עזרא י - נחמיה ד: על תפילה ככמיהה למאזין
1א
הדף מאת: מיכל יניב / מרכזי דניאל
2ב
נימתו האישית של ספר נחמיה, המתבטאת בלשון 'אני' - גוף ראשון יחיד - בולטת מאוד גם בתפילתו של נחמיה. אף שאינו אישיות דתית מוסמכת, פונה נחמיה אל האל בתפילה הפותחת את הספר ומבטאת תחושת שליחות עמוקה, כמעין נביא. בשיעור זה נתבונן בתפילה ונעמוד על הכמיהה העזה לשומע. האם תפקידו של האל להאזין לתפילה? האם מובן מאליו שיש שומע? האם נחוצה אמונה בקיומו של שומע על מנת להתפלל?
3ג
דיון
מבוא
ספר נחמיה מתאר את פועלו של נחמיה, שר המשקים של ארתחשסתא הראשון מלך פרס, בבניית ירושלים. בשנת 445 לפנה"ס מגיעה משלחת מיהודה לשושן הבירה לתאר את מצבם של היהודים לאחר פריצת חומות ירושלים. נחמיה מנצל את מעמדו הרם על מנת לקבל רשות לבנות את חומות העיר מחדש ומתחיל בפעילותו באופן מידי.
נימתו האישית של ספר נחמיה, המתבטאת בלשון 'אני' - גוף ראשון יחיד - בולטת מאוד גם בתפילתו של נחמיה. אף שאינו אישיות דתית מוסמכת, פונה נחמיה אל האל בתפילה הפותחת את הספר המבטאת תחושת שליחות עמוקה, כמעין נביא. בשיעור זה נתבונן בתפילה ונעמוד על הכמיהה העזה לשומע. האם תפקידו של האל להאזין לתפילה? האם מובן מאליו שיש שומע? האם נחוצה אמונה בקיומו של שומע על מנת להתפלל?
4ד
תפילת נחמיה תפילת שלמה
נחמיה פרק א

וָאֹמַ֗ר אָֽנָּ֤א ה' אֱלֹהֵ֣י הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם הָאֵ֥ל הַגָּד֖וֹל וְהַנּוֹרָ֑א שֹׁמֵ֤ר הַבְּרִית֙ וָחֶ֔סֶד לְאֹהֲבָ֖יו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְוֹתָֽיו: תְּהִ֣י נָ֣א אָזְנְךָֽ־קַשֶּׁ֣בֶת וְֽעֵינֶ֪יךָ פְתוּח֟וֹת לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ אֶל־תְּפִלַּ֣ת עַבְדְּךָ֡ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָנֹכִי֩ מִתְפַּלֵּ֨ל לְפָנֶ֤יךָ הַיּוֹם֙ יוֹמָ֣ם וָלַ֔יְלָה עַל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עֲבָדֶ֑יךָ וּמִתְוַדֶּ֗ה עַל־חַטֹּ֤אות בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֣אנוּ לָ֔ךְ וַאֲנִ֥י וּבֵית־ אָבִ֖י חָטָֽאנוּ:
...אָנָּ֣א אֲדֹנָ֗י תְּהִ֣י נָ֣א אָזְנְךָֽ־קַ֠שֶּׁבֶת אֶל־תְּפִלַּ֨ת עַבְדְּךָ֜ וְאֶל־תְּפִלַּ֣ת עֲבָדֶ֗יךָ הַֽחֲפֵצִים֙ לְיִרְאָ֣ה אֶת־שְׁמֶ֔ךָ וְהַצְלִֽיחָה־נָּ֤א לְעַבְדְּךָ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם וּתְנֵ֣הוּ לְרַחֲמִ֔ים לִפְנֵ֖י הָאִ֣ישׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וַאֲנִ֛י הָיִ֥יתִי מַשְׁקֶ֖ה לַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
מלכים (א) פרק ח

וּפָנִ֜יתָ אֶל־תְּפִלַּ֧ת עַבְדְּךָ֛ וְאֶל־תְּחִנָּת֖וֹ ה' אֱלֹהָ֑י לִשְׁמֹ֤עַ אֶל־הָֽרִנָּה֙ וְאֶל־הַתְּפִלָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר עַבְדְּךָ֛ מִתְפַּלֵּ֥ל לְפָנֶ֖יךָ הַיּֽוֹם: לִהְיוֹת֩ עֵינֶ֨ךָ פְתֻח֜וֹת אֶל־הַבַּ֤יִת הַזֶּה֙ לַ֣יְלָה וָי֔וֹם אֶל־הַ֨מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֔רְתָּ יִהְיֶ֥ה שְׁמִ֖י שָׁ֑ם לִשְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ אֶל־הַתְּפִלָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתְפַּלֵּ֣ל עַבְדְּךָ֔ אֶל־הַמָּק֖וֹם הַזֶּֽה: וְשָׁ֨מַעְתָּ֜ אֶל־תְּחִנַּ֤ת עַבְדְּךָ֙ וְעַמְּךָ֣ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽתְפַּלְל֖וּ אֶל־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וְ֠אַתָּה תִּשְׁמַ֞ע אֶל־ מְק֤וֹם שִׁבְתְּךָ֙ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְשָׁמַעְתָּ֖ וְסָלָֽחְתָּ:
דברי הימים (ב) פרק ו

וְשָׁמַעְתָּ֙ מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם מִמְּכ֣וֹן שִׁבְתְּךָ֗ אֶת־תְּפִלָּתָם֙ וְאֶת־תְּחִנֹּ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם וְעָשִׂ֖יתָ מִשְׁפָּטָ֑ם וְסָלַחְתָּ֥ לְעַמְּךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָֽטְאוּ־לָֽךְ: עַתָּ֣ה אֱלֹהַ֗י יִֽהְיוּ־נָ֤א עֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ פְּתֻח֔וֹת וְאָזְנֶ֖יךָ קַשֻּׁב֑וֹת לִתְפִלַּ֖ת הַמָּק֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:

and said: ‘I beseech Thee, O LORD, the God of heaven, the great and awful God, that keepeth covenant and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments; let Thine ear now be attentive, and Thine eyes open, that Thou mayest hearken unto the prayer of Thy servant, which I pray before Thee at this time, day and night, for the children of Israel Thy servants, while I confess the sins of the children of Israel, which we have sinned against Thee; yea, I and my father’s house have sinned. We have dealt very corruptly against Thee, and have not kept the commandments, nor the statutes, nor the ordinances which Thou didst command Thy servant Moses. Remember, I beseech Thee, the word that Thou didst command Thy servant Moses, saying: If ye deal treacherously, I will scatter you abroad among the peoples; but if ye return unto Me, and keep My commandments and do them, though your dispersed were in the uttermost part of the heaven, yet will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to cause My name to dwell there. Now these are Thy servants and Thy people, whom Thou hast redeemed by Thy great power, and by Thy strong hand. O Lord, I beseech Thee, let now Thine ear be attentive to the prayer of Thy servant, and to the prayer of Thy servants, who delight to fear Thy name; and prosper, I pray Thee, Thy servant this day, and grant him mercy in the sight of this man.’ Now I was cupbearer to the king. And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, when wine was before him, that I took up the wine, and gave it unto the king. Now I had not been beforetime sad in his presence. And the king said unto me: ‘Why is thy countenance sad, seeing thou art not sick? this is nothing else but sorrow of heart.’ Then I was very sore afraid. And I said unto the king: ‘Let the king live for ever: why should not my countenance be sad, when the city, the place of my fathers’ sepulchres, lieth waste, and the gates thereof are consumed with fire?’ Then the king said unto me: ‘For what dost thou make request?’ So I prayed to the God of heaven. And I said unto the king: ‘If it please the king, and if thy servant have found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, unto the city of my fathers’sepulchres, that I may build it.’ And the king said unto me, the queen also sitting by him: ‘For how long shall thy journey be? and when wilt thou return?’ So it pleased the king to send me; and I set him a time. Moreover I said unto the king: ‘If it please the king, let letters be given me to the governors beyond the River, that they may let me pass through till I come unto Judah; and a letter unto Asaph the keeper of the king’s park, that he may give me timber to make beams for the gates of the castle which appertaineth to the house, and for the wall of the city, and for the house that I shall enter into.’ And the king granted me, according to the good hand of my God upon me. Then I came to the governors beyond the River, and gave them the king’s letters. Now the king had sent with me captains of the army and horsemen. And when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, heard of it, it grieved them exceedingly, for that there was come a man to seek the welfare of the children of Israel. So I came to Jerusalem, and was there three days. And I arose in the night, I and some few men with me; neither told I any man what my God put into my heart to do for Jerusalem; neither was there any beast with me, save the beast that I rode upon. And I went out by night by the valley gate, even toward the dragon’s well, and to the dung gate, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and the gates thereof were consumed with fire. Then I went on to the fountain gate and to the king’s pool; but there was no place for the beast that was under me to pass. Then went I up in the night in the valley, and viewed the wall; and I turned back, and entered by the valley gate, and so returned. And the rulers knew not whither I went, or what I did; neither had I as yet told it to the Jews, nor to the priests, nor to the nobles, nor to the rulers, nor to the rest that did the work. . Then said I unto them: ‘Ye see the evil case that we are in, how Jerusalem lieth waste, and the gates thereof are burned with fire; come and let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we be no more a reproach.’ And I told them of the hand of my God which was good upon me; as also of the king’s words that he had spoken unto me. And they said: ‘Let us rise up and build.’ So they strengthened their hands for the good work. But when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, and Geshem the Arabian, heard it, they laughed us to scorn, and despised us, and said: ‘What is this thing that ye do? will ye rebel against the king?’ Then answered I them, and said unto them: ‘The God of heaven, He will prosper us; therefore we His servants will arise and build; but ye have no portion, nor right, nor memorial, in Jerusalem.’ Then Eliashib the high priest rose up with his brethren the priests, and they builded the sheep gate; they sanctified it, and set up the doors of it; even unto the tower of Hammeah they sanctified it, unto the tower of Hananel. And next unto him builded the men of Jericho. And next to them builded Zaccur the son of Imri. And the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the bolts thereof, and the bars thereof. And next unto them repaired Meremoth the son of Uriah, the son of Hakkoz. And next unto them repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah, the son of Meshezabel. And next unto them repaired Zadok the son of Baana. And next unto them the Tekoites repaired; and their nobles put not their necks to the work of their lord. And the gate of the old city repaired Joiada the son of Paseah and Meshullam the son of Besodeiah; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, and the bolts thereof, and the bars thereof. And next unto them repaired Melatiah the Gibeonite, and Jadon the Meronothite, the men of Gibeon, and of Mizpah, for them that appertained to the throne of the governor beyond the River. Next unto him repaired Uzziel the son of Harhaiah, goldsmiths. And next unto him repaired Hananiah one of the perfumers, and they restored Jerusalem even unto the broad wall. And next unto them repaired Rephaiah the son of Hur, the ruler of half the district of Jerusalem. And next unto them repaired Jedaiah the son of Harumaph, even over against his house. And next unto him repaired Hattush the son of Hashabneiah. Malchijah the son of Harim, and Hasshub the son of Pahath-moab, repaired another portion, and the tower of the furnaces. And next unto him repaired Shallum the son of Hallohesh, the ruler of half the district of Jerusalem, he and his daughters. The valley gate repaired Hanun, and the inhabitants of Zanoah; they built it, and set up the doors thereof, the bolts thereof, and the bars thereof, and a thousand cubits of the wall unto the dung gate. And the dung gate repaired Malchijah the son of Rechab, the ruler of the district of Beth-cherem; he built it, and set up the doors thereof, the bolts thereof, and the bars thereof. And the fountain gate repaired Shallun the son of Colhozeh, the ruler of the district of Mizpah; he built it, and covered it, and set up the doors thereof, the bolts thereof, and the bars thereof, and the wall of the pool of Shelah by the king’s garden, even unto the stairs that go down from the city of David. After him repaired Nehemiah the son of Azbuk, the ruler of half the district of Beth-zur, unto the place over against the sepulchres of David, and unto the pool that was made, and unto the house of the mighty men. After him repaired the Levites, Rehum the son of Bani. Next unto him repaired Hashabiah, the ruler of half the district of Keilah, for his district. After him repaired their brethren, Bavvai the son of Henadad, the ruler of half the district of Keilah. And next to him repaired Ezer the son of Jeshua, the ruler of Mizpah, another portion, over against the ascent to the armoury at the Turning. After him Baruch the son of Zaccai earnestly repaired another portion, from the Turning unto the door of the house of Eliashib the high priest. After him repaired Meremoth the son of Uriah the son of Hakkoz another portion, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib. And after him repaired the priests, the men of the Plain. After them repaired Benjamin and Hasshub over against their house. After them repaired Azariah the son of Maaseiah the son of Ananiah beside his own house. After him repaired Binnui the son of Henadad another portion, from the house of Azariah unto the Turning and unto the corner. Palal the son of Uzai repaired over against the Turning, and the tower that standeth out from the upper house of the king, which is by the court of the guard. After him Pedaiah the son of Parosh repaired.— Now the Nethinim dwelt in Ophel, unto the place over against the water gate toward the east, and the tower that standeth out.— After him the Tekoites repaired another portion, over against the great tower that standeth out, and unto the wall of Ophel. Above the horse gate repaired the priests, every one over against his own house. After them repaired Zadok the son of Immer over against his own house. And after him repaired Shemaiah the son of Shecaniah, the keeper of the east gate. After him repaired Hananiah the son of Shelemiah, and Hanun the sixth son of Zalaph, another portion. After him repaired Meshullam the son of Berechiah over against his chamber. After him repaired Malchijah one of the goldsmiths unto the house of the Nethinim, and of the merchants, over against the gate of Hammiphkad, and to the upper chamber of the corner. And between the upper chamber of the corner and the sheep gate repaired the goldsmiths and the merchants. But it came to pass that, when Sanballat heard that we builded the wall, he was wroth, and took great indignation, and mocked the Jews. And he spoke before his brethren and the army of Samaria, and said: ‘What do these feeble Jews? will they restore at will? will they sacrifice? will they make an end this day? will they revive the stones out of the heaps of rubbish, seeing they are burned?’ Now Tobiah the Ammonite was by him, and he said: ‘Even that which they build, if a fox go up, he shall break down their stone wall.’ Hear, O our God; for we are despised; and turn back their reproach upon their own head, and give them up to spoiling in a land of captivity; and cover not their iniquity, and let not their sin be blotted out from before Thee; for they have vexed Thee before the builders. So we built the wall; and all the wall was joined together unto half the height thereof; for the people had a mind to work. But it came to pass that, when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the repairing of the walls of Jerusalem went forward, and that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth; and they conspired all of them together to come and fight against Jerusalem, and to cause confusion therein. But we made our prayer unto our God, and set a watch against them day and night, because of them. And Judah said: ‘The strength of the bearers of burdens is decayed, and there is much rubbish; so that we are not able to build the wall.’ And our adversaries said: ‘They shall not know, neither see, till we come into the midst of them, and slay them, and cause the work to cease.’ And it came to pass that, when the Jews that dwelt by them came, they said unto us ten times: ‘Ye must return unto us from all places.’ Therefore set I in the lowest parts of the space behind the wall, in the open places, I even set the people after their families with their swords, their spears, and their bows. And I looked, and rose up, and said unto the nobles, and to the rulers, and to the rest of the people: ‘Be not ye afraid of them; remember the Lord, who is great and awful, and fight for your brethren, your sons and your daughters, your wives and your houses.’ And it came to pass, when our enemies heard that it was known unto us, and God had brought their counsel to nought, that we returned all of us to the wall, every one unto his work. And it came to pass from that time forth, that half of my servants wrought in the work, and half of them held the spears, the shields, and the bows, and the coats of mail; and the rulers were behind all the house of Judah. They that builded the wall and they that bore burdens laded themselves, every one with one of his hands wrought in the work, and with the other held his weapon; and the builders, every one had his sword girded by his side, and so builded. And he that sounded the horn was by me. And I said unto the nobles, and to the rulers and to the rest of the people: ‘The work is great and large, and we are separated upon the wall, one far from another; in what place soever ye hear the sound of the horn, resort ye thither unto us; our God will fight for us.’ So we wrought in the work; and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning till the stars appeared. Likewise at the same time said I unto the people: ‘Let every one with his servant lodge within Jerusalem, that in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labour in the day.’ So neither I, nor my brethren, nor my servants, nor the men of the guard that followed me, none of us put off our clothes, every one that went to the water had his weapon. Then there arose a great cry of the people and of their wives against their brethren the Jews. For there were that said: ‘We, our sons and our daughters, are many; let us get for them corn, that we may eat and live.’ Some also there were that said: ‘We are mortgaging our fields, and our vineyards, and our houses; let us get corn, because of the dearth.’ There were also that said: ‘We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute upon our fields and our vineyards. Yet now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children; and, lo, we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters to be servants, and some of our daughters are brought into bondage already; neither is it in our power to help it; for other men have our fields and our vineyards.’ And I was very angry when I heard their cry and these words. Then I consulted with myself, and contended with the nobles and the rulers, and said unto them: ‘Ye lend upon pledge, every one to his brother.’ And I held a great assembly against them. And I said unto them: ‘We after our ability have redeemed our brethren the Jews, that sold themselves unto the heathen; and would ye nevertheless sell your brethren, and should they sell themselves unto us?’ Then held they their peace, and found never a word. Also I said: ‘The thing that ye do is not good; ought ye not to walk in the fear of our God, because of the reproach of the heathen our enemies? And I likewise, my brethren and my servants, have lent them money and corn. I pray you, let us leave off this exaction. Restore, I pray you, to them, even this day, their fields, their vineyards, their oliveyards, and their houses, also the hundred pieces of silver, and the corn, the wine, and the oil, that ye exact of them.’ Then said they: ‘We will restore them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do, even as thou sayest.’ Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they should do according to this promise. Also I shook out my lap, and said: ‘So God shake out every man from his house, and from his labour, that performeth not this promise; even thus be he shaken out, and emptied.’ And all the congregation said: ‘Amen’, and praised the LORD. And the people did according to this promise. Moreover from the time that I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah, from the twentieth year even unto the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that is, twelve years, I and my brethren have not eaten the bread of the governor. But the former governors that were before me laid burdens upon the people, and took of them for bread and wine above forty shekels of silver; yea, even their servants lorded over the people; but so did not I, because of the fear of God. Yea, also I set hand to the work of this wall, neither bought we any land; and all my servants were gathered thither unto the work. Moreover there were at my table of the Jews and the rulers a hundred and fifty men, beside those that came unto us from among the nations that were round about us. Now that which was prepared for one day was one ox and six choice sheep, also fowls were prepared for me; and once in ten days store of all sorts of wine; yet for all this I demanded not the bread of the governor, because the service was heavy upon this people. Remember unto me, O my God, for good, all that I have done for this people. Now it came to pass, when it was reported to Sanballat and Tobiah, and to Geshem the Arabian, and unto the rest of our enemies, that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein—though even unto that time I had not set up the doors in the gates— that Sanballat and Geshem sent unto me, saying: ‘Come, let us meet together in one of the villages in the plain of Ono.’ But they thought to do me mischief. And I sent messengers unto them, saying: ‘I am doing a great work, so that I cannot come down; why should the work cease, whilst I leave it, and come down to you?’ And they sent unto me four times after this sort; and I answered them after the same manner. Then sent Sanballat his servant unto me in like manner the fifth time with an open letter in his hand; wherein was written: ‘It is reported among the nations, and Geshem saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel; for which cause thou buildest the wall; and thou wouldest be their king, even according to these words. And thou hast also appointed prophets to proclaim of thee at Jerusalem, saying: There is a king in Judah; and now shall it be reported to the king according to these words. Come now therefore, and let us take counsel together.' Then I sent unto him, saying: ‘There are no such things done as thou sayest, but thou feignest them out of thine own heart.’ For they all would have us afraid, saying: ‘Their hands shall be weakened from the work, that it be not done.’ But now, strengthen Thou my hands. And as for me, I went unto the house of Shemaiah the son of Delaiah the son of Mehetabel, who was shut up; and he said: ‘Let us meet together in the house of God, within the temple, and let us shut the doors of the temple; for they will come to slay thee; yea, in the night will they come to slay thee.’ And I said: ‘Should such a man as I flee? and who is there, that, being such as I, could go into the temple and live? I will not go in.’
