דניאל ז-יא: עמידה לעומתית
1א
הדף מאת: משה מאיר
2ב
דניאל מצטייר בספרו כמי שעומד עמידה לעומתית מול השליטים הבבליים. נשווה את עמידתו לעמידות לעומתיות נוספות - בתנ"ך, בתלמוד, ובספרו של אלבר קאמי, 'האדם המורד'.
3ג
דיון
הרקע: פעמיים בספרו עומד דניאל עמידה לעומתית. הוא נאמן לזהותו ולאמונתו ומוכן לסכן למענן את חייו.
התבוננו בשתי התמונות הבאות מספר דניאל - האם ההתנהגות של דניאל נראית לכם סבירה? מסוכנת מדי? מה השיקולים לכאן או לכאן - לנהוג כדניאל או לא? האם ישנו ערך מסוים שאם היו כופים עליכם לעבור עליו, הייתם נוהגים - או חושבים שראוי לנהוג - כדניאל?
4ד
תמונה ראשונה: הינזרות ממאכלים אסורים
(ח) וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל:
(ט) וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים:
(י) וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים לְדָנִיֵּאל יָרֵא אֲנִי אֶת אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה אֶת מַאֲכַלְכֶם וְאֶת מִשְׁתֵּיכֶם אֲשֶׁר לָמָּה יִרְאֶה אֶת פְּנֵיכֶם זֹעֲפִים מִן הַיְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר כְּגִילְכֶם וְחִיַּבְתֶּם אֶת רֹאשִׁי לַמֶּלֶךְ:
(יא) וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה:
(יב) נַס נָא אֶת עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ לָנוּ מִן הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה:
(יג) וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם עֲבָדֶיךָ:
(יד) וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה:
(טו) וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן כָּל הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ:
(טז) וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים:
But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’ Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink. Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee, and the countenance of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’ So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days. And at the end of ten days their countenances appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse.
5ה
תמונה שניה: תפילה
(יא) וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל קֳבֵל דִּי הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן קַדְמַת דְּנָה: [וכשידע דניאל שהכתב בא לביתו - וחלונות פתוחים בעלייתו לכיוון ירושלים, ושלוש פעמים ביום הוא כורע על ברכיו ומתפלל ומודה לאלוהים כפי שהיה עושה בעבר].
(יב) אֱדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הַרְגִּשׁוּ וְהַשְׁכַּחוּ לְדָנִיֵּאל בָּעֵא וּמִתְחַנַּן קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ: [האנשים האלה - שהסיטו את המלך לגזור את הגזירה] הרגישו ומצאו את דניאל מתפלל ומתחנן לפני אלוהיו].
(יג) בֵּאדַיִן קְרִיבוּ וְאָמְרִין קֳדָם מַלְכָּא עַל אֱסָר מַלְכָּא הֲלָא אֱסָר רְשַׁמְתָּ דִּי כָל אֱנָשׁ דִּי יִבְעֵה מִן כָּל אֱלָהּ וֶאֱנָשׁ עַד יוֹמִין תְּלָתִין לָהֵן מִנָּךְ מַלְכָּא יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹב אַרְיָוָתָא עָנֵה מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר יַצִּיבָא מִלְּתָא כְּדָת מָדַי וּפָרַס דִּי לָא תֶעְדֵּא: [אז קרבו ואמרו לפני המלך, על האיסור שאסר: הלא כתבת איסור, שכל אדם שיבקש מאלוהים ואדם במשך שלושים יום, המלך ישליך אותו לגוב האריות. אמר המלך: הדבר יציב כדת פרס ומדי שלא תעבור.]
(יד) בֵּאדַיִן עֲנוֹ וְאָמְרִין קֳדָם מַלְכָּא דִּי דָנִיֵּאל דִּי מִן בְּנֵי גָלוּתָא דִּי יְהוּד לָא שָׂם עליך עֲלָךְ מַלְכָּא טְעֵם וְעַל אֱסָרָא דִּי רְשַׁמְתָּ וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְּיוֹמָא בָּעֵא בָּעוּתֵהּ: [ענו האנשים ואמרו לפני המלך: דניאל מבני הגלות היהודים, לא שם לב אליך המלך ולאיסור שכתבת, ושלוש פעמים ביום הוא מתפלל].

