נחמיה י-דברי הימים א' א: 'זכרה לי אלהי לטובה': בגנות השבח העצמי וחולשות אנושיות אחרות
1א
הדף מאת: מיכל יניב / מרכזי דניאל
2ב
המסורת רואה בספרי עזרא ונחמיה חיבור אחד, אף שהיא מכירה בכך שחלקו השני נכתב בידי נחמיה. נראה שאין עוררין על חשיבות פועלו של נחמיה, אולם משהו באופי כתיבתו עורר עליו את ביקורתם של חז"ל וגרם להם לאחד בין שני הכתבים ולייחס אותם לעזרא דווקא. מה הניע את חז"ל לכך? אילו תפיסות אחרות קיימות לצד תפיסת המסורת היהודית הרשמית? כיצד יכולות חולשות אנושיות לפגום גם בחשיבותם של המעשים המוצלחים ביותר?
3ג
דיון
מבוא
המסורת רואה בספרי עזרא ונחמיה חיבור אחד, אף שהיא מכירה בכך שחלקו השני נכתב בידי נחמיה. נראה שאין עוררין על חשיבות פועלו של נחמיה, אולם משהו באופי כתיבתו עורר עליו את ביקורתם של חז"ל וגרם להם לאחד בין שני הכתבים ולייחס אותם לעזרא דווקא.
מה הניע את חז"ל לכך ואילו תפיסות אחרות קיימות לצד תפיסת המסורת היהודית הרשמית? כיצד יכולות חולשות אנושיות לפגום גם בחשיבותם של המעשים המוצלחים ביותר?
4ד
התגובה לנישואי תערובת - נחמיה מול עזרא
עזרא פרק (ט)
וּכְכַלּ֣וֹת אֵ֗לֶּה נִגְּשׁ֨וּ אֵלַ֤י הַשָּׂרִים֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹֽא־נִבְדְּל֞וּ הָעָ֤ם יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֣ים וְהַלְוִיִּ֔ם מֵעַמֵּ֖י הָאֲרָצ֑וֹת כְּ֠תוֹעֲבֹֽתֵיהֶם לַכְּנַעֲנִ֨י הַחִתִּ֜י הַפְּרִזִּ֣י הַיְבוּסִ֗י הָֽעַמֹּנִי֙ הַמֹּ֣אָבִ֔י הַמִּצְרִ֖י וְהָאֱמֹרִֽי: כִּֽי־נָשְׂא֣וּ מִבְּנֹֽתֵיהֶ֗ם לָהֶם֙ וְלִבְנֵיהֶ֔ם וְהִתְעָֽרְבוּ֙ זֶ֣רַע הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּ֖י הָאֲרָצ֑וֹת וְיַ֧ד הַשָּׂרִ֣ים וְהַסְּגָנִ֗ים הָ֥יְתָ֛ה בַּמַּ֥עַל הַזֶּ֖ה רִאשׁוֹנָֽה: וּכְשָׁמְעִי֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה קָרַ֥עְתִּי אֶת־בִּגְדִ֖י וּמְעִילִ֑י וָאֶמְרְטָ֞ה מִשְּׂעַ֤ר רֹאשִׁי֙ וּזְקָנִ֔י וָאֵשְׁבָ֖ה מְשׁוֹמֵֽם: וְאֵלַ֣י יֵאָסְפ֗וּ כֹּ֤ל חָרֵד֙ בְּדִבְרֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַ֖ל מַ֣עַל הַגּוֹלָ֑ה וַאֲנִי֙ יֹשֵׁ֣ב מְשׁוֹמֵ֔ם עַ֖ד לְמִנְחַ֥ת הָעָֽרֶב: וּבְמִנְחַ֣ת הָעֶ֗רֶב קַ֚מְתִּי מִתַּֽעֲנִיתִ֔י וּבְקָרְעִ֥י בִגְדִ֖י וּמְעִילִ֑י וָֽאֶכְרְעָה֙ עַל־בִּרְכַּ֔י וָאֶפְרְשָׂ֥ה כַפַּ֖י אֶל־ ה' אֱלֹהָֽי: וָאֹמְרָ֗ה אֱלֹהַי֙ בֹּ֣שְׁתִּי וְנִכְלַ֔מְתִּי לְהָרִ֧ים אֱלֹהַ֛י פָּנַ֖י אֵלֶ֑יךָ כִּ֣י עֲוֹנֹתֵ֤ינוּ רָבוּ֙ לְמַ֣עְלָה רֹּ֔אשׁ וְאַשְׁמָתֵ֥נוּ גָדְלָ֖ה עַ֥ד לַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
נחמיה פרק (יג)
גַּ֣ם׀ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗ם רָאִ֤יתִי אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים֙ הֹשִׁ֗יבוּ נָשִׁים֙ (אשדודיות) אַשְׁדֳּדִיּ֔וֹת עמוניות עַמֳּנִיּ֖וֹת מוֹאֲבִיּֽוֹת: וּבְנֵיהֶ֗ם חֲצִי֙ מְדַבֵּ֣ר אַשְׁדּוֹדִ֔ית וְאֵינָ֥ם מַכִּירִ֖ים לְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוּדִ֑ית וְכִלְשׁ֖וֹן עַ֥ם וָעָֽם: וָאָרִ֤יב עִמָּם֙ וָאֲקַֽלְלֵ֔ם וָאַכֶּ֥ה מֵהֶ֛ם אֲנָשִׁ֖ים וָֽאֶמְרְטֵ֑ם וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵ֣ם בֵּֽאלֹהִ֗ים אִם־תִּתְּנ֤וּ בְנֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ לִבְנֵיהֶ֔ם וְאִם־תִּשְׂאוּ֙ מִבְּנֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם לִבְנֵיכֶ֖ם וְלָכֶֽם:
Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying: ‘The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’ And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled. Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the faithlessness of them of the captivity; and I sat appalled until the evening offering. And at the evening offering I arose up from my fasting, even with my garment and my mantle rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God; and I said: ‘O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to Thee, my God; for our iniquities are increased over our head, and our guiltiness is grown up unto the heavens.
5ה
דיון
כיצד מגיבים כל אחד מהמנהיגים לתופעת נישואי התערובת בתקופתו?
כיצד מעידה תגובה זו על אופיים ועל מעמדם בקרב העם?
מה דעתכם על התגובות? איזו מהן עדיפה בעיניכם?
6ו
זכרה לי אלהי לטובה
נחמיה פרק (ה) פסוק (יט)
זָכְרָה־לִּ֥י אֱלֹהַ֖י לְטוֹבָ֑ה כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֖יתִי עַל־הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּֽה:
נחמיה פרק (יג) פסוק (יד)
זָכְרָה־לִּ֥י אֱלֹהַ֖י עַל־זֹ֑את וְאַל־תֶּ֣מַח חֲסָדַ֗י אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֛יתִי בְּבֵ֥ית אֱלֹהַ֖י וּבְמִשְׁמָרָֽיו:
נחמיה פרק (יג) פסוק (כב)
וָאֹמְרָ֣ה לַלְוִיִּ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִֽהְי֤וּ מִֽטַּהֲרִים֙ וּבָאִים֙ שֹׁמְרִ֣ים הַשְּׁעָרִ֔ים לְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־י֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֑ת גַּם־ זֹאת֙ זָכְרָה־לִּ֣י אֱלֹהַ֔י וְח֥וּסָה עָלַ֖י כְּרֹ֥ב חַסְדֶּֽךָ:
נחמיה פרק (יג) פסוק (לא)
וּלְקֻרְבַּ֧ן הָעֵצִ֛ים בְּעִתִּ֥ים מְזֻמָּנ֖וֹת וְלַבִּכּוּרִ֑ים זָכְרָה־לִּ֥י אֱלֹהַ֖י לְטוֹבָֽה:
Remember unto me, O my God, for good, all that I have done for this people.
7ז
דיון
מדוע לדעתכם מבקש נחמיה פעמים רבות כל כך שהאל יזכור אותו לטובה?
כיצד מצטיירת דמותו של נחמיה לאור בקשות חוזרות ונשנות אלה?
8ח
וְהַפַּחוֹת הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר לְפָנַי הִכְבִּידוּ עַל הָעָם וַיִּקְחוּ מֵהֶם בְּלֶחֶם וָיַיִן אַחַר כֶּסֶף שְׁקָלִים אַרְבָּעִים גַּם נַעֲרֵיהֶם שָׁלְטוּ עַל הָעָם וַאֲנִי לֹא עָשִׂיתִי כֵן מִפְּנֵי יִרְאַת אֱלֹהִים.
But the former governors that were before me laid burdens upon the people, and took of them for bread and wine above forty shekels of silver; yea, even their servants lorded over the people; but so did not I, because of the fear of God.
9ט
כל מילי דעזרא [כל הדברים של ספר עזרא] נחמיה בן חכליה אמרינהו [אמרם], ונחמיה בן חכליה - מאי טעמא לא איקרי סיפרא על שמיה? [מה הטעם לא נקרא הספר על שמו]? אמר רבי ירמיה בר אבא: מפני שהחזיק טובה לעצמו, שנאמר "זכרה לי אלהי לטובה". - דוד נמי מימר [גם כן] אמר "זכרני ה' ברצון עמך פקדני בישועתך!" - דוד רחמי הוא דקבעי [דוד רחמים הוא ביקש]. רב יוסף אמר: מפני שסיפר בגנותן של ראשונים, שנאמר "והפחות הראשונים אשר לפני הכבידו על העם ויקחו מהם בלחם ויין אחר כסף שקלים ארבעים" וגו'. ואף על דניאל שגדול ממנו סיפר.
Rather, he gave her six se’a. The Gemara asks: And is it the typical manner of a woman to take a heavy burden of six se’a of barley? Rather, Boaz alluded to Ruth that six descendants are destined to emerge from her who would each be blessed with six blessings, and these are they: David, and the Messiah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. The Gemara elaborates: David was blessed with six virtues, as it is written: “And one of the servants answered and said: Behold, I have seen a son of Yishai of the house of Bethlehem who knows to play, and is a fine warrior, and a man of war, and prudent in speech, and a comely man, and the Lord is with him” (I Samuel 16:18). Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Doeg the Edomite, one of Saul’s servants, stated this entire verse only as malicious speech, in an attempt to incite Saul to be jealous of David. “Who knows how to play” means that he knows how to ask complex and germane questions about Torah matters. “A fine warrior” means that he knows how to answer questions raised with regard to matters of Torah. “A man of war,” means that he knows to negotiate his way in the battle to understand the Torah. “A comely man” is one who displays understanding in facets of halakha and explains it well. “And prudent in speech [davar]” means that he infers one matter [davar] from another matter. “And the Lord is with him” means that the halakha is ruled in accordance with his opinion in every area of halakha. The Gemara relates: In response to all of these virtues listed in praise of David, Saul said to his servants: My son Jonathan is his equal. Once Doeg said to Saul: “And the Lord is with him,” meaning that the halakha is ruled in accordance with his opinion in every area of halakha, a matter that did not apply even to Saul himself, he was offended and grew jealous of David. As with regard to Saul it is written: “And wherever he turned he put them to the worse” (I Samuel 14:47), and with regard to David it is written: And wherever he turns he does prosper. Although the verse about Saul is referring to his victories and his prominence in Torah, he was not privileged to have all of his conclusions accepted as halakha. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that it was Doeg who listed the virtues in this verse? The Gemara answers that it is written here: “And one [eḥad] of the servants answered,” meaning the most notable [meyuḥad] of the servants. And it is written there: “And a certain man of the servants of Saul was there that day, detained before the Lord, and his name was Doeg the Edomite, the chief of the herdsmen that belonged to Saul” (I Samuel 21:8). The Messiah was blessed with six virtues, as it is written: “And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord” (Isaiah 11:2); and it is written: “And his delight [vahariḥo] shall be the fear of the Lord, and he shall neither judge after the sight of his eyes, nor decide after the hearing of his ears” (Isaiah 11:3). Rabbi Alexandri says that the term hariḥo teaches that God burdened the Messiah with mitzvot and afflictions like millstones [reiḥayim]. Rava says that hariḥo teaches that the Messiah will smell [demoraḥ] and then judge on that basis, sensing who is right, as it is written: “And he shall neither judge after the sight of [lemareh] his eyes, nor decide after the hearing of his ears; and with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and decide equity for the meek of the earth” (Isaiah 11:3–4). The Gemara relates: Bar Koziva, i.e., bar Kokheva, ruled for two and a half years. He said to the Sages: I am the Messiah. They said to him: With regard to the Messiah it is written that he is able to smell and judge, so let us see ourselves whether he, bar Kokheva, is able to smell and judge. Once they saw that he was not able to smell and judge, the gentiles killed him. Six virtues were ascribed to Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, as it is written in their regard: “Youths in whom was found no blemish, and well favored, and skillful in all wisdom, and discerning in knowledge, and perceptive in understanding, and who had strength in them to stand in the king’s palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans” (Daniel 1:4). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase “in whom was found no blemish”? Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: Even a scratch like the wound that remains after bloodletting was not found in them. What is the meaning of the phrase “and who had strength in them to stand in the king’s place”? What strength is needed to do so? Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: This teaches that they would force themselves to refrain from laughter, and from conversation, and from sleep, and would restrain themselves when they felt the urge to relieve themselves via their orifices, due to fear of the monarchy. § The Gemara explores more of their attributes. The verse states: “Now among these were, of the descendants of Judah: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah” (Daniel 1:6). Rabbi Eliezer says: They were all of the descendants of Judah. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says: Daniel was of the descendants of Judah, and Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah were descendants of other tribes. Isaiah prophesied to Hezekiah: “And of your sons that shall issue from you, they shall be taken away; and they shall be officers [sarisim] in the palace of the king of Babylonia” (Isaiah 39:7). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of sarisim? Rav says: It means literally eunuchs, whom the Babylonians castrated to render them suitable for employment in all aspects of the king’s service. And Rabbi Ḥanina says: It means that idol worship was emasculated during their lifetime, as it became clear to all that it lacks substance. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that idol worship was emasculated during their lifetime, that is as it is written: “And they have no hurt” (Daniel 3:25), indicating that the bodies of Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah were intact and they were not castrated. But according to the one who says that they were literally eunuchs, what is the meaning of the phrase “And they have no hurt”? The Gemara answers: It means they had no hurt from the fire of the furnace, not that their bodies were completely intact. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it already written: “Nor had the odor of fire passed over them” (Daniel 3:27)? There was no need to repeat that they were unaffected by the fire. The Gemara answers: This means that there was neither hurt from the fire nor harm from the odor of the fire. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that idol worship was emasculated during their lifetime, that is as it is written: “For so says the Lord to the sarisim who observe My Shabbatot, and choose what pleases Me, and keep My covenant” (Isaiah 56:4). This verse calls them sarisim due to their miraculous deliverance from the furnace. But according to the one who says that they were literally eunuchs, would the verse speak in denigration of the righteous? Would the verse identify Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah by their blemish rather than by their names? The Gemara answers: According to the one who says that they were literally eunuchs, both this, the physical imperfection, and that, the fact that idol worship was emasculated during their lifetime, were true concerning them. The Gemara asks from another perspective: Granted, according to the one who says that they were literally eunuchs, that is as it is written in the next verse: “And to them I will give in My house and within My walls a memorial better than sons and daughters: I will give him an everlasting name, that shall not be excised” (Isaiah 56:5). But according to the one who says that idol worship was emasculated during their lifetime, what is the meaning of the phrase “better than sons and daughters”? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It is consolation that concerning children that they already had and who died, that they would also be memorialized. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase “an everlasting name that shall not be excised”? Rabbi Tanḥum says that bar Kappara taught in Tzippori: This is referring to the book of Daniel, which is called by his name. § Apropos books of the Bible named for a prominent person, the Gemara asks: Now with regard to all the matters of the book of Ezra, Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah, said them and wrote most of them; and with regard to Nehemiah, son of Hacaliah, what is the reason that a book was not called by his name? Over the course of many generations, extending many years after the talmudic period, the book that is today named for Nehemiah was not a separate book and was included in the book of Ezra. Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: The book was not named for Nehemiah because he took credit for himself and boasted about his good deeds, as it is stated: “Remember me, God, for good” (Nehemiah 13:31). The Gemara asks: Is that a shortcoming? King David also said: “Remember me, Lord, when You show favor to Your people; visit me with Your salvation” (Psalms 106:4). The Gemara answers: David was asking for compassion and formulated his words as a prayer. Nehemiah stated them as a fact and a demand. Rav Yosef says: Nehemiah was punished because he spoke in denigration of his predecessors, as it is stated: “But the former governors who were before me placed burdens upon the people, and took from them for bread and wine beyond forty shekels of silver; even their servants ruled over the people; but I did not do so, due to the fear of God” (Nehemiah 5:15). And he related these disparaging statements even about Daniel, who was greater than he was. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that Daniel was greater than he was? The Gemara answers: It is derived from a verse, as it is written: “And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, and the men who were with me did not see the vision; but a great trembling fell upon them, and they fled to hide” (Daniel 10:7). The Gemara asks: “And the men who were with me did not see the vision”; and who were these men? Rabbi Yirmeya, and some say Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, says: That is referring to Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, who were with him and did not see. Evidently, Daniel was greater than these prophets, and all the more so was he greater than Nehemiah, who was never privileged to prophesy.
