"היום הרת עולם": על רחם, היריון, לידה, הנקה ו...אלוהים
1א
הדף מאת: שירה זיוון / מרכז יעקב הרצוג
2ב
לימוד זה עוסק בשימוש בדימויי ההיריון, הלידה, האוֹמְנוּת וההנקה ביחס לאלוהים ובהקשר ללימודי תורה. נשאל האם דימויים אלו, הצצים במקרא, בפיוט ובמדרש המסורתי והמודרני, עשויים להשפיע על האופן שבו אנו תופסים את דמות האל בכלל ואת יחסי האל והאדם בפרט.
3ג
א. "היום הרת עולם"
4ד
היום הרת עולם, מתוך מחזור תפילה לראש השנה (נוסח אשכנז)
הַיּוֹם הֲרַת עוֹלָם
הַיּוֹם יַעֲמִיד בַּמִּשְׁפָּט כָּל יְצוּרֵי עוֹלָמִים
אִם כְּבָנִים אִם כַּעֲבָדִים
אִם כְּבָנִים רַחֲמֵנוּ כְּרַחֵם אָב עַל בָּנִים
וְאִם כַּעֲבָדִים עֵינֵינוּ לְךָ תְלוּיוֹת
עַד שֶׁתְּחָנֵּנוּ וְתוֹצִיא כָאוֹר מִשְׁפָּטֵנוּ
אָיוֹם קָדוֹשׁ
5ה
דיון
  • איזו תמונה של אל מצטיירת ממילות הפיוט המטפורי?
  • מדוע, לדעתכם, הדימוי של אלוהים כיולד ומפרה את העולם נדיר יחסית [במסורת היהודית בכלל], ובפיוטי הימים הנוראים [בפרט]?
  • מהו היחס שבין "היום הרת עולם" ל"היום יעמיד במשפט"? האם זה ניגוד? הקבלה? השלמה?
  • בפיוט חוזרים דימויים אימהיים - היריון כסמל לבריאת העולם והשורש רח"מ - מדוע לדעתכם מבקש הפיוט 'רחמנו כרחם אב על בנים' ולא כאם?
6ו
פרשיית קברות התאווה
(י) וַיִּשְׁמַע מֹשֶׁה אֶת הָעָם בֹּכֶה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָיו אִישׁ לְפֶתַח אָהֳלוֹ וַיִּחַר אַף ה' מְאֹד וּבְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה רָע. (יא) וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל ה' לָמָה הֲרֵעֹתָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ וְלָמָּה לֹא מָצָתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ לָשׂוּם אֶת מַשָּׂא כָּל הָעָם הַזֶּה עָלָי. (יב) הֶאָנֹכִי הָרִיתִי אֵת כָּל הָעָם הַזֶּה אִם אָנֹכִי יְלִדְתִּיהוּ כִּי תֹאמַר אֵלַי שָׂאֵהוּ בְחֵיקֶךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתָיו.
And Moses heard the people weeping, family by family, every man at the door of his tent; and the anger of the LORD was kindled greatly; and Moses was displeased. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘Wherefore hast Thou dealt ill with Thy servant? and wherefore have I not found favour in Thy sight, that Thou layest the burden of all this people upon me? Have I conceived all this people? have I brought them forth, that Thou shouldest say unto me: Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing-father carrieth the sucking child, unto the land which Thou didst swear unto their fathers?
7ז
דיון
  • מהי ציפייתו של משה בנוגע ליחסי אלוהים ועם ישראל?
  • מדוע, לדעתכם, משתמש משה במטפורת ההיריון והאוֹמנוּת דווקא בסיטואציה זו?
  • מה דעתכם על דימוי האל כמוליד, מיניק ואומן? האם אתם מזדהים איתו?
8ח
ב. אל שַׁדַּי
9ט
דיון
הביטוי "אל שדי" ולפעמים גם "שדי" בלבד, מופיע ככינוי לאלוהים פעמים אחדות בתנ"ך. לראשונה הוא מופיע בספר בראשית, פרק יז, פסוק א: "וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא ה' אֶל אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים".
10י
אל שדי- פירוש הרמב"ן
"אל שדי" - שני שמות כל אחד תאר לעצמו ופירוש "אל" תקיף מלשון אלי מואב (שמות טו, טו) ופירוש "שדי" - אמר רש"י שיש די באלהותי לכל בריה, ובספר מורה הנבוכים (א סג) פירש הרב [=הרמב"ם, בדומה לרש"י] כלומר שאינו צריך במציאות מה שנמצא ולא בקיום מציאותו לזולתו אבל מציאותו תספיק בעצמה. ורבי אברהם [אבן עזרא] פירשו בשם הנגיד ז"ל - מגזרת שודד כלומר מנצח ומשודד מערכות השמים וזהו הנכון, כי היא מדת הגבורה מנהגת העולם שיאמרו בה החכמים (ב"ר לה ד) "מדת הדין של מטה".
