Shabbat 87aשבת פ״ז א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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87aפ״ז א

בתלתא אמר להו מצות הגבלה בארבעה עבוד פרישה ורבנן סברי בתרי בשבא איקבע ירחא בתרי בשבא לא אמר להו ולא מידי משום חולשא דאורחא בתלתא אמר להו ואתם תהיו לי בארבעה אמר להו מצות הגבלה בחמישי עבוד פרישה מיתיבי וקדשתם היום ומחר קשיא לרבי יוסי

On the third day of the week, God said to them the mitzva of setting boundaries around Mount Sinai. On the fourth day of the week, the husbands and wives separated from one another. And the Rabbis hold: On the second day of the week the New Moon was established, and on the second day of the week God did not say anything to them due to the weariness caused by their journey. On the third day of the week, God said to them: “And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation; these are the words that you shall speak to the children of Israel” (Exodus 19:6). On the fourth day of the week, God said to them the mitzva of setting boundaries around Mount Sinai. On the fifth day of the week, the husbands and wives separated from one another. The Gemara raises an objection: Doesn’t the verse state: “And the Lord said to Moses: Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow and let them wash their garments” (Exodus 19:10), indicating that the husbands and wives were separated for only two days? This is difficult according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who said earlier that the separation was for three days.

אמר לך רבי יוסי יום אחד הוסיף משה מדעתו דתניא שלשה דברים עשה משה מדעתו והסכים הקדוש ברוך הוא עמו הוסיף יום אחד מדעתו ופירש מן האשה ושבר את הלוחות

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Moses added one day to the number of days that God commanded based on his own perception, as it was taught in a baraita: Moses did three things based on his own perception, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with him. He added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai based on his own perception. And he totally separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai. And he broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf.

הוסיף יום אחד מדעתו מאי דריש היום ומחר היום כמחר מה למחר לילו עמו אף היום לילו עמו ולילה דהאידנא נפקא ליה שמע מינה תרי יומי לבר מהאידנא ומנלן דהסכים הקדוש ברוך הוא על ידו דלא שריא שכינה עד צפרא דשבתא

The Gemara discusses these cases: He added one day based on his own perception. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned that since the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: “Sanctify them today and tomorrow,” the juxtaposition of the two days teaches that today is like tomorrow; just as tomorrow the men and women will separate for that day and the night preceding it, so too, today requires separation for the day and the night preceding it. Since God spoke to him in the morning, and the night of that day already passed, Moses concluded: Derive from it that separation must be in effect for two days besides that day. Therefore, he extended the mitzva of separation by one day. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with his interpretation? It is derived from the fact that the Divine Presence did not rest upon Mount Sinai until Shabbat morning, as Moses had determined.

ופירש מן האשה מאי דריש נשא קל וחומר בעצמו אמר ומה ישראל שלא דברה שכינה עמהן אלא שעה אחת וקבע להן זמן אמרה תורה והיו נכנים וגו׳ אל תגשו אני שכל שעה ושעה שכינה מדברת עמי ואינו קובע לי זמן על אחת כמה וכמה ומנלן דהסכים הקדוש ברוך הוא על ידו דכתיב לך אמר להם שובו לכם לאהליכם וכתיב בתריה ואתה פה עמד עמדי ואית דאמרי פה אל פה אדבר בו

And he totally separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned an a fortiori inference by himself and said: If Israel, with whom the Divine Presence spoke only one time and God set a specific time for them when the Divine Presence would be revealed, and yet the Torah stated: “Prepare yourselves for three days, do not approach a woman” (Exodus 19:15); I, with whom the Divine Presence speaks all the time and God does not set a specific time for me, all the more so that I must separate from my wife. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with him? As it is written after the revelation at Sinai: “Go say to them: Return to your tents” (Deuteronomy 5:26), meaning to your homes and wives. And afterward it is written that God told Moses: “And you, stand here with Me” (Deuteronomy 5:27), indicating that Moses was not allowed to return home, as he must constantly be prepared to receive the word of God. And some say a different source indicating that God agreed with his reasoning. When Aaron and Miriam criticized Moses’ separation from his wife, God said: “With him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the Lord does he behold; why then were you not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?” (Numbers 12:8). This indicates that God agreed with his reasoning.

