שמואל א יד-יח: הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה לַעֵינַיִם
הדף מאת: חיים גרבר / 929- תנ"ך ביחד
פרקי השבוע היו עמוסים בנושאים רבים: מתקפת יהונתן במוצב פלשתים שפתחה מלחמה גדולה והסתיימה בישועה ובאכילת יערת הדבש; המלחמה בעמלק; חטא שאול ותוכחת שמואל והנבואה על הסרת הממלכה ממנו; אבל שמואל עליו; משיחת דוד ותחילת תיאורו כנער ההולך לבקר את אחיו בשדה המלחמה; מאבקו בגוליית; היקשרות נפשו בנפש יהונתן; והקשרים המורכבים בינו לבין שאול כמנגן, כאויב, כחתן וכיורש. מכל העושר בפרקים נתמקד בדף הלימוד בהתוודעות הראשונה של שמואל ושלנו הקוראים עם דמותו של דוד - פער בין מה ששמואל מצפה לראות, לבין מה שהוא רואה בפועל, המוליד את הביטוי האלמותי: 'האדם יראה לעיניים'. נעסוק בפער שבין החוץ לפנים כפי שמשתקף בסיפור זה - בפסוקים, במדרשים ובדברי חז"ל, ונמשוך חוטים עד ימינו, בשאלת הפער שבין מה שנראה לעין לבין מה שמסתתר מהן.
שמואל נשלח למשוח את דוד
(א) וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל-שְׁמוּאֵל, עַד-מָתַי אַתָּה מִתְאַבֵּל אֶל-שָׁאוּל וַאֲנִי מְאַסְתִּיו מִמְּלֹךְ עַל-יִשְׂרָאֵל. מַלֵּא קַרְנְךָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֵךְ אֶשְׁלָחֲךָ אֶל-יִשַׁי בֵּית-הַלַּחְמִי, כִּי-רָאִיתִי בְּבָנָיו לִי מֶלֶךְ. (ב) וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵיךְ אֵלֵךְ וְשָׁמַע שָׁאוּל וַהֲרָגָנִי; וַיֹּאמֶר ה', עֶגְלַת בָּקָר תִּקַּח בְּיָדֶךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִזְבֹּחַ לה' בָּאתִי. (ג) וְקָרָאתָ לְיִשַׁי בַּזָּבַח; וְאָנֹכִי אוֹדִיעֲךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר-תַּעֲשֶׂה, וּמָשַׁחְתָּ לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר-אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ. (ד) וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁמוּאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה', וַיָּבֹא בֵּית לָחֶם. וַיֶּחֶרְדוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר לִקְרָאתוֹ, וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלֹם בּוֹאֶךָ. (ה) וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם לִזְבֹּחַ לה' בָּאתִי, הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ וּבָאתֶם אִתִּי בַּזָּבַח. וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת-יִשַׁי וְאֶת-בָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא לָהֶם לַזָּבַח. (ו) וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם, וַיַּרְא אֶת-אֱלִיאָב וַיֹּאמֶר, אַךְ נֶגֶד ה' מְשִׁיחוֹ.
(ז) וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל-שְׁמוּאֵל, אַל-תַּבֵּט אֶל-מַרְאֵהוּ וְאֶל-גְּבֹהַּ קוֹמָתוֹ - כִּי מְאַסְתִּיהוּ. כִּי לֹא אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָאָדָם - כִּי הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה לַעֵינַיִם וה' יִרְאֶה לַלֵּבָב. (ח) וַיִּקְרָא יִשַׁי אֶל-אֲבִינָדָב וַיַּעֲבִרֵהוּ לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל; וַיֹּאמֶר, גַּם-בָּזֶה לֹא-בָחַר ה'. (ט) וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שַׁמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר, גַּם-בָּזֶה לֹא-בָחַר ה'. (י) וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שִׁבְעַת בָּנָיו לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל-יִשַׁי, לֹא-בָחַר ה' בָּאֵלֶּה. (יא) וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל-יִשַׁי, הֲתַמּוּ הַנְּעָרִים? וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד שָׁאַר הַקָּטָן וְהִנֵּה רֹעֶה בַּצֹּאן. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל-יִשַׁי שִׁלְחָה וְקָחֶנּוּ כִּי לֹא-נָסֹב עַד-בֹּאוֹ פֹה. (יב) וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי עִם-יְפֵה עֵינַיִם וְטוֹב רֹאִי.