הסברים
  • הרקע : המלך אוסר על התפילה.
And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime. Then these men came tumultuously, and found Daniel making petition and supplication before his God. Then they came near, and spoke before the king concerning the king’s interdict: ‘Hast thou not signed an interdict, that every man that shall make petition unto any god or man within thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions?’ The king answered and said: ‘The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.’ Then answered they and said before the king: ‘That Daniel, who is of the children of the captivity of Judah, regardeth not thee, O king, nor the interdict that thou hast signed, but maketh his petition three times a day.’
6ו
דיון
התבוננו בתמונה השלישית, תמונת מרדכי. במה היא דומה ובמה היא שונה מהתמונות של דניאל? האם הייתם נוהגים כמרדכי? הסבירו.
7ז
(א) אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אֶת הָמָן בֶּן הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי וַיְנַשְּׂאֵהוּ וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת כִּסְאוֹ מֵעַל כָּל הַשָּׂרִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ:
(ב) וְכָל עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ כֹּרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לְהָמָן כִּי כֵן צִוָּה לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמָרְדֳּכַי לֹא יִכְרַע וְלֹא יִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה:
(ג) וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְמָרְדֳּכָי מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה עוֹבֵר אֵת מִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ:
(ד) וַיְהִי באמרם כְּאָמְרָם אֵלָיו יוֹם וָיוֹם וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם וַיַּגִּידוּ לְהָמָן לִרְאוֹת הֲיַעַמְדוּ דִּבְרֵי מָרְדֳּכַי כִּי הִגִּיד לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר הוּא יְהוּדִי:
(ה) וַיַּרְא הָמָן כִּי אֵין מָרְדֳּכַי כֹּרֵעַ וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לוֹ וַיִּמָּלֵא הָמָן חֵמָה:
(ו) וַיִּבֶז בְּעֵינָיו לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בְּמָרְדֳּכַי לְבַדּוֹ כִּי הִגִּידוּ לוֹ אֶת עַם מָרְדֳּכָי וַיְבַקֵּשׁ הָמָן לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶת כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל מַלְכוּת אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ עַם מָרְדֳּכָי:
After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him. And all the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, bowed down, and prostrated themselves before Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not down, nor prostrated himself before him. Then the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, said unto Mordecai: ‘Why transgressest thou the king’s commandment?’ Now it came to pass, when they spoke daily unto him, and he hearkened not unto them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai’s words would stand; for he had told them that he was a Jew. And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not down, nor prostrated himself before him, then was Haman full of wrath. But it seemed contemptible in his eyes to lay hands on Mordecai alone; for they had made known to him the people of Mordecai; wherefore Haman sought to destroy all the Jews that were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus, even the people of Mordecai.
8ח
דיון
התמונה הרביעית היא מהמשנה וסיפור של הגמרא עליה. קראו את הפתיח ואת הסיפור, וחשבו, מה המכנה המשותף בין התנהגות החסיד ובין התנהגותו של דניאל? מה ההבדלים? שימו לב שקולו של השר הוא קול המשמש את החכמים להציג אופוזיציה לחסיד.
מה דעתכם על התנהגות החסיד? האם הייתם נוהגים כמוהו? נסו לחשוב על סיטואציה דומה במושגים של ימינו, כיצד לדעתכם נכון להכריע בה?
9ט
אין עומדין להתפלל אלא מתוך כובד ראש.
חסידים הראשונים היו שוהים שעה אחת ומתפללים, כדי שיכוונו את לבם למקום. אפילו המלך שואל בשלומו לא ישיבנו, ואפילו נחש כרוך על עקבו לא יפסיק.
One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop.
10י
מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה מתפלל בדרך.
בא הגמון אחד ונתן לו שלום ולא החזיר לו שלום.
המתין לו עד שסיים תפלתו.
לאחר שסיים תפלתו אמר לו: 'ריקא, והלא כתוב בתורתכם [דברים ד'] 'רק השמר לך ושמור נפשך' וכתוב [דברים ד'] 'ונשמרתם מאד לנפשתיכם'. כשנתתי לך שלום למה לא החזרת לי שלום? אם הייתי חותך ראשך בסייף מי היה תובע את דמך מידי?!'
אמר לו: 'המתן לי עד שאפייסך בדברים'.
אמר לו: 'אילו היית עומד לפני מלך בשר ודם ובא חברך ונתן לך שלום - היית מחזיר לו?'
אמר לו: 'לאו'.
'ואם היית מחזיר לו, מה היו עושים לך?'
אמר לו: 'היו חותכים את ראשי בסייף'.
אמר לו: 'והלא דברים קל וחומר; ומה אתה שהיית עומד לפני מלך בשר ודם שהיום כאן ומחר בקבר - כך, אני שהייתי עומד לפני מלך מלכי המלכים הקדוש ברוך הוא שהוא חי וקיים לעד ולעולמי עולמים - על אחת כמה וכמה!'
מיד נתפייס אותו הגמון, ונפטר אותו חסיד לביתו לשלום.'
Rabbi Elazar said: This story proves that prayer is greater than good deeds without prayer (Tosafot), as there was none greater in the performance of good deeds than Moses our teacher; nevertheless, his request was granted, albeit in a limited manner, in his request to enter Eretz Yisrael, only through prayer, when God permitted him to climb the mountain and look out over the land. As, initially it is stated: “Speak no more to Me,” juxtaposed to which is: “Go up to the summit of the mountain.” After comparing and contrasting prayer and good deeds, the Gemara explores another comparison. Rabbi Elazar said: A fast is greater than charity. What is the reason that fasting is greater? Because a fast is a mitzva performed with one’s body as he afflicts himself, while charity is performed only with one’s money. In another comparison, Rabbi Elazar said: Prayer is greater than sacrifices, as it is stated: “To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices to Me, says the Lord. I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams and the fat of fed beasts; I do not desire the blood of bulls and sheep and goats” (Isaiah 1:11). And several verses later it is written: “And when you spread forth your hands I will hide My eyes from you, and even if you increase your prayer, I will not hear; your hands are full of blood” (Isaiah 1:15). Not only Israel’s sacrifices, but even their prayers, which are on a higher spiritual level, will not be accepted. Speaking of that verse in Isaiah, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Any priest who killed a person may not lift his hands in the Priestly Blessing as it is stated: “And when you spread forth your hands I will hide My eyes from you…your hands are full of blood.” Here we see that the Priestly Blessing, performed with hands spread forth, is not accepted when performed by priests whose “hands are full of blood.” On the subject of prayer, Rabbi Elazar also said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were locked and prayer is not accepted as it once was, as it is said in lamentation of the Temple’s destruction: “Though I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer” (Lamentations 3:8). Yet, despite the fact that the gates of prayer were locked with the destruction of the Temple, the gates of tears were not locked, and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, as it is stated: “Hear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears” (Psalms 39:13). Since this prayer is a request that God should pay heed to the tears of one who is praying, he is certain that at least the gates of tears are not locked. With regard to the locking of the gates of prayer, the Gemara relates that Rava did not decree a fast on a cloudy day because it is stated: “You have covered Yourself in a cloud, through which prayer cannot pass” (Lamentations 3:44). The verse indicates that clouds are a bad omen, indicating that God has averted His face (Rav Hai Gaon). And Rabbi Elazar said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed an iron wall separates Israel from their Father in heaven, as it is stated to the prophet Ezekiel, instructing him to symbolize that separation: “And take for yourself an iron griddle, and set it as an iron wall between yourself and the city…it will be a sign for the house of Israel” (Ezekiel 4:3). The Gemara cites other statements in praise of prayer: Rabbi Ḥanin said that Rabbi Ḥanina said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer is assured that his prayer does not return unanswered; it will surely be accepted. From where do we derive this? From Moses our teacher, as it is stated that Moses said: “So I fell down before the Lord the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; and I prayed to the Lord” (Deuteronomy 9:26–27), and it is written thereafter: “And the Lord heard me that time as well, the Lord would not destroy you” (Deuteronomy 10:10). The Gemara raises an objection: Is that so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba say that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it to be answered, will ultimately come to heartache, as it will not be answered. As it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick” (Proverbs 13:12). And what is the remedy for one afflicted with that illness? He should engage in Torah study, as it is stated: “But desire fulfilled is the tree of life” (Proverbs 13:12), and tree of life is nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to those who hold fast to it, and those who support it are joyous” (Proverbs 3:18). This is not difficult. This, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s statement that one will suffer heartache refers to one who prolongs his prayer and expects it to be answered; that, Rabbi Ḥanin’s statement that one who prolongs his prayer is praiseworthy refers to one who prolongs his prayer and does not expect it to be answered. On a similar note, Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: A person who prayed and saw that he was not answered, should pray again, as it is stated: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord” (Psalms 27:14). One should turn to God with hope, and if necessary turn to God again with hope. Connected to the emphasis on the need to bolster one’s effort in prayer, the Gemara notes that the Sages taught in a baraita: Four things require bolstering, constant effort to improve, and they are: Torah, good deeds, prayer, and occupation. For each of these, a biblical proof is cited: From where is it derived that Torah and good deeds require bolstering? As it is stated in the instruction to Joshua: “Only be strong and be extremely courageous, observe and do all of the Torah that Moses My servant commanded you; do not deviate to the right or to the left, that you may succeed wherever you go” (Joshua 1:7). In this verse, observe refers to Torah study and do refers to good deeds (Maharsha); the apparently repetitive language is not extraneous. The Gemara derives: Be strong in Torah and be