scroll has been burned; or upon seeing the cities of Judea that were destroyed or the destroyed Temple or Jerusalem in ruins. This is the way one conducts himself when approaching Jerusalem when it lies in ruin: He first rends his garments for the Temple and then extends the rent for Jerusalem. The Gemara elaborates upon the halakhot mentioned in this baraita: From where do we derive that one must rend his clothing for his father, his mother, and his teacher who taught him Torah? As it is written with regard to the prophet Elijah, when he ascended to Heaven in a tempest: “And Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and their horsemen” (II Kings 2:12). The Gemara interprets this verse as follows: “My father, my father”; this comes to teach that one must rend his garments for the death of his father or mother. “The chariots of Israel and their horsemen”; this comes to include also one’ teacher who taught him Torah. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this is referring to one’s teacher? The Gemara explains: As the verse was translated by Rav Yosef: My teacher, my teacher, who was better for the protection of the Jewish people with his prayers than an army with chariots and horsemen. And from where do we derive that these rents are never to be properly mended? As it is written: “And he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces” (II Kings 2:12). From the fact that it is stated: “And he rent them,” do I not know that he rent them in two pieces? Rather, when the verse adds that they were torn into two pieces, it teaches that they must remain torn in two pieces forever. Accordingly, this rent must never be properly mended. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: But isn’t Elijah still alive? Why, then, did Elisha rend his garments for him? He said to him: Since it is written: “And he saw him no more” (II Kings 2:12), Elijah was considered dead from Elisha’s perspective, and so Elisha rent his clothing for him. § From where do we derive that one must rend his clothing for the death of the Nasi or the president of the court and upon hearing evil bad tidings? As it is written, when David heard about the defeat of Israel and the death of Saul and his sons: “Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him: And they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Saul and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Israel; because they were fallen by the sword” (II Samuel 1:11–12). The Gemara explains how the aforementioned halakhot are derived from the verse: “Saul”; this is a reference to the Nasi, as Saul was king of Israel. “Jonathan”; this is a reference to the president of the court. “For the people of the Lord, and for the house of the Israel”; these are a reference to evil tidings. Rav bar Shaba said to Rav Kahana: But perhaps you can say that one need not rend his clothing until all these calamities occur together, and that rending clothing is performed only over a tragedy of this magnitude. He said to him: The repetition of the word “for”: “For Saul,” “for Jonathan,” and “for the people of the Lord” divides the matter and teaches that each individual misfortune is sufficient cause to rend one’s garments. The Gemara asks: But do we actually rend our clothing upon hearing evil tidings? But didn’t they say to Shmuel: King Shapur killed twelve thousand Jews in Mezigat Caesarea, and Shmuel did not rend his clothing?The Gemara answers: They said that one must rend his clothing upon hearing evil tidings only in a case where the calamity involved the majority of the community of Israel and resembles the incident that occurred when Saul was killed and the entire nation of Israel suffered defeat. The Gemara tangentially asks: Did King Shapur really kill Jews? But didn’t King Shapur say to Shmuel: I have a blessing coming to me, for I have never killed a Jew? The Gemara answers: King Shapur never instigated the killing of Jews; there, however, they brought it upon themselves, as Rabbi Ami said in an exaggerated manner: Due to the noise of the harp strings of Mezigat Caesarea, the walls of Laodicea were breached, for the residents of the city celebrated when they rebelled against King Shapur. Because they rebelled against him and threatened his rule, he was forced to kill them. § The Gemara continues its analysis of the baraita: From where do we derive that one must rend his garments upon hearing God’s name being blessed, i.e., cursed? As it is written with regard to the blasphemous words said by Rab-shakeh: “Then came Eliakim, son of Hilkiya, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent” (II Kings 18:37). The Sages taught a baraita with regard to this issue: Both one who actually hears the curse and one who hears from the mouth of the one who heard the curse are obligated to rend their garments. But the witnesses who testify against the person who uttered the blasphemy are not obligated to rend their clothing when they testify as to what they heard because they already rent their clothing when they heard the curse the first time. The Gemara asks: What difference does it make that they rent their garments when they heard the curse the first time? Didn’t they hear it again now? The Gemara rejects this argument: This will not enter your mind, as it is written: “And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes” (II Kings 19:1). This indicates that the king rent his garments, but those who reported the blasphemy to him did not rend theirs, as they had already rent their garments the first time.
12יב
קריעה על ספר תורה שנשרף:
אמרו לו ליהויקים: כתב ירמיה ספר קינות.