הסברים
  • "ויהי בבואם וירא את אליאב ויאמר אך נגד ה' משיחו".
    רד"ק : ויאמר אך נגד ה' משיחו - פירוש אמר בלבו או בפיו כי חשב כי זה הוא המלך שצוהו האל למשוח לפי שהיה בכור בבני ישי, ועוד כי ראהו יפה צורה וקומה כשאול, וחשב כי הקב"ה בוחר באנשים יפה קומה וצורה למלכות כדי שיהא מוראו על העם. וכן אמר בשאול הראיתם אשר בחר בו ה' כי אין כמוהו בכל העם, וכן הוא כמו שחשב שמואל כי בעל קומה וצורה יפה בוחר בו האל למלוכה כדי שייראו ממנו העם ובלבד שיהיה לבו טוב וישר ופירוש נגד ה' משיחו כמו נכח ה' דרככם כלומר ה' יהיה עמו"
And the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, How long wilt thou mourn for Sha᾽ul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Yisra᾽el? fill thy horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Yishay, the Bet-hallaĥmite: for I have provided for me a king among his sons, And Shemu᾽el said, How can I go? if Sha᾽ul hears it, he will kill me. And the Lord said, Take a heifer with thee, and say, I am come to sacrifice to the Lord. And call Yishay to the sacrifice, and I will make known to thee what thou shalt do: and thou shalt anoint to me him whom I name to thee. And Shemu᾽el did that which the Lord spoke, and came to Bet-leĥem. And the elders of the town trembled at his coming, and said, Comest thou in peace? And he said, In peace: I am come to sacrifice to the Lord: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Yishay and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice. And it came to pass, when they were come, that he looked on Eli᾽av, and said, Surely the Lord’s anointed is before him. But the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, Look not on his countenance, nor on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for it is not as a man sees; for a man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart. Then Yishay called Avinadav, and made him pass before Shemu᾽el. And he said, Neither has the Lord chosen this. Then Yishay made Shamma pass by. And he said, Neither has the Lord chosen this. And Yishay made seven of his sons to pass before Shemu᾽el. And Shemu᾽el said to Yishay, The Lord has not chosen these. And Shemu᾽el said to Yishay, Are these all thy children? And he said, There remains yet the youngest, and he is tending the sheep. Then Shemu᾽el said to Yishay, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he comes here. And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, with fine eyes, and good looking. And the Lord said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he. Then Shemu᾽el took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day onwards. So Shemu᾽el rose up, and went to Rama.
דיון
התבוננו בפסוקים תוך מחשבה על השאלות והעניינים הבאים:
  • היוזם המובהק של ההליכה למשוח מלך חדש הוא ה'. כיצד שמואל חש לנוכח הציווי? כיצד דמותו ופעולתו מצטיירות בפסוקים אלה?
  • מה מעמדו של דוד בעיני שמואל? כיצד מתייחסים אליו במשפחתו? מדוע הוא לא נמצא מלכתחילה עם שאר המשפחה מול הנביא שבא?
יחסו של שמואל למשיחת דוד
משיחת שאול
וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת פַּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּצֹק עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּשָּׁקֵהוּ. וַיֹּאמֶר, הֲלוֹא כִּי מְשָׁחֲךָ ה' עַל נַחֲלָתוֹ לְנָגִיד. (ב) בְּלֶכְתְּךָ הַיּוֹם מֵעִמָּדִי וּמָצָאתָ שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִם קְבֻרַת רָחֵל בִּגְבוּל בִּנְיָמִן בְּצֶלְצַח וְאָמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ נִמְצְאוּ הָאֲתֹנוֹת אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ לְבַקֵּשׁ, וְהִנֵּה נָטַשׁ אָבִיךָ אֶת דִּבְרֵי הָאֲתֹנוֹת וְדָאַג לָכֶם לֵאמֹר מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לִבְנִי. (ג) וְחָלַפְתָּ מִשָּׁם וָהָלְאָה וּבָאתָ עַד אֵלוֹן תָּבוֹר וּמְצָאוּךָ שָּׁם שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים עֹלִים אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים בֵּית אֵל, אֶחָד נֹשֵׂא שְׁלֹשָׁה גְדָיִים וְאֶחָד נֹשֵׂא שְׁלֹשֶׁת כִּכְּרוֹת לֶחֶם וְאֶחָד נֹשֵׂא נֵבֶל יָיִן. (ד) וְשָׁאֲלוּ לְךָ לְשָׁלוֹם וְנָתְנוּ לְךָ שְׁתֵּי לֶחֶם וְלָקַחְתָּ מִיָּדָם. (ה) אַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא גִּבְעַת הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁם נְצִבֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים, וִיהִי כְבֹאֲךָ שָׁם הָעִיר וּפָגַעְתָּ חֶבֶל נְבִיאִים יֹרְדִים מֵהַבָּמָה וְלִפְנֵיהֶם נֵבֶל וְתֹף וְחָלִיל וְכִנּוֹר וְהֵמָּה מִתְנַבְּאִים. (ו) וְצָלְחָה עָלֶיךָ רוּחַ ה' וְהִתְנַבִּיתָ עִמָּם וְנֶהְפַּכְתָּ לְאִישׁ אַחֵר. (ז) וְהָיָה כִּי תבאינה [תָבֹאנָה] הָאֹתוֹת הָאֵלֶּה לָךְ, עֲשֵׂה לְךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּמְצָא יָדֶךָ כִּי הָאֱלֹהִים עִמָּךְ. (ח) וְיָרַדְתָּ לְפָנַי הַגִּלְגָּל וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי יֹרֵד אֵלֶיךָ לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת לִזְבֹּחַ זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תּוֹחֵל עַד בּוֹאִי אֵלֶיךָ וְהוֹדַעְתִּי לְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה
Then Shemu᾽el took a flask of oil, and poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Has not the Lord anointed thee to be a prince over his inheritance? When thou art departed from me today, then thou shalt find two men by Raĥel’s tomb in the border of Binyamin at Żelżaĥ; and they will say to thee, The asses which thou wentest to seek are found: and, thy father has left the matter of the asses, and has become anxious about you, saying, What shall I do about my son? Then shalt thou go on forward from there, and thou shalt come to the oak of Tavor, and there shall meet thee three men going up to God to Bet-el, one carrying three kids, and another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a bottle of wine: and they will greet thee, and give thee two loaves of bread; which thou shalt receive from their hands. After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where the garrisons of the Pelishtim are, and it shall come to pass, when thou art come there to the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the high place with a lute, and a timbrel, and a pipe, and a lyre, before them; and they shall prophesy: and the spirit of the Lord will come upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy with them, and shalt be turned into another man. And let it be, when these signs are come to thee, that thou do as occasion serve thee; for God is with thee. And thou shalt go down before me to Gilgal; and, behold, I will come down to thee, to offer burnt offerings, and to make sacrifices of peace offerings; seven days shalt thou tarry, till I come to thee, and show thee what thou shalt do.
משיחת דוד
(יג) וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת-קֶרֶן הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ בְּקֶרֶב אֶחָיו, וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ-ה' אֶל-דָּוִד מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא וָמָעְלָה; וַיָּקָם שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ הָרָמָתָה.
Then Shemu᾽el took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day onwards. So Shemu᾽el rose up, and went to Rama.
דיון
כבר במבט ראשון בולט ההבדל בין שני מעמדי משיחת המלך על ידי שמואל - התמצית שבה נמשח דוד מול אריכות הדברים והחגיגיות במשיחת שאול.
  • אפיינו את ההבדלים השונים שבין התיאורים: מי מדבר ומתי, מה התוכן הנמסר, אילו הבעות רגשיות מופיעות, מה מקצב הדברים ומי פעיל וסביל?
  • מה הגורם להבדלים הללו?
האדם יראה לעיניים
מדרש תנאים דברים, פרשה א, אות יז
שמואל כשאמר לו שאול 'הגידה נא לי איזה בית הרואה' היה צריך לומר מה אתם מבקשין אני אומר לכם היכן הוא, אלא נתגאה ואמר אנכי הרואה. אמר לו הקב"ה אתה הרואה? אף אני אראך שאין אתה רואה. אימתי הראהו? בשעה שאמר לו "מלא קרנך שמן ולך ואשלחך אל ישי בית הלחמי" . כיון שבא אל ישי, העביר לפניו אליאב וראה אותו בחור, התחיל משבחו ואומר: "אך נגד ה' משיחו". אמר לו הקב"ה: "לא כך אמרת אנכי הראה? אל תביט אל מראהו ואל גבה קומתו כי מאסתיהו". העביר לפני כולן והוא אומר לו: "לא בחר ה' באלה"
"אַדְמוֹנִי" [שנאמר על עשו] אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא כאלו שופך דמים וכיון שראה שמואל את דוד אדמוני דכתיב (ש"א טז, יב): "וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי" נתיירא ואמר אף זה שופך דמים כעשו אמר לו הקב"ה "עִם יְפֵה עֵינַיִם" עשו מדעת עצמו הוא הורג אבל זה מדעת סנהדרין הוא הורג.