10י
דיון
מהי עמדתם של חז"ל כלפי נחמיה על פי מקור זה?
מהם הנימוקים של רבי ירמיה בר אבא ושל רב יוסף לעמדה זו?
11יא
בן סירא, פרק מט, יג
נחמיה יאדר זכרו, המקים את חרבתינו.
וירפא את הריסתינו, ויצב דלתים ובריח.
למקור השלם

מושגים
  • ספר בן סירא - נחשב מחשובי הספרים החיצוניים. ידוע גם בשמותיו 'חכמת בן סירא' או 'משלי בן סירא'. נכתב כפי הנראה במאה השלישית או בתחילת השנייה לפני הספירה, בשפה העברית. היה נפוץ בקרב היהודים בשלהי ימי בית שני. מטרת הספר הינה החדרת יראת שמיים, מוסר והליכה בדרכי תורה. רוב הכתבים שנשתמרו הם תרגומים, מעט מן הנוסח העברי נמצא בגניזה בקהיר, בקומראן ובמצדה. הספר נכלל בתרגום ה-70 ובכתבים הנוצריים, במאה השנים האחרונות גברה ההתעניינות בספר ובתרגומו לשפה העברית.
12יב
דיון
עזרא אינו מוזכר כלל בספר בן סירא. מדוע בוחר בן סירא להשמיטו? מהי עמדתו של בן סירא כלפי נחמיה?
ממה, לדעתכם, נובע שוני זה בגישתם של חז"ל ושל בן סירא?
13יג
"ושנא את הרבנות", כיצד? מלמד שלא יניח אדם עטרה מעצמו בראשו אבל אחרים יניחו לו, שנאמר "יהללך זר ולא פיך נכרי ואל שפתיך" (משלי כז ב). אמר רבי עקיבא כל המגביה עצמו על דברי תורה למה הוא דומה? לנבלה מושלכת בדרך, כל עובר ושב מניח ידו על חוטמו ומתרחק ממנה והולך שנאמר "אם נבלת בהתנשא אם זמות יד לפה" (שם, ל לב). [א"ל בן עזאי דרשהו מענינו] אם מנבל אדם עצמו על דברי תורה ואוכל תמרים חרובים ולובש בגדים צואים ויושב ומשמר על פתח של חכמים, כל עובר ושב אומר שמא שוטה הוא זה, לסוף אתה מוצא כל התורה כולה עמו. רבי יוסי אומר רד מטה למעלה ולמעלה למטה כל המגביה עצמו על דברי תורה סוף שמשפילין אותו וכל המשפיל עצמו על דברי תורה סוף שמגביהין אותו:
Hate power. How so? This teaches that a person should not place a crown on his own head. But others can place it upon him, as it says (Proverbs 27:2), “May a stranger praise you, but not your own mouth; a foreigner, but not your own lips.”
Rabbi Akiva said: Anyone who raises himself above the words of Torah is like a carcass cast off on the side of the road. Everyone who passes it sits down and puts his hand out to check for breath, and then backs away from it and leaves, as it says (Proverbs 30:32), “If you degrade yourself with arrogance, and if you scheme, a hand to your mouth.” [(Ben Azzai said: Learn this idea out of the verse itself:)] If a person degrades himself for words of Torah by eating rotten dates, and dressing in filthy clothes, and sitting and watching at the door of the sages, then all who pass by will say, “Perhaps he is an idiot.” But in the end, you will find that he has the whole Torah with him. (Rabbi Yosei would say:) Anyone who raises himself above the words of Torah, in the end they will debase him; but anyone who debases himself for the sake of the words of Torah, in the end they will elevate him.
14יד
דיון
מהן העמדות השונות המובעות כאן לגבי גאווה?
מהי העמדה הראויה על פי מקור זה?
מהו לדעתכם הגבול שבין מודעות לערך עצמי לבין יוהרה וגאווה? מתי ראוי לחוש גאווה?
15טו
שָׁנוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ: פַּעַם אַחַת יָצָא רֹב אֲדָר וְלֹא יָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים. שָׁלְחוּ לְחוֹנִי הַמְּעַגֵּל: הִתְפַּלֵּל וְיֵרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים. אָמַר לָהֶם: צְאוּ וְהַכְנִיסוּ תַּנּוּרֵי פְּסָחִים, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִמֹּקּוּ. הִתְפַּלֵּל וְלֹא יָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים. מֶה עָשָׂה? עָג עוּגָה וְעָמַד בְּתוֹכָהּ, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה חֲבַקּוּק הַנָּבִיא. אָמַר לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם! בָּנֶיךָ שָׂמו פְּנֵיהֶם עָלַי, שֶׁאֲנִי כְּבֶן בַּיִת לְפָנֶיךָ. נִשְׁבָּע אֲנִי בְּשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל, שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתְּרַחֵם עַל בָּנֶיךָ.
הִתְחִילוּ גְּשָׁמִים מְנַטְּפִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו: רַבִּי, רְאִינוּךָ וְלֹא נָמוּת; כִּמְדֻמִּים אָנוּ שֶׁאֵין הַגְּשָׁמִים יוֹרְדִים אֶלָּא לְהַתִּיר שְׁבוּעָתֶךָ. אָמַר: לֹא כָּךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי בּוֹרוֹת, שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. יָרְדוּ בְּזַעַף עַד שֶׁכָּל טִפָּה וְטִפָּה כִּמְלֹא פִּי חָבִית; וְשִׁעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁאֵין טִפָּה פְּחוּתָה מִלֹּג. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו: רַבִּי, רְאִינוּךָ וְלֹא נָמוּת; כִּמְדֻמִּים אָנוּ שֶׁאֵין הַגְּשָׁמִים יוֹרְדִים אֶלָּא לְאַבֵּד הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לְפָנָיו: לֹא כָּךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי רָצוֹן, בְּרָכָה וּנְדָבָה. יָרְדוּ כְּתִקְנָם, עַד שֶׁעָלוּ כָּל הָעָם לְהַר הַבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ: רַבִּי, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִתְפַּלַּלְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ, כָּךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיהֶם וְיֵלְכוּ לָהֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם: כָּך מְקֻבָּלְנִי, שֶׁאֵין מִתְפַּלְּלִין עַל רֹב הַטּוֹבָה. אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הָבִיאוּ לִי פַּר הוֹדָאָה. הֵבִיאוּ לוֹ פַּר הוֹדָאָה. סָמַךְ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עָלָיו, אָמַר לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם! עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם אֵינָם יְכוֹלִים לַעֲמֹד לֹא בְּרֹב טוֹבָה וְלֹא בְּרֹב פֻּרְעָנוּת. כָּעַסְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶם אֵינָם יְכוֹלִים לַעֲמֹד; הִשְׁפַּעְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶם טוֹבָה אֵינָם יְכוֹלִים לַעֲמֹד.
יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, שֶׁיִּפָּסְקוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים וְיְהֵא רֶוַח בָּעוֹלָם. מִיָּד נָשְׁבָה הָרוּחַ וְנִתְפַּזְּרוּ הֶעָבִים וְזָרְחָה הַחַמָּה. יָצְאוּ הָעָם לַשָּׂדֶה וְהֵבִיאוּ לָהֶם כְּמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת.
שָׁלַח לוֹ שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שֶׁטַח: אִלְמָלֵא חוֹנִי אַתָּה גּוֹזֵרְנִי עָלֶיךָ נִדּוּי; אֲבָל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה מִתְחַטֵּא לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וְעוֹשֶׂה לְךָ רְצוֹנְךָ, כְּבֵן שֶׁמִּתְחַטֵּא לִפְנֵי אָבִיו וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ רְצוֹנוֹ.
