'אוי לנשותיהן של אלו': על חיי פרישות מול חיי אישות
1א
הדף מאת: גילי ושירה זיוון / מרכז יעקב הרצוג
2ב
המקורות בדף עוסקים בשאלה האם ראוי לפרוש מחיים זוגיים לצורך לימוד תורה והשגת דרגה רוחנית גבוהה. נציג בעניין זה היבטים שונים ונעסוק במחיר ששילמו נשות החכמים על החלטת בני זוגן לפרוש מחיי האישות.
3ג
דיון
לימוד זה עוסק בנושא הפרישות מחיים זוגיים, לצורך לימוד תורה והשגת דרגה רוחנית גבוהה. נציג בעניין זה היבטים שונים ונעסוק במחיר ששילמו נשות החכמים על החלטת בעליהן לפרוש מחיי האישות.
4ד
דיון
א. האם פרישות היא חלק מדרישות התפקיד?
האם קירבה גדולה לאלוהים מחייבת התעלות, התרחקות מהנאות הבשר ופרישות? נקרא על פרשת הצרעת של מרים, אחות משה:
5ה
(א) וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל-אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח, כִּי אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח. (ב) וַיֹּאמְרוּ, הֲרַק אַךְ בְּמֹשֶׁה דִּבֶּר ה'? הֲלֹא גַּם בָּנוּ דִבֵּר. וַיִּשְׁמַע ה'. (ג) וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה עָנָו מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה. (ד) וַיֹּאמֶר ה' פִּתְאֹם אֶל מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל מִרְיָם, צְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתְּכֶם אֶל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד. וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּם. (ה) וַיֵּרֶד ה' בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן, וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל, וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם. (ו) וַיֹּאמֶר, שִׁמְעוּ נָא דְבָרָי. אִם יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֲכֶם ה' בַּמַּרְאָה אֵלָיו אֶתְוַדָּע, בַּחֲלוֹם אֲדַבֶּר בּוֹ. (ז) לֹא כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה. בְּכָל בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא. (ח) פֶּה אֶל פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר-בּוֹ, וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת ה' יַבִּיט; וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה? (ט) וַיִּחַר אַף ה' בָּם, וַיֵּלַךְ. (י) וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל, וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג; וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל מִרְיָם, וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת.
And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman. And they said: ‘Hath the LORD indeed spoken only with Moses? hath He not spoken also with us?’ And the LORD heard it.— Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.— And the LORD spoke suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam: ‘Come out ye three unto the tent of meeting.’ And they three came out. And the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth. And He said: ‘Hear now My words: if there be a prophet among you, I the LORD do make Myself known unto him in a vision, I do speak with him in a dream. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house; with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’ And the anger of the LORD was kindled against them; and He departed.
6ו
ותדבר מרים ואהרן - היא פתחה בדבור תחילה [על כך שפרש משה מאשתו, ציפורה], [...]. ומנין היתה יודעת מרים שפירש משה מן האשה? רבי נתן אומר: מרים היתה בצד צפורה בשעה שנאמר למשה "אלדד ומידד מתנבאים במחנה", כיון ששמעה צפורה אמרה: "אוי לנשותיהן של אלו [של אלדד ומידד] אם הם נזקקים לנבואה שיהיו פורשין מנשותיהן כדרך שפירש בעלי ממני" ומשם ידעה מרים והגידה לאהרן [...]
כי אשה כשית לקח – ועתה גרשהּ
ותדבר מרים ואהרן AND MIRIAM AND AARON SPAKE — She opened the conversation, therefore Scripture mentions her first. And whence did Miriam know that Moses had separated himself from his wife (for this was the statement she made; cf. Rashi below)? R. Nathan answered: “Miriam was beside Zipporah When it was told to Moses, ‘Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp’ (Numbers 11:27). When Zipporah heard this, she exclaimed, Woe to the wives of these if they have anything to do with prophecy, for they will separate from their wives just has my husband has separated from me!” It was from this that Miriam knew about it, and she told it to Aaron. Now what was the case with Miriam who had no intention to disparage him? She was punished thus severely! How much the more will this be so in the case of one who intentionally speaks in disparagement of this fellow”! (Sifrei Bamidbar 99). האשה הכשית THE CUSHITE WOMAN — This tells us that all agreed as to her beauty just as all agree as to the blackness of an Aethopian (cf. Sifrei Bamidbar 99). כושית — The numerical value of this word (736) is the same as that of יפת מראה, a woman of beautiful appearance. על אדות האשה BECAUSE OF THE [CUSHITE] WOMAN — because of her having been divorced by Moses (cf. Note on previous passage). כי אשה כשית לקח FOR HE HAD MARRIED A CUSHITE WOMAN — What is the force of this statement? (It appears superfluous; since על אדות וכו has been explained to refer to Moses having divorced his Cushite wife, it is unnecessary to state afterwards that he had married her)! But it is made to suggest the following: You may find a woman who is pleasant an account of her beauty but who is not pleasant by reason of her deeds (conduct); or one pleasant because of her conduct but not because of her beauty. This woman, however, was pleasant in every respect (Sifrei Bamidbar 99). האשה הכשית THE CUSHITE WOMAN — Because of her beauty-she was called, “the Aethiopian” just as a man calls his handsome son “Moor”, in order that the evil eye should have no power over him (Midrash Tanchuma, Tzav 13). כי אשה כשית לקח THAT HE HAD MARRIED A CUSHITE (a beautiful) WOMAN, and had now divorced her.