הסברים
  • המדרש מתאר את שמואל נחרד לגלות שדוד אדמוני כעשו-מה שמייחס לו את תכונת שפיכות הדמים של האחרון, והקב"ה מאשר את האבחנה, אך מסביר כי למרות שאכן ישפוך דמים- הוא יעשה זאת כחלק ממשטר מסודר ועל דעת בית הדין
“And her days to give birth were completed…” (Genesis 25:24) Below they were lacking, here they were full. Below where the word twins is written full, with the letter aleph, Peretz and Zerach were both righteous. Here it is written without an aleph, Yaakov was righteous and Esau was wicked. “And the first one emerged ruddy…” (Genesis 25:25) R’ Chaggai said in the name of R’ Yitzchak: in the merit of “And you shall take for yourselves on the first day…” (Leviticus 23:40) I will be revealed to you first, as it says “I am first and I am last” (Isaiah 44:6) and I will exact retribution on your behalf from the first who is Esau, as it is written “And the first one emerged” and I will build the first for you, which is the Holy Temple of which it is written “As a Throne of Glory, exalted from the beginning…” (Jeremiah 17:12) and I will bring for you the first who is the King Messiah of whom it is written “The first one to Zion, behold, behold them…” (Isaiah 41:27)
דיון
בשני המדרשים חז"ל מתייחסים לאופן שבו שמואל רואה את דוד
  • כיצד שמואל מתרשם מדמותו של דוד, לפי כל אחד מהמדרשים? מה מפריע לו? מה חששו של שמואל לפי כל אחד מהמדרשים מדמות דוד כפי שמשתקפת לו?
  • מה תגובתו של הקב"ה מלמדת על הבנתו של שמואל, על האפיסטמולוגיה שלו?
מה משתקף בתיאורי המדרשים בנוגע לדמות המלך כפי שנתפסה על ידי שמואל, וכפי שהיא משתקפת על ידי הקב"ה?
אל תסתכל בקנקן
דיון
הפסוקים ואף המדרשים מדגישים את הפער שבין תפיסתו החיצונית של שמואל לבין הפנימיות הנעלמת מהאדם. במסכת אבות הופכים חז"ל את הפער הזה לציווי מוסרי לאדם, כפי שבא לידי ביטוי בסיפור התלמודי.
רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה איש כפר הבבלי אומר: הלמד מן הקטנים, למה הוא דומה? לאוכל ענבים קהות, ושותה יין מגיתו; והלמד מן הזקנים, למה הוא דומה? לאוכל ענבים בשלות, ושותה יין ישן.