courageous in good deeds. From where is it derived that prayer requires bolstering? As it is said: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord.” From where is it derived that occupation requires bolstering? As it is stated: “Be strong and we will be strong for the sake of our nation and for the cities of our God” (II Samuel 10:12). All of one’s labor requires bolstering. The Gemara cites a midrash on the following verse from Isaiah, relating to the sin of the Golden Calf and Moses’ supplication for forgiveness: “But Zion said: The Lord has forsaken me and the Lord has forgotten me. Can a woman forget her suckling baby, that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget” (Isaiah 49:14–15). The Gemara seeks to clarify: Forsaken is the same as forgotten. They are synonymous; why repeat the same idea twice? Reish Lakish said: The community of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, even when a man marries a second wife after his first wife, he certainly recalls the deeds of his first wife. Yet You have not only forsaken me, but You have forgotten me as well. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: My daughter, I created twelve constellations in the firmament, and for each and every constellation I have created thirty armies, and for each and every army I have created thirty legions [ligyon], and for each and every legion I have created thirty infantry division leaders [rahaton], and for each and every infantry division leader I have created thirty military camp leaders [karton], and for each and every military camp leader I have created thirty leaders of forts [gastera], and on each and every leader of a fort I have hung three hundred and sixty-five thousand stars corresponding to the days of the solar year. And all of them I have created only for your sake; and you said the Lord has forsaken me and the Lord has forgotten me? The verse goes on to say: “Can a woman forget her suckling baby, that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget.” The meaning of this verse is that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the community of Israel: Have I forgotten the ram offerings and firstborn animals that you offered before Me in the desert? The community of Israel replied to Him: Master of the Universe, since there is no forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps you will not forget my sin of the Golden Calf? God responded to Israel: “These [elu] too shall be forgotten.” “These” is a reference to the sin of the Golden Calf, regarding which Israel said: “These [elu] are your gods.” The community of Israel said before Him: Master of the Universe, since there is forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps You will also forget the events revolving around the revelation at Sinai? God said to Israel: I [anokhi] will not forget you the revelation at Sinai, which began with: “I [anokhi] am the Lord your God.” The Gemara notes: That is what Rabbi Elazar said that Rav Oshaya said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “These too will be forgotten”? That is the sin of the Golden Calf. And what is the meaning of I will not forget you? Those are the events that transpired at Sinai. We learned in the mishna that the early generations of pious men would wait one hour in order to achieve the solemn frame of mind appropriate for prayer. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: This is alluded to when the verse states: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House” (Psalms 84:5), immediately after which it is said: “They will yet praise You, Selah.” And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays must also wait one hour after his prayer, as it is stated: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You” (Psalms 140:14), meaning that after thanking God through prayer, one should stay and sit before Him. That opinion was also taught in a baraita: One who prays must wait one hour before his prayer and one hour after his prayer. From where is it derived that one must wait one hour before his prayer? As it is stated: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House.” And from where is it derived that one must stay one hour after his prayer? As it is written: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You.” The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to waiting before and after prayer: The early generations of pious men would wait one hour, pray one hour, then wait one hour again. This raises the question: Since the early pious men would spend nine hours per day engaged either in prayer or the requisite waiting periods before and after prayer, three hours each for the morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, how is their Torah preserved? There was little time remaining to review their studies. And how was their work accomplished? The Gemara answers: Rather, because they were pious they merited that their Torah is preserved and their work is blessed. Additionally, we learned in the mishna: Even if the king greets him while he is praying, he should not respond to him as one may not interrupt his prayer. In limiting application of this principle, Rav Yosef said: They only taught this mishna with regard to kings of Israel, as a Jewish king would understand that the individual did not fail to respond to his greeting due to disrespect for the king. However, with regard to kings of the nations of the world, he interrupts his prayer and responds to their greeting due to the potential danger. The Gemara raised an objection to Rav Yosef’s statement: One who is praying and saw a violent person, feared by all, coming toward him, or a carriage coming toward him and he is in the way, he should not stop his prayer but rather abridge it and move out of the way. The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. Rather, this that teaches to abridge one’s prayer rather than stopping, refers to a case where it is possible to abridge his prayer and complete it in time, in which case he should abridge it. And if it is not a situation where he can abridge his prayer, he interrupts his prayer. The Sages taught: There was a related incident, involving a particular pious man who was praying while traveling along his path when an officer [hegmon] came and greeted him. The pious man did not pause from his prayer and did not respond with a greeting. The officer waited for him until he finished his prayer.