7ז
דיון
  • מה ניתן ללמוד מדבריה של ציפורה על חייהן של נשות הנביאים?
  • מה בין התנבאות לפרישה מחיי אישות?
8ח
שלשה דברים עשה משה מדעתו והסכים הקב"ה עמו: הוסיף יום אחד מדעתו, ופירש מן האשה, ושבר את הלוחות. ופירש מן האשה. מאי דריש? נשא קל וחומר בעצמו, אמר: ומה ישראל שלא דברה שכינה עמהם אלא שעה אחת, וקבע להן זמן, אמרה תורה: "ויאמר אל העם היו נכנים לשלשת ימים אל תגשו אל אשה" [שמות יט טו]- אני, שכל שעה ושעה שכינה מדברת עמי, ואינו קובע לי זמן - על אחת כמה וכמה! ומנלן דהסכים הקדוש ברוך הוא על ידו? דכתיב: "לך אמר להם שובו לכם לאהליכם" [דברים ה כו] וכתיב בתריה [=בהמשך] "ואתה פה עמד עמדי" [שם כז]
On the third day of the week, God said to them the mitzva of setting boundaries around Mount Sinai. On the fourth day of the week, the husbands and wives separated from one another. And the Rabbis hold: On the second day of the week the New Moon was established, and on the second day of the week God did not say anything to them due to the weariness caused by their journey. On the third day of the week, God said to them: “And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation; these are the words that you shall speak to the children of Israel” (Exodus 19:6). On the fourth day of the week, God said to them the mitzva of setting boundaries around Mount Sinai. On the fifth day of the week, the husbands and wives separated from one another. The Gemara raises an objection: Doesn’t the verse state: “And the Lord said to Moses: Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow and let them wash their garments” (Exodus 19:10), indicating that the husbands and wives were separated for only two days? This is difficult according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who said earlier that the separation was for three days. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Moses added one day to the number of days that God commanded based on his own perception, as it was taught in a baraita: Moses did three things based on his own perception, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with him. He added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai based on his own perception. And he totally separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai. And he broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. The Gemara discusses these cases: He added one day based on his own perception. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned that since the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: “Sanctify them today and tomorrow,” the juxtaposition of the two days teaches that today is like tomorrow; just as tomorrow the men and women will separate for that day and the night preceding it, so too, today requires separation for the day and the night preceding it. Since God spoke to him in the morning, and the night of that day already passed, Moses concluded: Derive from it that separation must be in effect for two days besides that day. Therefore, he extended the mitzva of separation by one day. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with his interpretation? It is derived from the fact that the Divine Presence did not rest upon Mount Sinai until Shabbat morning, as Moses had determined. And he totally separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned an a fortiori inference by himself and said: If Israel, with whom the Divine Presence spoke only one time and God set a specific time for them when the Divine Presence would be revealed, and yet the Torah stated: “Prepare yourselves for three days, do not approach a woman” (Exodus 19:15); I, with whom the Divine Presence speaks all the time and God does not set a specific time for me, all the more so that I must separate from my wife. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with him? As it is written after the revelation at Sinai: “Go say to them: Return to your tents” (Deuteronomy 5:26), meaning to your homes and wives. And afterward it is written that God told Moses: “And you, stand here with Me” (Deuteronomy 5:27), indicating that Moses was not allowed to return home, as he must constantly be prepared to receive the word of God. And some say a different source indicating that God agreed with his reasoning. When Aaron and Miriam criticized Moses’ separation from his wife, God said: “With him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the Lord does he behold; why then were you not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?” (Numbers 12:8). This indicates that God agreed with his reasoning. And he broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? Moses said: With regard to the Paschal lamb, which is only one of six hundred and thirteen mitzvot, the Torah stated: “And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaron: This is the ordinance of the Paschal offering; no alien shall eat of it” (Exodus 12:43), referring not only to gentiles, but to apostate Jews as well. Regarding the tablets, which represented the entire Torah, and Israel at that moment were apostates, as they were worshipping the calf, all the more so are they not worthy of receiving the Torah. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with his reasoning? As it is stated: “The first tablets which you broke [asher shibarta]” (Exodus 34:1), and Reish Lakish said: The word asher is an allusion to the phrase: May your strength be true [yishar koḥakha] due to the fact that you broke the tablets. Come and hear an additional difficulty from the verse: “And be prepared for the third day, for on the third day God will descend onto Mount Sinai before the eyes of the entire nation” (Exodus 19:11). This indicates that God said that the Torah would be given on the third day after two days of separation. This is difficult according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara answers: Didn’t we say that Moses added one day based on his own perception? Come and hear a proof against this from what was taught in a baraita. That which is stated in the Torah: “For on the third day,” means the third day of the month and the third day of the week. Apparently, the New Moon was on Sunday. This is difficult according to the opinion of the Rabbis. The Gemara answers: The Rabbis could have said to you: Whose is the opinion in this baraita? It is the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Therefore, this baraita poses no difficulty to the opinion of the Rabbis. According to the opinion of the Rabbis, that day was the third day of what reckoning? As it was taught in a baraita: It is written: “And Moses reported the words of the people to the Lord” (Exodus 19:8). And it is written immediately thereafter: “And God said to Moses: Behold I will come to you in a thick cloud so that the people will hear when I speak with you, and they will also believe in you forever. And Moses told the words of the people to the Lord” (Exodus 19:9). The Gemara asks: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, say to Moses, and what did Moses say to Israel, and what did Israel say to Moses, and what did Moses report to the Almighty? The verses do not elaborate on the content of God’s command to Moses, which Moses then told the people and which they accepted. It must be that this refers to the mitzva of setting boundaries, which Moses told the people and which they accepted. He then went back and reported to God that the people accepted the mitzva; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: At first, he explained the punishment and the hardship involved in receiving the Torah, as it is written: “And Moses reported [vayashev],” which is interpreted homiletically as: Matters that shatter [meshabbevin] (Rav Hai Gaon) a person’s mind; and, ultimately, he explained its reward, as it is written: “And Moses told [vayagged],” which is interpreted homiletically as: Matters that draw a person’s heart like aggada. And some say that at first, he explained its reward, as it is written: “And Moses reported,” which is interpreted homiletically as: Matters that restore [meshivin] and calm a person’s mind; and ultimately, he explained its punishment, as it is written: “And Moses told,” matters that are as difficult for a person as wormwood [gidin]. Come and hear a proof from that which was taught in a baraita: The sixth was the sixth day of the month and the sixth day of the week. This is also difficult according to the opinion of the Rabbis. The Gemara answers: This baraita is also according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. But if so, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, that day was the sixth day of what reckoning? Rava said:
9ט
דיון
  • לפי המדרש- האם הדרישה לפרישות מחיי אישות מחויבת מעצם תפקידו של משה?
  • מה אתם חושבים - האם דרגה רוחנית גבוהה מחייבת פרישות מחיי אישות?
10י
דיון
ב. האם פרישות נתונה להכרעתו האישית של האדם?
מה חשבו חז"ל? האם ההחלטה לפרוש מחיי אישות תלויה באדם עצמו, או שיש קודים חברתיים והלכתיים שעל פיהם יש לפעול? בתלמוד הבבלי, במסכת יבמות, אומרים החכמים את הדברים הבאים:
11יא
רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר: "שופך דם האדם באדם דמו ישפך" [בראשית ט, ו] וכתיב בתריה [=בהמשך]: "ואתם פרו ורבו" רבי יעקב אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות [=מפחית צלם אלוהים שבו] שנאמר: "כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם" [שם] וכתיב בתריה "ואתם פרו" וגו'
בן עזאי אומר כאילו שופך דמים וממעט הדמות שנאמר ואתם פרו ורבו [...]
Rabbi Asi said: The Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. As it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made” (Isaiah 57:16). It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is considered as though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed” (Genesis 9:6), and it is written immediately afterward: “And you, be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 9:7). Rabbi Ya’akov says: It is as though he diminishes the Divine Image, as it is stated: “For in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6), and it is written immediately afterward: “And you, be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 9:7). Ben Azzai says: It is as though he sheds blood and also diminishes the Divine Image, as it is stated: “And you, be fruitful and multiply,” after the verse that alludes to both shedding blood and the Divine Image.
12יב
דיון
לפי דבריהם של רבי אליעזר ובן עזאי- האם ההחלטה לקיים חיי פרישות תלויה ביחיד?

המדרש ממשיך בהערה כלפי בן עזאי, שהיה ידוע במשיכתו העזה ללימוד התורה, ולא התחתן:
13יג
אמרו לו לבן עזאי: "יש נאה דורש ונאה מקיים, נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש, ואתה נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים!" אמר להן בן עזאי: "ומה אעשה שנפשי חשקה בתורה? אפשר לעולם שיתקיים על ידי אחרים".
They said to ben Azzai: There is a type of scholar who expounds well and fulfills his own teachings well, and another who fulfills well and does not expound well. But you, who have never married, expound well on the importance of procreation, and yet you do not fulfill well your own teachings. Ben Azzai said to them: What shall I do, as my soul yearns for Torah, and I do not wish to deal with anything else. It is possible for the world to be maintained by others, who are engaged in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.
14יד
דיון
  • מה הייתה דעתם של חכמים על אורח חייו של בן עזאי?
  • מה דעתכם על תשובתו?
15טו
ארבעה נכנסו בפרדס [=תורת הנסתר] ואלו הן: בן עזאי ובן זומא, אחר ורבי עקיבא. בן עזאי הציץ ומת, עליו הכתוב אומר 'יקר בעיני ה' המותה לחסידיו' [תהלים קטז, טו] [...]