5ה
דיון
השוו בין תפילת נחמיה ותפילת שלמה - במה הן דומות? במה הן נבדלות זו מזו?
נראה שנחמיה הכיר את תפילת שלמה ואף מאזכר אותה בתפילתו. מה מעיד הדמיון בתפילה על מעמדו של נחמיה בעיני עצמו ועל התפקיד שהוא מועיד לעצמו?
באילו דימויים משותפים משתמשים שלמה ונחמיה?
איזה קשר בין המתפלל לאל עולה מן הדימויים הללו?
6ו
(יא) אנא אדני תהי נא אזנך קשבת - בתחילת תפילתו אמר לשון זה של תחינה וכן לאחר תפילתו:
7ז
(יא) הנה ה', ולא תאמר שאז היו ראויים מצד הצדיקים שהיו בדור ההוא, הנה גם עתה תהי אזנך קשבת אל תפילת עבדך ואל תפילת עבדיך, שגם הם חפצים ליראה את שמך, וראוי שתעשה בזכות תפילתם ומעשיהם.
8ח
דיון
מה מבטאת הכמיהה להקשבה?
מהו ההבדל בין הקשבה לתפילה והיענות אליה?
מה הופך את התפילה לראויה לקשב האלוהי?
מה הופך אדם לראוי להקשבה האלוהית?
מדוע נתפסים הצדיקים כראויים להקשבה האלוהית? אילו דמויות נוספות ראויות לדעתכם להקשבה זו? מדוע?
9ט
ז'אק דרידה, מיכל גוברין בהשתתפות דיוויד שפירו, גוף תפילה, הוצאת הקיבוץ המאוחד, עמ' 52, 2013 תשע"ג
מיכל גוברין: "הציפייה העזה ביותר הממלאת את התפילה היא למאזין, לנמען. האמונה החשופה, שערורייתית אפילו, שאמנם יש נמען, ולו עלום: יש מי שמאזין לי, מקשיב לי, שמקבל את תפילתי. אולם אותה הקשבה לעולם אינה מובטחת. המקשיב עלול תמיד להפנות את גבו ולאטום את אוזניו. וכך, התפילה הינה מעשה תמידי של פיתוי, זעקת התשוקה של האוהב לאהוב, שיקבל אותי, שירצה בי, שייעתר להפצרה: 'ותרצני'".
© כל הזכויות שמורות למחבר ולהוצאה
www.kibutz-poalim.co.il
10י
ז'אק דרידה, מיכל גוברין בהשתתפות דיוויד שפירו, גוף תפילה, הוצאת הקיבוץ המאוחד, עמ' 75, 2013 תשע"ג
ז'אק דרידה: "מיכל אמרה שבתפילה היהודית אנחנו מייצרים כביכול את האל, אנחנו מנכיחים את האל. כלומר, נוכחות האל תלויה בתפילה. כן, כן, וייתכן שלא. לו היינו בטוחים, שבצדה השני של התפילה יופיע אלוהים, ושאנו מייצרים את הנמען, לא הייתה זו תפילה. האפשרות שאלוהים יישאר נעדר לנצח, שייתכן כי אין נמען בצדה השני של תפילתי, היא התנאי לתפילה. לו הייתי בטוח שתפילתי תתקבל בידי נמען כלשהו, לא הייתה התפילה קיימת. ארחיק לכת, לכן, ואומר שחייב להיות רגע של אתיאיזם בתפילה: אפשרות שאלוהים איננו משיב, איננו קיים. ואני מתפלל לאלוהים כדי שהוא וזה תלוי רק בו יהיה שם. אולם האפשרות, שהוא לא יאזין, לא יענה לקריאה בשמו, כלולה במהות התפילה. אם ברצונך להתפלל, אם אתה סבור שעליך לדעת להתפלל, ללמוד כיצד להתפלל, עליך לקבל את ההנחה שאתה עלול להתפלל לאף אחד, ללא-כלום".
© כל הזכויות שמורות להוצאת הקיבוץ המאוחד
www.kibutz-poalim.co.il
11יא
דיון
מהו הדבר המוטל בספק על פי גוברין? על פי דרידה?
מהו תפקידו של הספק בתפילה על פי גוברין ודרידה?
מיהם הראויים להקשבה על פי גוברין ודרידה לדעתכם? במה שונה גישתם מגישת המלבי"ם?
מה עשוי לעמוד בבסיס שינוי גישה זה?
12יב
רחל, זמר נוגה, מתוך: ספיח, 1927
זמר נוגה / רחל
הֲתִשְׁמַע קוֹלִי, רְחוֹקִי שֶׁלִּי,
הֲתִשְׁמַע קוֹלִי, בַּאֲשֶׁר הִנְּךָ
קוֹל קוֹרֵא בְּעֹז, קוֹל בּוֹכֶה בִּדְמִי
וּמֵעַל לַזְּמַן מְצַוֶּה בְּרָכָה?
תֵּבֵל זוֹ רַבָּה וּדְרָכִים בָּה רָב.
נִפְגָּשׁוֹת לְדַק, נִפְרָדוֹת לָעַד.
מְבַקֵּשׁ אָדָם, אַךְ כּוֹשְׁלוֹת רַגְלָיו,
לֹא יוּכַל לִמְצֹא אֶת אֲשֶׁר אָבַד.

אַחֲרוֹן יָמַי כְּבָר קָרוֹב אוּלַי,
כְּבָר קָרוֹב הַיּוֹם שֶׁל דִּמְעוֹת פְּרִידָה,
אֲחַכֶּה לְךָ עַד יִכְבּוּ חַיַּי,
כְּחַכּוֹת רָחֵל לְדוֹדָהּ.
למקור השלם
13יג
דיון
כיצד מובע הספק בשירה של רחל?
מהו תפקידו של הספק בשיר? כיצד הוא משפיע על הדוברת לדעתכם?
14יד
אברהם חלפי, שירים, כרך א, עמוד 104, הוצאת הקיבוץ המאוחד, 1986, תשמ"ז
אֱלֹהִים עִוֵּר נוֹשֵׂא פַּנָס בַּיָּד
וּמְבַקֵּשׁ נָתִיב בַּאֲפֵלַת הָעֶרֶב.
וַאֲנָשִׁים אוֹמְרִים:
הִנֵּה יָרֵחַ בָּא
וּכְאִילָן נִצָּב,
שׁוֹפֵעַ אוֹר בַּדֶּרֶך.

פְּנֵי גַּגּוֹת קוֹרְנִים כִּזְכוּכִיּוֹת רְאִי
וְצַמֶּרֶת אוֹר תִּפְרֹשׂ עָלַי כַּפַּיִם.
וּמֵעַל לָעִיר בְּעַנְנֵי מִפְרָשׂ
עָגְנוּ הַכּוֹכָבִים אֶל חוֹף שָׁמַיִם.

תִּנְוֶה פֹּה הַסְּלִיחָה בְּקֶרֶב לְבָבוֹת, -
אֵין אִישׁ אָשֵׁם וָרָע,
אִין אִישׁ חוֹטֵא בֵּינֵינוּ.
אָנוּ עֲיֵפִים מִנְּדֹד בָּאֲפֵלָה.
אֱלֹהִים עִוֵּר יִסְלַח לְאוֹר עֵינֵינוּ.
© כל הזכויות שמורות למחבר ולאקו"ם
www.acum.org.il
15טו
דיון
כיצד מתפללים לאלוהים עיוור?
על איזה צורך תפילה כזו יכולה להעיד?
מהי עמדתו של המתפלל ביחס לאלוהיו בשיר? במה היא שונה מעמדתו של נחמיה בתפילתו?
17 יז
18יח
דף הנחיות למנחה:
עזרא י-נחמיה ד למנחה.docx