אמר להם: מה כתוב בה?
- [אמרו לו:] איכה ישבה בדד (איכה א, א).
אמר להם: אני המלך.
אמרו לו: בכה תבכה בלילה (איכה א, ב)
- אני המלך
- גלתה יהודה מעוני (איכה א, ג).
- אני המלך
- דרכי ציון אבלות (איכה א, ד)
- אני המלך
- היו צריה לראש (איכה א, ה)
אמר להם: מי אמר כך?
- כי ה' הוגה על רוב פשעיה (איכה א, ה).
מיד קדר כל אזכרות שבה ושרפן באש.
והיינו דכתיב: ולא פחדו ולא קרעו את בגדיהם (ירמיהו לו, כד).
מכלל דבעו למיקרע [= מכאן שהיו צריכים לקרוע בגדיהם על הספר שנשרף].
And these are the rents of mourning that may never be properly mended: One who rends his garments for the death his father, or for his mother, or for his teacher who taught him Torah, or for the Nasi, or for the president of the court; or upon hearing evil tidings; or hearing God’s name being blessed, which is a euphemism for hearing God’s name being cursed; or when a Torah scroll has been burned; or upon seeing the cities of Judea that were destroyed or the destroyed Temple or Jerusalem in ruins. This is the way one conducts himself when approaching Jerusalem when it lies in ruin: He first rends his garments for the Temple and then extends the rent for Jerusalem. The Gemara elaborates upon the halakhot mentioned in this baraita: From where do we derive that one must rend his clothing for his father, his mother, and his teacher who taught him Torah? As it is written with regard to the prophet Elijah, when he ascended to Heaven in a tempest: “And Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and their horsemen” (II Kings 2:12). The Gemara interprets this verse as follows: “My father, my father”; this comes to teach that one must rend his garments for the death of his father or mother. “The chariots of Israel and their horsemen”; this comes to include also one’ teacher who taught him Torah. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this is referring to one’s teacher? The Gemara explains: As the verse was translated by Rav Yosef: My teacher, my teacher, who was better for the protection of the Jewish people with his prayers than an army with chariots and horsemen. And from where do we derive that these rents are never to be properly mended? As it is written: “And he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces” (II Kings 2:12). From the fact that it is stated: “And he rent them,” do I not know that he rent them in two pieces? Rather, when the verse adds that they were torn into two pieces, it teaches that they must remain torn in two pieces forever. Accordingly, this rent must never be properly mended. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: But isn’t Elijah still alive? Why, then, did Elisha rend his garments for him? He said to him: Since it is written: “And he saw him no more” (II Kings 2:12), Elijah was considered dead from Elisha’s perspective, and so Elisha rent his clothing for him. § From where do we derive that one must rend his clothing for the death of the Nasi or the president of the court and upon hearing evil bad tidings? As it is written, when David heard about the defeat of Israel and the death of Saul and his sons: “Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him: And they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Saul and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Israel; because they were fallen by the sword” (II Samuel 1:11–12). The Gemara explains how the aforementioned halakhot are derived from the verse: “Saul”; this is a reference to the Nasi, as Saul was king of Israel. “Jonathan”; this is a reference to the president of the court. “For the people of the Lord, and for the house of the Israel”; these are a reference to evil tidings. Rav bar Shaba said to Rav Kahana: But perhaps you can say that one need not rend his clothing until all these calamities occur together, and that rending clothing is performed only over a tragedy of this magnitude. He said to him: The repetition of the word “for”: “For Saul,” “for Jonathan,” and “for the people of the Lord” divides the matter and teaches that each individual misfortune is sufficient cause to rend one’s garments. The Gemara asks: But do we actually rend our clothing upon hearing evil tidings? But didn’t they say to Shmuel: King Shapur killed twelve thousand Jews in Mezigat Caesarea, and Shmuel did not rend his clothing?The Gemara answers: They said that one must rend his clothing upon hearing evil tidings only in a case where the calamity involved the majority of the community of Israel and resembles the incident that occurred when Saul was killed and the entire nation of Israel suffered defeat. The Gemara tangentially asks: Did King Shapur really kill Jews? But didn’t King Shapur say to Shmuel: I have a blessing coming to me, for I have never killed a Jew? The Gemara answers: King Shapur never instigated the killing of Jews; there, however, they brought it upon themselves, as Rabbi Ami said in an exaggerated manner: Due to the noise of the harp strings of Mezigat Caesarea, the walls of Laodicea were breached, for the residents of the city celebrated when they rebelled against King Shapur. Because they rebelled against him and threatened his rule, he was forced to kill them. § The Gemara continues its analysis of the baraita: From where do we derive that one must rend his garments upon hearing God’s name being blessed, i.e., cursed? As it is written with regard to the blasphemous words said by Rab-shakeh: “Then came Eliakim, son of Hilkiya, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent” (II Kings 18:37). The Sages taught a baraita with regard to this issue: Both one who actually hears the curse and one who hears from the mouth of the one who heard the curse are obligated to rend their garments. But the witnesses who testify against the person who uttered the blasphemy are not obligated to rend their clothing when they testify as to what they heard because they already rent their clothing when they heard the curse the first time. The Gemara asks: What difference does it make that they rent their garments when they heard the curse the first time? Didn’t they hear it again now? The Gemara rejects this argument: This will not enter your mind, as it is written: “And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes” (II Kings 19:1). This indicates that the king rent his garments, but those who reported the blasphemy to him did not rend theirs, as they had already rent their garments the first time. And from where do we derive that these rents may not be properly mended? This is derived by way of a verbal analogy between the verb rending used here with regard to Hezekiah and the verb rending used in the case of Elijah and Elisha. § From where do we derive that one must rend his garments when a Torah scroll has been burned? As it is written: “And it came to pass, that when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he would cut it with a penknife, and cast it into the fire that was in the brazier” (Jeremiah 36:23). With regard to the verse itself the Gemara asks: What is meant by “three or four leaves,” and why did he cut the book only at that point? The Gemara explains: They said to Jehoiakim: Jeremiah has written a book of Lamentations over the future downfall and destruction of Jerusalem. He said to them: What is written in it? They read him the first verse: “How does the city sit solitary” (Lamentations 1:1). He said to them: I am king, and this does not apply to me. They read him the second verse: “She weeps sore in the night” (Lamentations 1:2). He said to them: I am king, and this does not apply to me. They read him the third verse: “Judah is gone into exile due to affliction” (Lamentations 1:3). He said to them: I am king. They read to him: “The ways of Zion do mourn” (Lamentations 1:4). He said to them: I am king. These are the four leaves, or verses, that he read first. They read him an additional verse: “Her adversaries have become the chief” (Lamentations 1:5), i.e., the reigning king will be removed from power. Once he heard this, he said to them: Who said this? They said to him: This is the continuation of the verse: “For the Lord has afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions” (Lamentations 1:5). Immediately, he cut out all the names of God from the book and burned them in fire. This is as it is written: “Yet they were not afraid, nor rent their garments, neither the king, nor any of his servants that heard all these words” (Jeremiah 36:24). By inference, this shows that they were required to rend their clothing when they saw this. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: Perhaps you can say that they should have rent their garments due to the evil tidings contained in the scroll and not because of the destruction of the book? Abaye said to him: Were they evil tidings at that time? This was a prophecy and not an account of current events. Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Rav Huna said: One who sees a Torah scroll that was torn is obligated to make two rents, one for the parchment that was damaged and one for the writing, as it is stated: “Then the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah, after the king had burned the scroll and the words” (Jeremiah 36:27). This implies that a separate rent must be made for each of them, both the parchment and the writing. It was related that Rabbi Abba and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya were sitting before Rabbi Abba. Rabbi Abba needed to relieve himself. He removed his phylacteries from his head and placed them on the cushion on which he was sitting. An ostrich came and wanted to swallow the phylacteries. He said: Now, had it succeeded to swallow it, I would have been obligated to make two rents. He said to him: From where do you derive this? There was an incident in which I was involved and I came before Rav Mattana asking what to do, but he did not have an answer readily available. I then came before Rav Yehuda, and he said to me: Shmuel said as follows: They said that one is obligated to rend his clothing only when a Torah scroll or some other sacred book is torn by force, and it resembles the incident that occurred with Jehoiakim. § From where do we derive that one must rend his garments upon seeing the cities of Judea in ruin? As it is written: “There came certain men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria, eighty people, their beards shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves, with offerings and incense in their hand, to bring to the house of the Lord” (Jeremiah 41:5). This indicates that they rent their garments upon seeing the destruction. Rabbi Ḥelbo said that Ulla Bira’a said that Rabbi Elazar said: One who sees the cities of Judea in their desolation says: “Your sacred cities are become a wilderness” (Isaiah 64:9), and then rends his garments. One who sees Jerusalem in its desolation says: “Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation” (Isaiah 64:9), and then rends his garments. One who sees the Temple in its desolation says: “Our sacred and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised You, is burned with fire; and all our pleasant things are laid waste” (Isaiah 64:10), and then rends his garments. It was taught in the baraita: He first rends his garments for the Temple and then extends the rent for Jerusalem. And they raise a contradiction from another baraita that states: Both one who hears that Jerusalem is in ruin and one who sees the destruction, once he reaches Mount Scopus [Tzofim], rends his garments. And he rends his garments for the Temple separately and for Jerusalem separately. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, which states that instead of making a separate rent for Jerusalem one may extend the first rent that he had made for the Temple, is referring to the case where one reached the Temple first, before seeing the rest of Jerusalem, and saw it in ruin. That baraita, which states that one must make separate rents for Jerusalem and for the Temple, is referring to the case where one reached Jerusalem first, and only afterward the Temple. § The Sages taught the following baraita: And all of these rents, one may tack them together with loose stitches, and hem them, and gather them, and fix them with imprecise ladder-like stitches. But one may not mend them with precise stitches. Rav Ḥisda said:
13יג
דיון
שאלות לעיון
  • מהי המשמעות הסמלית של קריעת הבגד בעת אבל כבד? היום אנחנו מכירים את מעשה הקריעה בעיקר בעת אבל על בן/בת משפחה. האם תוכלו להזדהות עם מעשה סמלי זה בשעת שרפת ספרים או שמיעת שמועות רעות? באילו נסיבות נוספות אתם יכולים לחשוב על ביטוי כזה לצער?
  • מהי המגילה שכתב ירמיהו, על פי המדרש? אם כך, איך היא משנה את משמעותה, בהיכתבה לפני החורבן?
  • לפי הפסוקים, המלך הקשיב לשלושת הפסוקים הראשונים, וברביעי קרע ושרף את המגילה: וַיְהִי כִּקְרוֹא יְהוּדִי שָׁלֹשׁ דְּלָתוֹת, וְאַרְבָּעָה יִקְרָעֶהָ בְּתַעַר הַסֹּפֵר וְהַשְׁלֵךְ אֶל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֶל הָאָח, עַד תֹּם כָּל הַמְּגִלָּה עַל הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל הָאָח (ירמיהו לו, כג). לפי המדרש, איך התמודד יהויקים עם שלושת הפסוקים הראשונים, ומה הרתיח אותו בפסוק הרביעי?
14יד
4. צדקיהו המלך מתייעץ עם ירמיהו בסתר, פעמיים:
וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ צִדְקִיָּהוּ וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ וַיִּשְׁאָלֵהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּבֵיתוֹ בַּסֵּתֶר וַיֹּאמֶר הֲיֵשׁ דָּבָר מֵאֵת ה' וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ יֵשׁ וַיֹּאמֶר בְּיַד מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל תִּנָּתֵן. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ צִדְקִיָּהוּ מֶה חָטָאתִי לְךָ וְלַעֲבָדֶיךָ וְלָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי נְתַתֶּם אוֹתִי אֶל בֵּית הַכֶּלֶא. וְאַיֵּה נְבִיאֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר נִבְּאוּ לָכֶם לֵאמֹר לֹא יָבֹא מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל עֲלֵיכֶם וְעַל הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת. [ירמיהו לז, יז-יט]

וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ צִדְקִיָּהוּ וַיִּקַּח אֶת יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא אֵלָיו אֶל מָבוֹא הַשְּׁלִישִׁי אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית ה' וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל יִרְמְיָהוּ שֹׁאֵל אֲנִי אֹתְךָ דָּבָר אַל תְּכַחֵד מִמֶּנִּי דָּבָר. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶל צִדְקִיָּהוּ כִּי אַגִּיד לְךָ הֲלוֹא הָמֵת תְּמִיתֵנִי וְכִי אִיעָצְךָ לֹא תִשְׁמַע אֵלָי. וַיִּשָּׁבַע הַמֶּלֶךְ צִדְקִיָּהוּ אֶל יִרְמְיָהוּ בַּסֵּתֶר לֵאמֹר חַי ה' את אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לָנוּ אֶת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַזֹּאת אִם אֲמִיתֶךָ וְאִם אֶתֶּנְךָ בְּיַד הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר מְבַקְשִׁים אֶת נַפְשֶׁךָ. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶל צִדְקִיָּהוּ כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם יָצֹא תֵצֵא אֶל שָׂרֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְחָיְתָה נַפְשֶׁךָ וְהָעִיר הַזֹּאת לֹא תִשָּׂרֵף בָּאֵשׁ וְחָיִתָה אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ. וְאִם לֹא תֵצֵא אֶל שָׂרֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְנִתְּנָה הָעִיר הַזֹּאת בְּיַד הַכַּשְׂדִּים וּשְׂרָפוּהָ בָּאֵשׁ וְאַתָּה לֹא תִמָּלֵט מִיָּדָם. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ צִדְקִיָּהוּ אֶל יִרְמְיָהוּ אֲנִי דֹאֵג אֶת הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר נָפְלוּ אֶל הַכַּשְׂדִּים פֶּן יִתְּנוּ אֹתִי בְּיָדָם וְהִתְעַלְּלוּ בִי.
וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָהוּ לֹא יִתֵּנוּ שְׁמַע נָא בְּקוֹל ה' לַאֲשֶׁר אֲנִי דֹּבֵר אֵלֶיךָ וְיִיטַב לְךָ וּתְחִי נַפְשֶׁךָ. (כא) וְאִם מָאֵן אַתָּה לָצֵאת זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר הִרְאַנִי ה'. וְהִנֵּה כָל הַנָּשִׁים אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁאֲרוּ בְּבֵית מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה מוּצָאוֹת אֶל שָׂרֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְהֵנָּה אֹמְרוֹת הִסִּיתוּךָ וְיָכְלוּ לְךָ אַנְשֵׁי שְׁלֹמֶךָ הָטְבְּעוּ בַבֹּץ רַגְלֶךָ נָסֹגוּ אָחוֹר. וְאֶת כָּל נָשֶׁיךָ וְאֶת בָּנֶיךָ מוֹצִאִים אֶל הַכַּשְׂדִּים וְאַתָּה לֹא תִמָּלֵט מִיָּדָם כִּי בְיַד מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל תִּתָּפֵשׂ וְאֶת הָעִיר הַזֹּאת תִּשְׂרֹף בָּאֵשׁ.
וַיֹּאמֶר צִדְקִיָּהוּ אֶל יִרְמְיָהוּ אִישׁ אַל יֵדַע בַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְלֹא תָמוּת. וְכִי יִשְׁמְעוּ הַשָּׂרִים כִּי דִבַּרְתִּי אִתָּךְ וּבָאוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְאָמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ הַגִּידָה נָּא לָנוּ מַה דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל תְּכַחֵד מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא נְמִיתֶךָ וּמַה דִּבֶּר אֵלֶיךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם מַפִּיל אֲנִי תְחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ לְבִלְתִּי הֲשִׁיבֵנִי בֵּית יְהוֹנָתָן לָמוּת שָׁם. (ירמיהו לח, יד- כו)
then Zedekiah the king sent, and fetched him; and the king asked him secretly in his house, and said: ‘Is there any word from the LORD?’ And Jeremiah said: ‘There is.’ He said also: ‘Thou shalt be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon.’ Moreover Jeremiah said unto king Zedekiah: ‘Wherein have I sinned against thee, or against thy servants, or against this people, that ye have put me in prison? Where now are your prophets that prophesied unto you, saying: The king of Babylon shall not come against you, nor against this land?