§ The Sages taught: Four entered the orchard [pardes], i.e., dealt with the loftiest secrets of Torah, and they are as follows: Ben Azzai; and ben Zoma; Aḥer, the other, a name for Elisha ben Avuya; and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva, the senior among them, said to them: When, upon your arrival in the upper worlds, you reach pure marble stones, do not say: Water, water, although they appear to be water, because it is stated: “He who speaks falsehood shall not be established before My eyes” (Psalms 101:7). The Gemara proceeds to relate what happened to each of them: Ben Azzai glimpsed at the Divine Presence and died. And with regard to him the verse states: “Precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones” (Psalms 116:15). Ben Zoma glimpsed at the Divine Presence and was harmed, i.e., he lost his mind. And with regard to him the verse states: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, lest you become full from it and vomit it” (Proverbs 25:16). Aḥer chopped down the shoots of saplings. In other words, he became a heretic. Rabbi Akiva came out safely.
16טז
דיון
  • האם לדעתכם יש קשר בין מותו של בן עזאי בגיל צעיר, לבין עיסוקו בתורת הנסתר, ובין חיי הפרישות בהם נהג?
17יז
מי שחשקה נפשו בתורה תמיד ושגה בה כבן עזאי, ונדבק בה כל ימיו, ולא נשא אשה - אין בידו עוון. והוא שלא יהיה יצרו מתגבר עליו, אבל אם היה יצרו מתגבר עליו, חייב לישא אשה ואפילו היו לו בנים שמא יבוא לידי הרהור.
One who is in love with Torah and studies it and cleaves into it always, as Ben Azzai did, commits no sin thereby. That is, providing his sexual desire does not get the better of him. If it does, he is required to marry even if he already has children, in order that he not come to thoughts of sin.
18יח
דיון
  • לפי הרמב"ם, מה תפקידה של האשה, ושל חיי האישות בכלל, בחייו של תלמיד חכם? מה דעתכם על כך?
19יט
דיון
ג. פרישות- "שיר הנשים המחכות"
חלק זה הוא המרכזי בלימוד, ומוקדש לסוגיית המחיר הכבד ששילמו נשות תלמידי החכמים:
20כ
מקור:
רב יוסף בריה דרבא שדריה אבוהי לבי רב לקמיה דרב יוסף. פסקו ליה שית שני. כי הוה תלת שני מטא מעלי יומא דכפורי אמר: איזיל ואיחזינהו לאינשי ביתי.
שמע אבוהי, שקל מנא ונפק לאפיה. אמר ליה: זונתך נזכרת? [איכא דאמרי אמר ליה: יונתך נזכרת?] איטרוד לא מר איפסיק, ולא מר איפסיק.
תרגום:
רב יוסף, בנו של רבא, שלחוֹ אביו לבית המדרש לפני רב יוסף. פסקו לו שש שנים (ללמוד ברצף, טרם שיחזור לביתו). כשחלפו שלוש שנים ובא ערב יום כיפור, אמר: 'אלך ואראה לבני ביתי'.
שמע אביו, נטל אלה ויצא לראותו. אמר לו: 'זוֹנַתְךָ נִזְכַרְתָ?!'
התקוטטו – לא הפסיק זה ולא הפסיק זה
will you lead the life of a widow of a living man, living alone while your husband is in another place? She said to him: If he would listen to me, he would sit and study for another twelve years. When Rabbi Akiva heard this he said: I have permission to do this. He went back and sat for another twelve years in the study hall. When he came back he brought twenty-four thousand students with him. His wife heard and went out toward him to greet him. Her neighbors said: Borrow some clothes and wear them, as your current apparel is not appropriate to meet an important person. She said to them: “A righteous man understands the life of his beast” (Proverbs 12:10). When she came to him she fell on her face and kissed his feet. His attendants pushed her away as they did not know who she was, and he said to them: Leave her alone, as my Torah knowledge and yours is actually hers. In the meantime her father heard that a great man came to the town. He said: I will go to him. Maybe he will nullify my vow and I will be able to support my daughter. He came to him to ask about nullifying his vow, and Rabbi Akiva said to him: Did you vow thinking that this Akiva would become a great man? He said to him: If I had believed he would know even one chapter or even one halakha I would not have been so harsh. He said to him: I am he. Ben Kalba Savua fell on his face and kissed his feet and gave him half of his money. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Akiva’s daughter did the same thing for ben Azzai, who was also a simple person, and she caused him to learn Torah in a similar way, by betrothing herself to him and sending him off to study. This explains the folk saying that people say: The ewe follows the ewe; the daughter’s actions are the same as her mother’s. On the same subject it is related: Rav Yosef, son of Rava, was sent by his father to the study hall to learn before the great Sage Rav Yosef. They agreed that he should sit for six years in the study hall. When three years had passed, the eve of Yom Kippur arrived and he said: I will go and see the members of my household, meaning his wife. His father heard and took a weapon, as if he were going to war, and went to meet him. According to one version he said to him: Did you remember your mistress, as you are abandoning your studies to see a woman? There are those who say that he said to him: Did you remember your dove? Since both father and son were involved in an argument, they were preoccupied and this Master did not eat the cessation meal before Yom Kippur and that Master also did not eat the cessation meal that day. MISHNA: A woman who rebels against her husband is fined; her marriage contract is reduced by seven dinars each week. Rabbi Yehuda says: Seven half-dinars [terapa’ikin] each week. Until when does he reduce her marriage contract? Until the reductions are equivalent to her marriage contract, i.e., until he no longer owes her any money, at which point he divorces her without any payment. Rabbi Yosei says: He can always continue to deduct from the sum, even beyond that which is owed to her due to her marriage contract, so that if she will receive an inheritance from another source, he can collect the extra amount from her. And similarly, if a man rebels against his wife, he is fined and an extra three dinars a week are added to her marriage contract. Rabbi Yehuda says: Three terapa’ikin. GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Against what does she rebel; what is the nature of the rebellion discussed in the mishna? Rav Huna said: Against engaging in marital relations. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Against the tasks she is obligated to perform for her husband. The Gemara clarifies this dispute. The mishna states: Similarly, if a man rebels against his wife. Granted, according to the one who says that the rebellion is against marital relations, it is well, as this type of rebellion can apply equally to a husband. However, according to the one who says that she rebels against performing tasks, is he subjugated to her to perform tasks? The Gemara answers: Yes, he is, as the mishna is discussing someone who says: I will not sustain and I will not support my wife. The Gemara asks: But didn’t Rav say: One who says: I will not sustain and I will not support my wife must immediately divorce her and give her the payment for her marriage contract? What relevance is there to a discussion of a weekly fine? The Gemara answers: Shouldn’t he be consulted to investigate whether he will retract his decision? In the interim, while the court discusses the issue with him and explains that he must divorce his wife if he does not retract his decision, he is fined by the addition of three dinars per week to her marriage contract. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita with regard to a rebellious woman: It is the same to me, i.e., the same halakha applies, if the woman who rebelled is a betrothed woman, or a married woman, or even a menstruating woman, or even if she is ill, or even if she is a widow waiting for her yavam to perform levirate marriage. The Gemara discusses the baraita. Granted, according to the one who says that her rebelliousness is referring to performing tasks, it is well. However, according to the one who says that she rebels against engaging in marital relations, is a menstruating woman fit to engage in marital relations? She is not, and therefore there would be no significance to her refusal. The Gemara answers: The one who advocates that opinion could have said to you: One who has bread in his basket, i.e., one who has engaged in marital relations with his wife in the past, is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket. Since she declares her refusal to engage in marital relations, he suffers from this refusal even when she is menstruating or ill. There are those who say that the objection was phrased differently. Granted, according to the one who says that the rebellion discussed in the mishna is referring to engaging in marital relations, this explanation is consistent with that which is taught with regard to an ill woman, that she be fined as a rebellious woman, as even if she is not capable of working, she can still be rebellious with regard to marital relations.
21כא
דיון
  • כיצד תופס רבא את חזרתו המוקדמת של בנו הביתה? מה פירוש אמירתו הבוטה: "זונתך נזכרת?!" לדעתכם? כיצד הוא תופס את תפקיד האשה בנישואין?
  • באיזה אור מוצגת התנהגותו של רבא לדעת עורך המדרש? הסבירו את תשובתכם.
  • מה המשמעות לכך שהסיפור מתרחש בערב יום הכיפורים דווקא?
22כב
מקור:
רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי. אמר ליה: איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה. אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב, עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה.

אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל. אמר שמע מינה האי רביתא דידן. אזל בתרה.

הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא, דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה. אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם ענייה זו זה שכרה? בעא רחמי עלה וחייה.
תרגום:
ר' חנניה בן חכינאי היה הולך לבית רב בסוף זמן הילולת [חתונת] רבי שמעון בר יוחאי. אמר לו (ר' שמעון): המתן לי עד שאבוא אתך (אחרי ימי חופתי). (אך מרצונו ללמוד) לא המתין לו. הלך וישב שתים עשרה שנה בבית תלמודו של רב. עד שבא לביתו השתנו שבילי העיר ולא ידע עוד את הדרך ללכת לביתו.
הלך וישב על גדת הנהר, שמע לנערה אחת שהיו קוראים לה: 'בת חכינאי, בת חכינאי, מלאי את כדך ובואי נלך'. אמר לעצמו: נלמד מכאן שזוהי הילדה שלנו, (כלומר בתו). הלך אחריה (כדי להגיע לביתו).