רבי אומר: אל תסתכל בקנקן, אלא במה שיש בו: יש קנקן חדש מלא ישן, וישן שאפילו חדש אין בו".
Elisha ben Abuyah said: He who learns when a child, to what is he compared? To ink written upon a new writing sheet. And he who learns when an old man, to what is he compared? To ink written on a rubbed writing sheet. Rabbi Yose ben Judah a man of Kfar Ha-babli said: He who learns from the young, to what is he compared? To one who eats unripe grapes, and drinks wine from his vat; And he who learns from the old, to what is he compared? To one who eats ripe grapes, and drinks old wine. Rabbi said: don’t look at the container but at that which is in it: there is a new container full of old wine, and an old [container] in which there is not even new [wine].
כמו שאמרה בתו של הקיסר [הרומי] לר' יהושע בן חנניה: ואי לחֹכמה מפוארה כשלך בכלי מכוער!

אמר לה: אביך שם יין בכלי חרס?

אמרה לו: אלא במה נשים?

אמר לה: אתם שאתם חשובים שימו אותו בכלי זהב וכסף.

הלכה ואמרה לאביה [לעשות כן] ושמו את היין בכלי זהב וכסף – והחמיץ.

באו ואמרו לו [לקיסר שהחמיץ היין].

אמר לה לבתו: מי אמר לך כך?

אמרה לו: רבי יהושע בן חנניה.

קראו לו [לבוא]

אמר לו [הקיסר]: מדוע אמרת כך?

אמר לו: כמו שאמרה היא לי אמרתי לה.

אמר לו: והרי יש [אנשים] יפים שלמדו [ ומלאים בחכמה]