למקור השלם
In a case of this kind, that city fasts and cries out by blowing the shofar, and all of its surrounding areas join them in their fast, but they do not cry out. Rabbi Akiva disagrees and says: They cry out but they do not fast. The mishna continues: And likewise, if a city is afflicted by pestilence or collapsing buildings, that city fasts and cries out, and all of its surrounding areas fast but they do not cry out. Rabbi Akiva says: They cry out but they do not fast. The mishna inquires: What is considered a plague of pestilence? When is a series of deaths treated as a plague? The mishna answers: If a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, i.e., it has a population of five hundred able-bodied men, and three dead are taken out of it on three consecutive days, this is a plague of pestilence, which requires fasting and crying out. If the death rate is lower than that, this is not pestilence. For the following calamities they cry out in every place: For blight; for mildew; for locusts; for caterpillars, a type of locust that comes in large swarms and descends upon a certain place; for dangerous beasts that have entered a town; and for the sword, i.e., legions of an invading army. The reason that they cry out about these misfortunes in every place is because these are calamities that spread. An incident occurred in which Elders descended from Jerusalem to their cities throughout Eretz Yisrael and decreed a fast throughout the land because there was seen in the city of Ashkelon a small amount of blight, enough to fill the mouth of an oven. This fast was observed throughout Eretz Yisrael, as blight spreads quickly. And furthermore, they decreed a fast because wolves had eaten two children in Transjordan. Rabbi Yosei says: This fast was decreed not because they ate the children, but because these wolves were merely seen in an inhabited area. For the following calamities they cry out even on Shabbat: For a city that is surrounded by gentile troops, or for a place in danger of being flooded by a river that has swelled its banks, or for a ship tossed about at sea. Rabbi Yosei said: One may cry out on Shabbat to summon help, but it may not be sounded for crying out to God. Shimon the Timnite says: One may cry out on Shabbat even for pestilence, but the Rabbis did not agree with him. § The mishna adds: In general, they cry out on account of any trouble that should not befall the community, a euphemism for trouble that may befall the community, except for an overabundance of rain. Although too much rain may be disastrous, one does not cry out over it, because rain is a sign of a blessing. The mishna relates: An incident occurred in which the people said to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Pray that rain should fall. He said to them: Go out and bring in the clay ovens used to roast the Paschal lambs, so that they will not dissolve in the water, as torrential rains are certain to fall. He prayed, and no rain fell at all. What did he do? He drew a circle on the ground and stood inside it and said before God: Master of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household. Therefore, I take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children and answer their prayers for rain. Rain began to trickle down, but only in small droplets. He said: I did not ask for this, but for rain to fill the cisterns, ditches, and caves with enough water to last the entire year. Rain began to fall furiously. He said: I did not ask for this damaging rain either, but for rain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity. Subsequently, the rains fell in their standard manner but continued unabated, filling the city with water until all of the Jews exited the residential areas of Jerusalem and went to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They came and said to him: Just as you prayed over the rains that they should fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: Go out and see if the Claimants’ Stone, a large stone located in the city, upon which proclamations would be posted with regard to lost and found articles, has been washed away. In other words, if the water has not obliterated the Claimants’ Stone, it is not yet appropriate to pray for the rain to cease. Shimon ben Shetaḥ, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin at the time, relayed to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Were you not Ḥoni, I would have decreed that you be ostracized, but what can I do to you? You nag [mitḥatei] God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and his father does his bidding without reprimand. After all, rain fell as you requested. About you, the verse states: “Let your father and your mother be glad, and let her who bore you rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25). The mishna teaches another halakha with regard to fast days: If they were fasting for rain, and rain fell for them before sunrise, they need not complete their fast until the evening. However, if it fell after sunrise, they must complete their fast. Rabbi Eliezer says: If rain fell before midday, they need not complete their fast; but if it rains after midday, they must complete their fast. The mishna relates: An incident occurred in which the court decreed a fast in Lod due to a lack of rain, and rain fell for them before midday. Rabbi Tarfon said to the people: Go out, and eat, and drink, and treat this day as a Festival. And they went out, and ate, and drank, and treated the day as a Festival, and in the afternoon they came to the synagogue and recited the great hallel, to thank God for answering their prayers. GEMARA: The mishna taught: The order of these fasts is stated only when the fast concerns the first rainfall. And the Gemara raises a contradiction between this statement and the following baraita: If the periods of the first and second rainfall pass without rain, this is the time to ask and pray for rain; if the third passes without rain, this is the time to fast. Rav Yehuda said that this is what the mishna is saying: When does the order of these fasts that is stated apply? When the periods of the first, second, and third rainfall have passed and rain has not fallen. However, if rain fell in the time of the first rainfall, and the people sowed but the plants did not sprout, or, alternatively, if they sprouted a little, but their appearance changed back for the worse, as no rain fell after the first rainfall, they cry out about it immediately. Rav Naḥman said: This applies specifically if their appearance changed. However, if they dried out entirely, they do not cry out, as this condition cannot be improved. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this is the case, because in the mishna we learned the word changed. The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for Rav Naḥman to issue his statement with regard to a case where they produced stalks after they dried out. Lest you say that producing stalks is a matter of significance, as it is a sign of strengthening, and the crops might be saved through prayer, Rav Naḥman therefore teaches us that this is not the case. The mishna further taught: And likewise, if rain ceased for a period of forty days between one rainfall and another, they cry out about this, because it is a plague of drought. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: A plague of drought? Isn’t this simply a drought? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The mishna means that a period of forty days between one rainfall and the next is a plague that may cause a drought. In this regard, Rav Naḥman said: When crops do not grow in one place due to lack of rain and must be imported by means of one river to another river,
16טז
דיון
מה מפריע לשמעון בן שטח בהתנהגותו של חוני?