15טו
סיפור זה מקביל לקריאתו של המלך חזקיהו לישעיהו הנביא, בשמעו שאשור עולה על ירושלים:
וַיְהִי כִּשְׁמֹעַ הַמֶּלֶךְ חִזְקִיָּהוּ וַיִּקְרַע אֶת בְּגָדָיו וַיִּתְכַּס בַּשָּׂק וַיָּבֹא בֵּית ה':
וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת אֶלְיָקִים אֲשֶׁר עַל הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁבְנָא הַסֹּפֵר וְאֵת זִקְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים מִתְכַּסִּים בַּשַּׂקִּים אֶל יְשַׁעְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא בֶּן אָמוֹץ:
וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו כֹּה אָמַר חִזְקִיָּהוּ יוֹם צָרָה וְתוֹכֵחָה וּנְאָצָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי בָאוּ בָנִים עַד מַשְׁבֵּר וְכֹחַ אַיִן לְלֵדָה:
אוּלַי יִשְׁמַע ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵת כָּל דִּבְרֵי רַב שָׁקֵה אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר אֲדֹנָיו לְחָרֵף אֱלֹהִים חַי וְהוֹכִיחַ בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְנָשָׂאתָ תְפִלָּה בְּעַד הַשְּׁאֵרִית הַנִּמְצָאָה: וַיָּבֹאוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ חִזְקִיָּהוּ אֶל יְשַׁעְיָהוּ:
וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם יְשַׁעְיָהוּ כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן אֶל אֲדֹנֵיכֶם כֹּה אָמַר ה' אַל תִּירָא מִפְּנֵי הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתָּ אֲשֶׁר גִּדְּפוּ נַעֲרֵי מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר אֹתִי: הִנְנִי נֹתֵן בּוֹ רוּחַ וְשָׁמַע שְׁמוּעָה וְשָׁב לְאַרְצוֹ וְהִפַּלְתִּיו בַּחֶרֶב בְּאַרְצוֹ:
And it came to pass, when king Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth, and went into the house of the LORD. And he sent Eliakim, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and the elders of the priests, covered with sackcloth, unto Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz. And they said unto him: ‘Thus saith Hezekiah: This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of contumely; for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth. It may be the LORD thy God will hear all the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to taunt the living God, and will rebuke the words which the LORD thy God hath heard; wherefore make prayer for the remnant that is left.’ So the servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah. And Isaiah said unto them: ‘Thus shall ye say to your master: Thus saith the LORD: Be not afraid of the words that thou hast heard, wherewith the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed Me. Behold, I will put a spirit in him, and he shall hear a rumour, and shall return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.’
16טז
אחד העם, כהן ונביא, בתוך: על פרשת דרכים, תרנ"ג
אחד העם השתמש בדימוי לתיאור היחסים שבין ה"נביא" וה"כהן":
... תנועות הכוכבים במסילותם מוגבלות, כידוע, לא רק על ידי יחוסו של כל אחד מהם בפני עצמו אל השמש, אלא, נוסף על זה, גם על ידי פעולותיהם אלו על אלו בדרך מהלכם, המכריחות את כל אחד לנטות במדה ידועה מן הדרך הרצויה לו לבדו, שהיה הולך בה אם היה הולך יחידי...
למקור השלם
17יז
דיון
שאלות לעיון
  • מהם קוי הדמיון בין שני האירועים?
  • מהיכן נובע השוני הבולט בין תגובת ירמיהו לתגובת ישעיהו?
  • אילו יחסים מתקיימים בין גורמים שונים בהובלת העם, על-פי דברי אחד העם?
18יח
אחד העם, כהן ונביא, מתוך: על פרשת דרכים, תרנ"ג
... אין לך רעיון גדול בעולם שהגיע למדרגת כוח פועל, אשר לא נמצאו לו בראשיתו אנשים המסורים לו, ורק לו, בכל כוחות גופם ונפשם. אנשים כאלו מביטים על כל החיים רק מצד רעיונם בלבד ורק על פיו בלבד יחפצו 'לתקן עולם', מבלי תת חלק לכל יתר הכוחות שאינם נשמעים לו ומבלי להשגיח גם על חוקי הטבע השׂמים מעצור לפעולתם, אלא 'יקוֹב הדין את ההר'. ואף על פי שלא הכוחות האחרים ולא חוקי הטבע אינם נסוגים אחור מפניהם וההר נשאר בלתי נקוּב, הנה אין עבודתם בכל זאת לבטלה: הרעיון החדש נעשׂה על ידם לכוח מקורי, המושך עמו את החיים לצד אחד מיוחד, כמו שכך עושׂים יתר הכוחות, איש לצדו; וההרמוניא השׂוררת בחיי החברה, בהיותה תוצאת התנגשותם של כל הכוחות, מוכרחת איפוא להשתנות מעט או הרבה על ידי תוספת כוח חדש. ולפי שאין שום כוח מגיע לעולם לידי נצחון שלם ומוחלט, לכן אין שום אחד יכול להתקים לעולם בלי שמירה מעולה מצד אותם האנשים המסורים לו. ...
למקור השלם
19יט
דיון
בהנחה שאחד העם מדבר על תפקידו של הנביא, האם אפשר לראות את דברי ירמיהו בנבואותיו ככאלו ש"אין עבודתם בכל זאת לבטלה: הרעיון החדש נעשׂה על ידם לכוח מקורי, המושך עמו את החיים לצד אחד מיוחד"? מהו הכוח המקורי שהשפיעו ולאיזה כיוון מיוחד משכו את החיים?
איך דברי ירמיהו משפיעים עד ימינו, לדעתכם?
21 כא
22כב
דף הנחיות למנחה:
ירמיהו לו-מ דף למנחה.docx