[ענה לו:] אילו היו מכוערים – היו לומדים יותר .
we will recite them both: God of thanksgivings, and: Abundant thanksgivings. § The Gemara cites statements in praise of rainfall. Rabbi Abbahu said: The day of rain is greater than the resurrection of the dead. The reason is that while the resurrection of the dead benefits only the righteous, rain benefits both the righteous and the wicked. The Gemara comments: And this statement disagrees with the opinion of Rav Yosef, as Rav Yosef said: Since rainfall is equivalent to the resurrection of the dead, the Sages established its recitation in the second blessing of the Amida, the blessing of the resurrection of the dead. According to Rav Yosef, rainfall is the equivalent to, but not superior to, the resurrection of the dead. Similarly, Rav Yehuda said: The day of the rains is as great as the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine [likḥi] shall drop as the rain” (Deuteronomy 32:2), and lekaḥ means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For I give you good doctrine [lekaḥ]; do not forsake My Torah” (Proverbs 4:2). Rava said: Rainfall is even greater than the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain,” and when one makes a comparison, which object is made dependent upon which? You must say that the lesser object is dependent upon the greater one. If Torah is compared to rain, it follows that rain is greater than Torah. The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse from Deuteronomy. Rava raised a contradiction: At the beginning of the verse it is written: “My doctrine shall drop [ya’arof] as the rain,” in a harsh manner, and yet later in the verse, it is written: “My speech shall distill as the dew,” in a gentle tone. He resolves this apparent contradiction as follows: If he is a worthy Torah scholar, the Torah flows through him like the dew, but if he is not worthy, it snaps his neck [orfehu] like the powerful rain. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Bena’a would say: Anyone who engages in Torah for its own sake, his Torah study will be an elixir of life for him, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it” (Proverbs 3:18), and it says: “It shall be health to your navel” (Proverbs 3:8), and it says: “For whoever finds Me finds life” (Proverbs 8:35). And anyone who engages in Torah not for its own sake, e.g., for self-aggrandizement, his Torah will be an elixir of death for him, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop [ya’arof ] as the rain,” and arifa means nothing other than killing, as it is stated: “And they shall break the heifer’s neck [arefu] there in the valley” (Deuteronomy 21:4). Rabbi Yirmeya once said to Rabbi Zeira: Let the Master come and teach a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Zeira said to him: My heart is weak and I cannot strain myself over a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Yirmeya replied to him: In that case, let the Master tell us a matter of aggada, which does not require as much effort. Rabbi Zeira said to him that Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For man is a tree of the field” (Deuteronomy 20:19)? And is man actually a tree of the field? Rather, it is because it is written earlier in the same verse: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” and it is written in the next verse: “Them you may destroy and cut down” (Deuteronomy 20:20). This indicates that there are certain trees which may be cut down, while others may not be destroyed. How so? If a Torah scholar is worthy: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” but if he is not worthy: “He you may destroy and cut down.” The Gemara cites other expositions that deal with Torah study. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Iron sharpens iron, so a man sharpens the countenance of his friend” (Proverbs 27:17)? This verse comes to tell you that just as with these iron implements, one sharpens the other when they are rubbed against each other, so too, when Torah scholars study together, they sharpen one another in halakha. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: Why are matters of Torah compared to fire, as it is stated: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord” (Jeremiah 23:29)? To tell you: Just as fire does not ignite in a lone stick of wood but in a pile of kindling, so too, matters of Torah are not retained and understood properly by a lone scholar who studies by himself, but by a group of Sages. And this is what Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [habaddim], and they shall become fools [noalu]” (Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: There is a sword upon the enemies of Torah scholars, a euphemism for Torah scholars themselves, who sit alone [bad bevad] and study Torah. And not only that, but those who study by themselves grow foolish from their solitary Torah study, as it is stated: “And they shall become fools.” And not only that, but they sin, as it is written here: “And they shall become fools,” and it is written there: “For that we have done foolishly [noalnu] and for that we have sinned” (Numbers 12:11). And if you wish, say instead that it is derived from here: “The princes of Zoan have become fools [noalu]…they have caused Egypt to go astray” (Isaiah 19:13). Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Why are Torah matters likened to a tree, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it” (Proverbs 3:18)? This verse comes to tell you that just as a small piece of wood can ignite a large piece, so too, minor Torah scholars can sharpen great Torah scholars and enable them to advance in their studies. And this is what Rabbi Ḥanina said: I have learned much from my teachers and even more from my friends, but from my students I have learned more than from all of them. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction. In one verse it is written: “To him who is thirsty bring water” (Isaiah 21:14), which indicates that the one who has water must bring it to the thirsty person, and it is written elsewhere: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water” (Isaiah 55:1), from which it may be inferred that the thirsty person must seek out water himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa resolves this apparent contradiction by explaining that if he is a worthy student the teacher must seek him out, as in “to him who is thirsty bring water,” but if the student is not worthy, then “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” i.e., this student must seek out a teacher himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama raised another contradiction. In one verse it is written: “Let your springs be dispersed abroad” (Proverbs 5:16), whereas in the next verse it is written: “Let them be your own” (Proverbs 5:17). Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama explains: If the student sitting before you is worthy, then “Let your springs be dispersed abroad,” as you should teach him, but if he is not worthy, then “Let them be your own.” And Rabbi Ḥanina bar Idi said: Why are matters of Torah likened to water, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water” (Isaiah 55:1)? This verse comes to tell you: Just as water leaves a high place and flows to a low place, so too, Torah matters are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly, i.e., a humble person. And Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is written with regard to water: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is written in the same verse: “Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.” This verse comes to tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels, e.g., clay pots, but not vessels of silver and gold, as they will spoil, so too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly. The Gemara cites a related incident: This is as the daughter of the Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya, who was an ugly man: Woe to glorious wisdom such as yours, which is contained in an ugly vessel. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya said to her, in a seemingly unrelated response: Does your father keep his wine in simple clay vessels? The emperor’s daughter said to him: Rather, in what, then, should he keep it? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya said to her: You, who are so important, should put it in vessels of gold and silver. The emperor’s daughter went and said this to her father. He put the wine in vessels of gold and silver and it turned sour. When his advisors came and told the emperor that the wine had turned sour, he said to his daughter: Who told you to do this? His daughter responded: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya. The emperor summoned him and said to him: Why did you say this to her? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya said to him: Just as she said to me, so I said say to her, to demonstrate to her that fine material is best preserved in the least of vessels. The emperor said to him: But there are handsome people who are learned. Rabbi Yehoshua replied: Had they been ugly, they would have been even more learned. Alternatively, the Torah is likened to water, wine, and milk because just as these three liquids are spoiled only by diversion of attention, so too, are Torah matters forgotten only through diversion of attention. If water, wine and milk are guarded, they will not spoil or have dirty objects fall into them. § The Gemara returns to the issue of rain. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: The day of the rains is as great as the day on which the heavens and earth were created, as it is stated: “Drop down, heavens, from above, let the skies pour down righteousness; let the earth open that they may bring forth salvation, and let it cause righteousness to spring up together; I, the Lord, have created it” (Isaiah 45:8). The Gemara explains that the verse does not say: I have created them, in the plural, but: I have created it. In other words, the verse is referring to rain, rather than to the heavens and the earth, which indicates that rainfall is as important as the creation of the world. Rabbi Oshaya likewise said: The day of rain is great, as rain even facilitates salvation, which is fruitful and multiplies on that day. It is a time of God’s favor, when salvation is brought forth into the world, as it is stated: “Let the earth open that they may bring forth salvation” (Isaiah 45:8). Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai said: Rain falls only if the Jewish people’s transgressions have been forgiven, as it is stated: “Lord, You have been favorable to Your land; You have turned the captivity of Jacob; You have forgiven the iniquity of Your people; You have pardoned all their sin. Selah” (Psalms 85:2–3). This chapter proceeds to discuss rainfall: “And righteousness has looked down from Heaven” (Psalms 85:12), in the form of rain. The Sage Ze’iri from the town of Dihavat said to Ravina: You learned this idea from here, whereas we learned it from here, a different verse: “When heaven is closed up, and there is no rain, when they sin against You, if they pray toward this place and confess Your name and turn from their sin, when You afflict them, then You, hear in heaven and forgive the sin of Your servants and of Your people Israel, when You teach them the good way in which they should walk, and send rain upon Your land, which You have given to Your people as an inheritance” (I Kings 8:35–36). Rabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya of village of Akko, said: The rains are withheld only if the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people, have been sentenced to destruction for their sins, as it is stated: “Drought and heat will steal the snow waters; to the grave those who have sinned” (Job 24:19). According to this interpretation, snow water will be stolen by drought, i.e., there will be none available, when people have sinned to the point that they deserve the grave. Ze’iri from Dihavat said to Ravina: You learned this idea from here; we learned it from here: “And the anger of the Lord will be kindled against you, and He will close up the heavens, and there will be no rain, and the earth will not give its fruit, and you will perish quickly” (Deuteronomy 11:17). Rav Ḥisda said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of the nullification of teruma and tithes, as it is stated: “Drought and heat will steal the snow waters” (Job 24:19). The Gemara asks: From where in the verse may this idea be inferred from the verse? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Due to matters that I have commanded you to do in the summer, e.g., take teruma and tithes from the summer produce, and that you did not do, the snow waters will be stolen from you in the rainy season. Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of those who speak slander, as it is stated: “The north wind brings forth rain, but a backbiting tongue, an angry countenance” (Proverbs 25:23). This verse indicates that if the countenance of the heavens is angry, with neither clouds nor rain, it is due to slanderous speech. Rav Salla said that Rav Hamnuna said: The rains are withheld only due to impudent people, as it is stated: “Therefore the showers have been withheld, and there has been no last rain, yet you had a harlot’s forehead, you refused to be ashamed” (Jeremiah 3:3). And Rav Salla said that Rav Hamnuna said, with regard to the same verse: Any man who is insolent will ultimately stumble over the transgression of prostitution, as it is stated: “Yet you had a prostitute’s forehead.” Rav Naḥman said: The verse does not mean that he will commit a sexual transgression in the future; rather, it is known that he has already stumbled over this transgression, as it is stated: “You had,” in the past tense, and it is not stated: You will. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: With regard to any man who is insolent, it is permitted to call him wicked to his face, as it is stated: “A wicked man makes his face insolent” (Proverbs 21:29). Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is permitted to hate him, as it is stated: “And the insolence of his face is changed” (Ecclesiastes 8:1). Do not read it as: “Is changed [yeshunne]”; rather, read it as: Is hated [yissane], as the two words are spelled the same way in Hebrew, albeit with different vocalization and pronunciation. Rav Ketina said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, as it is stated: “By slothfulness the rafters [hamekare] will sink in [yimakh], and through idleness of the hands the house leaks” (Ecclesiastes 10:18). Due to slothfulness that was present amongst the Jewish people, that they did not occupy themselves with Torah, the enemy of the Holy One, Blessed be He, a euphemism for God Himself, has sunk. And sunk [makh] means nothing other than poor, as it is stated: “But if he is too poor [makh] for your valuation” (Leviticus 27:8). And “rafters [mekare]” means nothing other than a reference to the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Who lays the beams [hamekare] of Your upper chambers in the water” (Psalms 104:3). Rav Yosef said that this idea is derived from here: “And now that men do not see the light, it is bright in the skies, but the wind passes and cleanses them” (Job 37:21). And “light” means nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For a mitzva is a lamp and Torah is a light” (Proverbs 6:23). According to this interpretation, the verse means that when “men do not see the light,” i.e., when they are not occupied with Torah, “it is bright in the skies,” as there are no rainclouds. With regard to this verse, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Even when the sky is comprised of bright clouds that serve to bring down dew and rain, no rain will fall, as “the wind passes and cleanses them.” Rabbi Ami said: The rains are withheld only due to the sin of robbery, as it is stated: “He covers His hands with the light, and He has commanded it due to imploring” (Job 36:32). This means that due to the sin of stealing hands, God has covered the light and no rain will fall. And Rabbi Ami adds that the term “hand” means nothing other than a sin of violence, as it is stated: “And from the violence that is in their hands” (Jonah 3:8). And “light” means nothing other than rain, as it is stated: “He spreads abroad the cloud of His light” (Job 37:11). What is the remedy of one who has caused the rain to be withheld? He should increase his prayers, as it is stated in the same chapter: “And He has commanded it due to imploring” (Job 37:12), and “imploring” means nothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “Therefore, do not pray you for this nation, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither implore Me” (Jeremiah 7:16). And Rabbi Ami said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “If the iron is blunt, and does not whet the edge” (Ecclesiastes 10:10)? If you see a sky that is blunt as iron, in that it does not bring down dew and rain, this is due to the deeds of the generation, which are corrupt, as it is stated: “And does not whet [kilkal] the edge [panim].” Panim, which also means face, is often used in reference to the leaders of a generation, while the term kilkal is similar to the word for corrupt, mekulkalin. What is their remedy? They must increase their prayers for mercy, as it is stated in the same verse: “Then must he increase his strength, but wisdom is profitable to direct” (Ecclesiastes 10:10). This verse hints that rain will fall if one increases his strength, i.e., his prayers for mercy. The last part of the verse means that, all the more so, if their deeds had been righteous and direct from the beginning, the rains would not have been withheld. The Gemara cites a different interpretation of the same verse. Reish Lakish said: If you see a student
מילים נתן אלתרמן, לחן מיקי גבריאלוב, שרים | דנה ברגר דני ליטני דניאל סלומון אלברט עמר דפנה ארמוני יוסי פולק ירמי קפלן
בעיניים פקוחות