מהו המשותף בין חוני לנחמיה?
מדוע התנהגותו של חוני מתקבלת ע"י חז"ל בעוד נחמיה אינו מתקבל על ידם?
17יז
ויסלבה שימבורסקה, תמצית, מתוך: בשבח החלומות, תרגום מפולנית: רפי וייכרט, עמ' 43, הוצאת קשב לשירה, תשס"ה 2004
שירת הקללה האנושית מול שירת התשבחות האלוהית - כשאלוהים חוטא בגאווה
תמצית / ויסלבה שימבורסקה אִיּוֹב, נָגוּעַ בִּבְשָׂרוֹ וּבְכָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ, מְקַלֵּל אֶת יוֹמוֹ. שִׁירָה גְּדוֹלָה הִיא זוֹ. הָרֵעִים בָּאִים קוֹרְעִים אִישׁ מְעִילוֹ וּמַרְשִׁיעִים אֶת אִיּוֹב לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהִים. אִיּוֹב זוֹעֵק כִּי הִנּוֹ אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר. אִיּוֹב אֵינֶנּוּ יוֹדֵעַ בְּשֶׁל מָה נֻגַּע בִּידֵי אֱלֹהִים. אִיּוֹב מְסָרֵב לְדַבֵּר עִמָּם. אִיּוֹב רוֹצֶה לְדַבֵּר עִם אֱלֹהִים. אֱלֹהִים מוֹפִיעַ בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת סוּפָה. לִפְנֵי זֶה שֶׁשֻּׁפּוּ עַצְמוֹתָיו הוּא מְשַׁבֵּחַ אֶת הַיְצִירָה, מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו: שָׁמַיִם, יָם, אֶרֶץ וְחַיָּה. וּבְיִחוּד אֶת הַבְּהֵמוֹת וּבִפְרָט אֶת הַלִּוְיָתָן, מִפְלָצוֹת מְעוֹרְרוֹת־גַּאֲוָה. שִׁירָה גְּדוֹלָה הִיא זוֹ. אִיּוֹב מַאֲזִין אֱלֹהִים מְדַבֵּר לֹא לָעִנְיָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין רְצוֹן אֱלֹהִים לְדַבֵּר לָעִנְיָן. לְפִיכָךְ הוּא מְמַהֵר לַעֲטוֹת כְּלִמָּה לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהִים. כָּעֵת הַמְּאֹרָעוֹת מִתְרַחֲשִׁים בִּמְהִירוּת. אִיּוֹב בֹּרַךְ בְּאַחֲרִיתוֹ בְּמִשְׁנֵה צֹאן, גְּמַלִּים, בָּקָר וַאֲתוֹנוֹת. הַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת הַחֲשׂוּפָה קוֹרֶמֶת עוֹר וְאִיּוֹב מֵנִיחַ לַדָּבָר לִקְרוֹת. אִיּוֹב נֶעְתָּר. אִיּוֹב אֵינוֹ מְעֻנְיָן לִפְגֹּם בִּיצִירַת הַמּוֹפֵת.

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18יח
דיון
מה תפקידו של השבח העצמי האלוהי בשיר?
מה יכולה הגאווה האלוהית ללמד על הגאווה האנושית?
20 כ
21כא
דף הנחיות למנחה:
נחמיה י-יג למנחה.docx