After he finished his prayer, the officer said to him: You good for nothing. You endangered yourself; I could have killed you.
Isn’t it written in your Torah: “Take utmost care and guard yourself diligently” (Deuteronomy 4:9)?
And it is also written: “Take therefore good heed unto yourselves” (Deuteronomy 4:15)? Why did you ignore the danger to your life?
When I greeted you, why did you not respond with a greeting?
Were I to sever your head with a sword, who would hold me accountable for your spilled blood? The pious man said to him: Wait for me until I will appease you with my words.
He said to him: Had you been standing before a flesh and blood king and your friend came and greeted you, would you
return his greeting?
11יא
דיון
אלבר קאמי, בספרו 'האדם המורד', מציג תמונה לעומתית נוספת. במה דומה האדם המורד לדניאל? במה הוא שונה ממנו? במי או במה הוא מורד או יכול למרוד? האם יש מאפיינים ייחודיים למורד המודרני?
חשבו על דמויות מורדים המוכרות לכם. מה דעתכם על דמויות אלה? כיצד תופסת החברה את אותן דמויות?
12יב
אלבר קאמי, האדם המורד, הוצאת עם עובד, 1999, עמ' 15
מי הוא האדם המורד? אדם האומר לאו, אולם, אף שהוא מסרב, אינו מוותר: הריהו גם אדם האומר כן, אם התעוררותו הראשונה. עבד שציית לפקודות כל ימי חייו, סבור פתאום כי אין לשאת פקודה חדשה. מה משמעותו של 'לאו' זה? משמעותו, למשל: 'הדברים נמשכו זמן רב מדי', 'עד עכשיו כן, ולהלן - לא', 'אתה מרחיק לכת', ועוד: 'יש קו גבול, שאותו לא תעבור'. בקיצור, לאו זה מבשר את קיומו של גבול כלשהו. אתה מוצא אותו רעיון של גבול בהרגשתו של המורד, כי זולתו 'מפריז', כי הוא חורג מהגבול בהפעלת זכותו, ואילו מעבר לגבול זה קיימת זכות אחרת, המגבילה את הראשונה, וכך נשענת התעוררות המרד, בעת ובעונה אחת, על הדחיה המוחלטת של התערבות הנתפסת כבלתי נסבלת, ועל הודאות המעורפלת של זכות שרירה, וליתר דיוק, על הרושם של המורד, הוא 'זכאי ל...'. אין המרד מתגשם בלי הרגשת המורד שהצדק עמו, במקום כלשהו ובדרך כלשהי, על כן אומר העבד שנתמרד כן ולא בהעלם אחד. עם אישור הגבול מאשר המורד את כל הדברים, שהוא מנחש את קיומם מעבר לגבול, ומבקש לשמור עליהם. הוא מוכיח בעקשנות, שיש בו משהו 'הראוי ל...', משהו התובע כי ישימו לב אליו. בנוסח כלשהו הוא מציג מול המשטר המשעבד אותו מעין זכות, שלא להיות משועבד מעבר לתחום העשוי להתקבל על דעתו.
13יג
דף הנחיות למנחה:
דניאל ז-יא למנחה.doc