הסברים
  • יש אדם רואה הכל באור ורוד ורוד / זה לא טוב אומרים כולם אפילו רע מאוד / יש אדם רואה הכל באפלה קודרת / זו אותה המחלה רק בצורה אחרת / אל תרכיבו משקפיים / לא קודרות ולא שמחות/ הסתכלו נא בעיניים / בעיניים פקוחות / אל תאמרו אנחנו עוד בארץ רק מיעוט / דווקא פה אולי מוצדקת האופטימיות / אל תאמרו ציון ריקדי ומיזמורים הנעימי / דווקא פה מוצדק מעט הרגש הפסימי / אל תרכיבו משקפיים / לא קודרות ולא שמחות / הסתכלו נא בעיניים / בעיניים פקוחות / ידיעות והסברות קבל מן העיתון / אך אצלנו בוא קבל זריקה של מבסוטון / את הרע צריך לראות בכדי להילחם בו / על הטוב צריך לשמור בכדי להתנחם בו.
הוא עדינו העצני - כשהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה - היה מעדן עצמו כתולעת, ובשעה שיוצא למלחמה - היה מקשה עצמו כעץ
David is also described here as “chief of the captains [rosh hashalishim]” because God said to him: You will be the head [rosh] of the three [sheloshet] Patriarchs. “The same was Adino the Eznite”; this alludes to the fact that when David would sit and occupy himself with Torah, he would make himself soft [me’aden] as a worm, and when he would go out to war, he would make himself hard and strong as a tree [etz].
דיון
דמותו של דוד משלבת בתוכה צדדים שונים. הקושי להבחין בפנים השונות, כמו בשיר, נובע מחוסר היכולת להכיר ולהתבונן במציאות כמו שהיא, על מורכבותה.

אילו פנים שונות יש לכם? כיצד יתארו אתכם אנשים שונים?
מה מקשה עלינו לבחון את המציאות "בעיניים פקוחות"? מה גורם לנו להתבונן במשקפיים ורודים ומה במשקפיים שחורים?
דף הנחיות למנחה:
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