הייתה יושבת אשתו ומנפה קמח, הרימה את עיניה, והכירה ליבו ופרח רוחה (מתה מרוב התרגשות). אמר (ר' חנניה) לפניו: ריבונו של עולם, ענייה זו זה שכרה?! ביקש רחמים עליה וחייתה.
the tanna taught us a halakha with regard to all of them, not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: But with regard to a sailor it said that the set interval for conjugal relations is six months; why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that one who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket. On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased. Rabba bar Rav Hanan said to Abaye: If a donkey driver who is already married wants to become a camel driver, what is the halakha? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? He answered him: A woman prefers a kav, i.e., modest means, with conjugal relations to ten kav with abstinence. Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission. § The mishna stated: For sailors, the set interval for conjugal relations is once every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava said that Rav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leave their homes to study Torah for as long as two or three years without permission from their wives. Rava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’s opinion and performed an action like this themselves, but the results were sometimes fatal. This is as it is related about Rav Reḥumi, who would commonly study before Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to come back to his home every year on the eve of Yom Kippur. One day he was particularly engrossed in the halakha he was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. His wife was expecting him that day and continually said to herself: Now he is coming, now he is coming. But in the end, he did not come. She was distressed by this and a tear fell from her eye. At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi was sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died. This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently. § When is the ideal time for Torah scholars to fulfill their conjugal obligations? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The appropriate time for them is from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve, i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse “that brings forth its fruit in its season” (Psalms 1:3): Rav Yehuda said, and some say that it was Rav Huna, and some say that it was Rav Naḥman: This is referring to one who engages in marital relations, bringing forth his fruit, from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. It is related further that Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya and son-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and every Shabbat eve at twilight he would come to his house. When he would come, Rabbi Yannai would see a pillar of fire preceding him due to his sanctity. One day he was engrossed in the halakha he was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. When Rabbi Yannai did not see that sign preceding him, he said to the family: Turn his bed over, as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that if Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set interval for conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said became “like an error that proceeds from a ruler” (Ecclesiastes 10:5), and Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, died. It is related further that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi arranged for his son to marry a daughter of the household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualification in these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? They sat and looked into the families’ ancestry and found that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Shefatya ben Avital, the wife of David, whereas Rabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. He went and arranged for his son to marry a daughter of the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for him that they would support him for twelve years to go to study in the study hall. It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. They passed the girl in front of the groom and when he saw her he said: Let it be just six years. They passed her in front of him again and he said to them: I will marry her now and then go to study. He was then ashamed to see his father, as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and said to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception, meaning you acted the same way that God does. The proof for this is that initially it is written: “You bring them and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. And ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them” (Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later. After his wedding he went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile, as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: What should we do? If he will divorce her, people will say: This poor woman waited and hoped for naught. If he will marry another woman to beget children, people will say: This one, who bears him children, is his wife and that one, who lives with him, is his mistress. Therefore, her husband pleaded with God to have mercy on her and she was cured. Rabbi Ḥananya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Wait for me until I can come with you, after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, he did not wait and went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. He went and sat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter, meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. He followed her to his house. His wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw him and recognized him, and her heart fluttered with agitation and she passed away from the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥananya said before God: Master of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came back to his house, he said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai, who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, did. He went and sat in the study hall in his hometown, and sent a message to his house that he had arrived. While he was sitting there his son Rabbi Oshaya, whom he did not recognize, came and sat before him. Rabbi Oshaya asked him questions about halakha, and Rabbi Ḥama saw that the halakhot of Rabbi Oshaya were incisive, i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama was distressed and said: If I had been here and had taught my son I would have had a child like this. Rabbi Ḥama went in to his house and his son went in with him. Rabbi Ḥama then stood up before him to honor a Torah scholar, since he thought that he wanted to ask him a matter of halakha. His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son? The Gemara comments: Rami bar Ḥama read the verse about him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken” (Ecclesiastes 4:12). This is referring to Rabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa, as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family. The Gemara further relates: Rabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua, one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The daughter of Ben Kalba Savua saw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hall to learn Torah? He said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent him off to study. Her father heard this and became angry. He removed her from his house and took a vow prohibiting her from benefiting from his property. Rabbi Akiva went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came back to his house he brought twelve thousand students with him, and as he approached he heard an old man saying to his wife: For how long
23כג
דיון
  • מה מלמד סיפור זה על אורח חייהם של תלמידי חכמים ונשותיהם?
  • באיזה נימה לדעתכם מסופר המדרש? (אוהדת, ביקורתית, אירונית, מלגלגת, מעריצה?). הסבירו את תשובתכם.
24כד
מקור:
רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי. אמר ליה: איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה. אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב, עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה.

אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל. אמר שמע מינה האי רביתא דידן. אזל בתרה.

הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא, דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה. אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם ענייה זו זה שכרה? בעא רחמי עלה וחייה.
תרגום:
ר' חנניה בן חכינאי היה הולך לבית רב בסוף זמן הילולות [חתונת] רבי שמעון בר יוחאי. אמר לו (ר' שמעון): המתן לי עד שאבוא אתך (אחרי ימי חופתי). (אך מרצונו ללמוד) לא המתין לו. הלך וישב שתים עשרה שנה בבית תלמודו של רב. עד שבא לביתו השתנו שבילי העיר ולא ידע עוד את הדרך ללכת לביתו.
הלך וישב על גדת הנהר, שמע לנערה אחת שהיו קוראים לה: 'בת חכינאי, בת חכינאי, מלאי את כדך ובואי נלך'. אמר לעצמו: נלמד מכאן שזוהי הילדה שלנו, (כלומר בתו). הלך אחריה (כדי להגיע לביתו).
הייתה יושבת אשתו ומנפה קמח, הרימה את עיניה, והכירה ליבו ופרח רוחה (מתה מרוב התרגשות). אמר (ר' חנניה) לפניו: ריבונו של עולם, ענייה זו זה שכרה?! ביקש רחמים עליה וחייתה.
the tanna taught us a halakha with regard to all of them, not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: But with regard to a sailor it said that the set interval for conjugal relations is six months; why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that one who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket. On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased. Rabba bar Rav Hanan said to Abaye: If a donkey driver who is already married wants to become a camel driver, what is the halakha? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? He answered him: A woman prefers a kav, i.e., modest means, with conjugal relations to ten kav with abstinence. Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission. § The mishna stated: For sailors, the set interval for conjugal relations is once every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava said that Rav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leave their homes to study Torah for as long as two or three years without permission from their wives. Rava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’s opinion and performed an action like this themselves, but the results were sometimes fatal. This is as it is related about Rav Reḥumi, who would commonly study before Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to come back to his home every year on the eve of Yom Kippur. One day he was particularly engrossed in the halakha he was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. His wife was expecting him that day and continually said to herself: Now he is coming, now he is coming. But in the end, he did not come. She was distressed by this and a tear fell from her eye. At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi was sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died. This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently. § When is the ideal time for Torah scholars to fulfill their conjugal obligations? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The appropriate time for them is from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve, i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse “that brings forth its fruit in its season” (Psalms 1:3): Rav Yehuda said, and some say that it was Rav Huna, and some say that it was Rav Naḥman: This is referring to one who engages in marital relations, bringing forth his fruit, from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. It is related further that Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya and son-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and every Shabbat eve at twilight he would come to his house. When he would come, Rabbi Yannai would see a pillar of fire preceding him due to his sanctity. One day he was engrossed in the halakha he was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. When Rabbi Yannai did not see that sign preceding him, he said to the family: Turn his bed over, as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that if Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set interval for conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said became “like an error that proceeds from a ruler” (Ecclesiastes 10:5), and Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, died. It is related further that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi arranged for his son to marry a daughter of the household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualification in these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? They sat and looked into the families’ ancestry and found that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Shefatya ben Avital, the wife of David, whereas Rabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. He went and arranged for his son to marry a daughter of the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for him that they would support him for twelve years to go to study in the study hall. It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. They passed the girl in front of the groom and when he saw her he said: Let it be just six years. They passed her in front of him again and he said to them: I will marry her now and then go to study. He was then ashamed to see his father, as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and said to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception, meaning you acted the same way that God does. The proof for this is that initially it is written: “You bring them and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. And ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them” (Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later. After his wedding he went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile, as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: What should we do? If he will divorce her, people will say: This poor woman waited and hoped for naught. If he will marry another woman to beget children, people will say: This one, who bears him children, is his wife and that one, who lives with him, is his mistress. Therefore, her husband pleaded with God to have mercy on her and she was cured. Rabbi Ḥananya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Wait for me until I can come with you, after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, he did not wait and went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. He went and sat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter, meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. He followed her to his house. His wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw him and recognized him, and her heart fluttered with agitation and she passed away from the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥananya said before God: Master of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came back to his house, he said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai, who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, did. He went and sat in the study hall in his hometown, and sent a message to his house that he had arrived. While he was sitting there his son Rabbi Oshaya, whom he did not recognize, came and sat before him. Rabbi Oshaya asked him questions about halakha, and Rabbi Ḥama saw that the halakhot of Rabbi Oshaya were incisive, i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama was distressed and said: If I had been here and had taught my son I would have had a child like this. Rabbi Ḥama went in to his house and his son went in with him. Rabbi Ḥama then stood up before him to honor a Torah scholar, since he thought that he wanted to ask him a matter of halakha. His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son? The Gemara comments: Rami bar Ḥama read the verse about him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken” (Ecclesiastes 4:12). This is referring to Rabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa, as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family. The Gemara further relates: Rabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua, one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The daughter of Ben Kalba Savua saw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hall to learn Torah? He said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent him off to study. Her father heard this and became angry. He removed her from his house and took a vow prohibiting her from benefiting from his property. Rabbi Akiva went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came back to his house he brought twelve thousand students with him, and as he approached he heard an old man saying to his wife: For how long
25כה
דיון
  • מדוע בחר מעצב הסיפור לקשור בין דמעתה של האישה למות רב רחומי?
  • האם יש משמעות לכך שהסיפור מתרחש דווקא בערב יום הכיפורים?
  • כיצד תורם העיצוב הדרמטי של הסיפור ושל תיאור מחשבותיה של האישה, כדי להעביר את המסר הביקורתי של כותב המדרש?