שבר את הלוחות מאי דריש אמר ומה פסח שהוא אחד מתריג מצות אמרה תורה וכל בן נכר לא יאכל בו התורה כולה [כאן] וישראל משומדים על אחת כמה וכמה ומנלן דהסכים הקדוש ברוך הוא על ידו שנאמר אשר שברת ואמר ריש לקיש יישר כחך ששברת

And he broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. What source did he interpret that led him to do so? Moses said: With regard to the Paschal lamb, which is only one of six hundred and thirteen mitzvot, the Torah stated: “And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaron: This is the ordinance of the Paschal offering; no alien shall eat of it” (Exodus 12:43), referring not only to gentiles, but to apostate Jews as well. Regarding the tablets, which represented the entire Torah, and Israel at that moment were apostates, as they were worshipping the calf, all the more so are they not worthy of receiving the Torah. And from where do we derive that the Holy One, Blessed be He, agreed with his reasoning? As it is stated: “The first tablets which you broke [asher shibarta]” (Exodus 34:1), and Reish Lakish said: The word asher is an allusion to the phrase: May your strength be true [yishar koḥakha] due to the fact that you broke the tablets.

תא שמע והיו נכנים ליום השלישי קשיא לרבי יוסי הא אמרינן יום אחד הוסיף משה מדעתו תא שמע שלישי שלישי בחדש ושלישי בשבת קשיא לרבנן אמרי לך רבנן הא מני רבי יוסי היא

Come and hear an additional difficulty from the verse: “And be prepared for the third day, for on the third day God will descend onto Mount Sinai before the eyes of the entire nation” (Exodus 19:11). This indicates that God said that the Torah would be given on the third day after two days of separation. This is difficult according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara answers: Didn’t we say that Moses added one day based on his own perception? Come and hear a proof against this from what was taught in a baraita. That which is stated in the Torah: “For on the third day,” means the third day of the month and the third day of the week. Apparently, the New Moon was on Sunday. This is difficult according to the opinion of the Rabbis. The Gemara answers: The Rabbis could have said to you: Whose is the opinion in this baraita? It is the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Therefore, this baraita poses no difficulty to the opinion of the Rabbis.

שלישי למאי לכדתניא וישב משה את דברי העם אל ה׳ וכתיב ויגד משה את דברי העם אל ה׳

According to the opinion of the Rabbis, that day was the third day of what reckoning? As it was taught in a baraita: It is written: “And Moses reported the words of the people to the Lord” (Exodus 19:8). And it is written immediately thereafter: “And God said to Moses: Behold I will come to you in a thick cloud so that the people will hear when I speak with you, and they will also believe in you forever. And Moses told the words of the people to the Lord” (Exodus 19:9).

מה אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה ומה אמר להם משה לישראל ומה אמרו ישראל למשה ומה השיב משה לפני הגבורה זו מצות הגבלה דברי רבי יוסי בר יהודה רבי אומר בתחילה פירש עונשה דכתיב וישב משה דברים שמשבבין דעתו של אדם ולבסוף פירש מתן שכרה דכתיב ויגד משה דברים שמושכין לבו של אדם כאגדה ואיכא דאמרי בתחילה פירש מתן שכרה דכתיב וישב משה דברים שמשיבין דעתו של אדם ולבסוף פירש עונשה דכתיב ויגד משה דברים שקשין לאדם כגידין

The Gemara asks: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, say to Moses, and what did Moses say to Israel, and what did Israel say to Moses, and what did Moses report to the Almighty? The verses do not elaborate on the content of God’s command to Moses, which Moses then told the people and which they accepted. It must be that this refers to the mitzva of setting boundaries, which Moses told the people and which they accepted. He then went back and reported to God that the people accepted the mitzva; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: At first, he explained the punishment and the hardship involved in receiving the Torah, as it is written: “And Moses reported [vayashev],” which is interpreted homiletically as: Matters that shatter [meshabbevin] (Rav Hai Gaon) a person’s mind; and, ultimately, he explained its reward, as it is written: “And Moses told [vayagged],” which is interpreted homiletically as: Matters that draw a person’s heart like aggada. And some say that at first, he explained its reward, as it is written: “And Moses reported,” which is interpreted homiletically as: Matters that restore [meshivin] and calm a person’s mind; and ultimately, he explained its punishment, as it is written: “And Moses told,” matters that are as difficult for a person as wormwood [gidin].

תא שמע ששי ששי בחודש ששי בשבת קשיא לרבנן הא נמי רבי יוסי היא ששי למאי רבא אמר

Come and hear a proof from that which was taught in a baraita: The sixth was the sixth day of the month and the sixth day of the week. This is also difficult according to the opinion of the Rabbis. The Gemara answers: This baraita is also according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. But if so, according to the opinion of the Rabbis, that day was the sixth day of what reckoning? Rava said: