Based on lectures by Rabbi Dr. Ira Bedzow and tomes by Yuval Noah Harari, we are presently challenged to define what is human for the purposes of Jewish law and living in a civilized, ethical society. How Torah defines a human is a starting point only.
What are the guidelines for interpreting Torah and Jewish law for modern times? Are we originalists or can we interpret Torah in accordance with our times? Does an individual have the right to interpret Torah or is that reserved for authorities or majorities?
Within Yoma we have the seeds of caring more for the neshama than the halakhah. The later Babylonian rabbis recognized that legal authority must in some cases be limited, its expansive and controlling nature contained, and the law limited to make room for a certain degree of individual