26כו
מקור:
רבי חייא בר אשי הוה רגיל כל עידן דהוה נפל לאפיה, הוה אמר: הרחמן יצילנו מיצר הרע. יומא חד שמעתינהו דביתהו אמרה: מכדי הא, כמה שני דפריש ליה מינאי, מאי טעמא קאמר הכי?
יומא חדא הוה קא גריס בגינתיה, קשטה נפשה חלפה ותנייה קמיה.
אמר לה: מאן את?
אמרה: אנא חרותא, דהדרי מיומא.
תבעה.
אמרה ליה: אייתי ניהליה להך רומנא דריש צוציתא. שוור אזל אתייה ניהלה.
כי אתא לביתיה, הוה קא שגרא דביתהו תנורא, סליק וקא יתיב בגויה.
אמרה ליה: מאי האי?
אמר לה: הכי והכי הוה מעשה.
אמרה ליה: אנא הואי.
לא אשגח בה עד דיהבה ליה סימני, אמר לה: אנא מיהא לאיסורא איכווני.
תרגום:
רבי חייא בר אשי היה נוהג ליפול על פניו כשהיה אומר (בתפילת תחנונים אישית): 'הרחמן יצילני מיצר הרע'.
יום אחד שמעה אותו אשתו, אמרה: הרי כמה שנים שפרוש ממני, מה טעם אומר כך?יום אחד היה לומד בגינתו, קישטה עצמה (כזונה) חלפה ובאה לפניו.
אמר לה: מי את?
אמרה לו: אני חרותא השבה מהיום.
תבעה [שכב איתה].
אמרה לו: הבא אלי רימון זה שבראש הענף. קפץ והביאו אליה.
כשבא לביתו היתה אשתו מסקת את התנור. עלה וישב בתוכו.
אמרה לו: מה זה?
אמר לה: כך וכך היה מעשה.
אמרה לו: אני הייתי.
לא השגיח בה (לא האמין לה) עד שנתנה לו סימנים (את הרימון). אמר לה: אני מכל מקום, לאיסור התכוונתי.
The Gemara relates: Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi was accustomed to say, whenever he would fall on his face in prayer: May the Merciful One save us from the evil inclination. One day his wife heard him saying this prayer. She said: After all, it has been several years since he has withdrawn from engaging in intercourse with me due to his advanced years. What is the reason that he says this prayer, as there is no concern that he will engage in sinful sexual behavior? One day, while he was studying in his garden, she adorned herself and repeatedly walked past him. He said: Who are you? She said: I am Ḥaruta, a well-known prostitute, returning from my day at work. He propositioned her. She said to him: Give me that pomegranate from the top of the tree as payment. He leapt up, went, and brought it to her, and they engaged in intercourse. When he came home, his wife was lighting a fire in the oven. He went and sat inside it. She said to him: What is this? He said to her: Such and such an incident occurred; he told her that he engaged in intercourse with a prostitute. She said to him: It was I. He paid no attention to her, thinking she was merely trying to comfort him, until she gave him signs that it was indeed she. He said to her: I, in any event, intended to transgress. The Gemara relates: All the days of that righteous man he would fast for the transgression he intended to commit, until he died by that death in his misery.
27כז
דיון
  • מה מלמד סיפור זה על פחדו של רבי חייא מיצר הרע?
  • מה דעתכם על סגפנותו? • מה דעתכם על התנהגות אשתו?
  • מה משמעות השם של הזונה "חרותא"?
  • בתום הסיפור כתוב: כל ימיו של אותו צדיק היה מתענה עד שמת באותה מיתה - מה דעתו של עורך התלמוד על רבי חייא?
28כח
ישי רוזן צבי, 'יצר הרע, מיניות וייסורי ייחוד – פרק באנתרופולוגיה תלמודית', תיאוריה וביקורת, 14 (1994), עמ' 81. ההדגשה במקור
אולי הפרישות והפריצות [...] אינן רחוקות כל כך. שמא רבי חייא הגיע למעשהו לא למרות פרישותו אלא דווקא בגללה. [...] היצר שדימינו לראות משתולל למרות הפיקוח וההרחקות, משתולל דווקא בגללם. הסוגיה יצרה יצר שלֵית אתר פנוי ממנו, והנכיחה אותו בכל מקום. רבי חייא בסיפורנו מנסה להתרחק מן הרע ככל שיוכל, אך למעשה הוא מתעסק בו כל הזמן. יומיום בתפילתו הוא נובר בו מחדש. החסיד הפרוש מתגלה כמתעסק אובססיבי במיניות שהוא מדכא, ולכן גם קופץ על ההזדמנות הראשונה שבאה לקראתו.
29כט
דיון
  • מהן השלכותיה של פרישות ממושכת, על פי רוזן-צבי?
  • כיצד בא לידי ביטוי הקשר שבין פרישות לפריצות, בכל הסיפורים שקראתם?
  • האם לפי פרשנותכם, תואמים דבריו של רוזן צבי לדעת החכמים אשר ערכו את המדרשים?
31 לא
32לב
דף מספר 3 בסדרה "אחזתיו ולא ארפנו": על כוחן של נשים באהבה, תשוקה וגאולה, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
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