EL SHAKAI. These are 2 [distinct divine] names, each one being an independent descriptive term. "El" means "Powerful", like "the powers (אלי) of Moav." Shadai means: Rashi says that שיש (there are) די (enough) means in His Divinity [to sustain] every creature. In Moreh Nevuchim, the Rambam explains [Shadai] That is to say that He has no need for the existence of any existing thing, nor for anything outside Himself or His own continued existence; rather, His existence is self sufficient. Ibn Ezra quoting the Nagid, may his memory be blessed explains [Shadai], from the root שודד ("vanquisher"), meaning the He triumphs over and vanquishes the Heavenly constellations. This is the best explanation, for it [refers to G-d's] Attribute of Strength, which guides the world, which the Rabbis call "The Attribute of Justice of Below." The reason this name is written here is that it is through [this Name] that hidden miracles happen to the righteous, to "save their souls from death and sustain them in famine" and to "redeem them from the sword in war," like all the wonders performed for Avram and the other forefathers, and like the other occurrences in the Torah, in the Torah-portion "Im Bechukotai" (Leviticus Chap. 10) and "Vehayah Ki Tavo" (Deuto. Chap. 28), in the blessings and curses [in those chapters] for all these are [hidden] miracles. Because its not natural that the rains should come at the right time when we serve G-d, nor the heavens [dry] as iron when we sow [produce] in the Seventh Year, and similarly for all promises in the Torah. Rather, all these are miracles, and in all these cases the array of the constellations is overpowered by G-d, except there is no [noticeable] change from the natural course of the world in these [miracles], like the miracles performed through Moses in the Ten Plagues and Splitting of the Sea, the manna, the Well and others, which were wonders that changed nature in an obvious manner. [Those miracles] are brought upon by the Unique Name (the tetragrammaton) which [G-d] told [Moses]. That's why [G-d] told Avram now that He is "the Powerful One Who Conquers the Forces of Nature" [The use of this name showed] that [Avram] would overcome his natural fat and have children, and there would be a covenant between [G-d] and [Avram's] descendants forever [to the effect] that His people (Israel) would be the portion of G-d, [meaning] He would guide them by His will that they too, wouldn't be in the control of the stars and constellations. WALK BEFORE ME. [Means:] "to walk in the path on which I shall instruct you." Like the meaning of "You shall follow the L-rd, your G-d, fear Him" For the One Who commands to follow to His way before He instructs him, will say, "Walk 'before' me" [but when the demand for compliance] comes after he command, [He] says "'After' Hashem, Your G-d you should walk" The meaning of both is "to follow G-d, to fear only Him and to do whatever He commands." AND BE PERFECT. [This is] a separate additional command in this matter. like the meaning, "you shall be wholehearted (תמים )with Hashem your G-d" (Deuto. 18:13) written after "There shall not be found among you… a soothsayer, a diviner of [auspicious] times, one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer," The meaning of both these expressions is that one should believe in his heart that G-d alone is all-Powerful One at the beginning and end, He alone is capable of putting [events] into action and annulling [events], and not listen to cloud- readers, diviners, omen readers or sorcerers, and not believe that their words will surely come true. Rather he should conclude with certainty in his heart that everything's in the hand of the Most Superior One, Who is El (the mighty one) and Shadai (the One Who overrides natural fate) Who can do kindness even when not in ones fate, and bring evil when the persons fate is good and favorable, [all] in accordance with the extent to which the person has walked before Him. "Who frustrates the signs of imposters, and diviners He makes mad." This is what the Rabbis meant "Abandon your astrology, etc.!" (Shabbat 156a). Rashi learns "be perfect" as, be complete in all your trials. Ibn Ezra says that He should not ask what the purpose if circumcision was. like the meaning of "May my heart be innocent (תמים )in Your statutes." But the correct is what I have explained.
11יא
חנן פורת, 'לא אלמנה היא ההיסטוריה', הגדת אור ודרור, בית-ספר שדה כפר עציון, עמ' 79–81
אל שדי- פירוש חנן פורת
שַ-דּ-ַי מלשון שָד, ומשמעותו הנקה והזנה, כשדֵי אם המיניקה את בנה [...] ואכן מצינו בתורה שמכוח אל שדי באה פריה ורביה לעולם [...] שם שדי מבטא את התגלות ה' כ"נשמת העולם" הזנה ומחיה אותו [...] כיצירה דינמית שאינה פוסקת.
12יב
דיון
  • מהם ההבדלים המהותיים בין הפירושים השונים שמביא הרמב"ן לבין פרשנותו של חנן פורת לביטוי 'אל שדי'? איזה הסבר תואם יותר את דימויי האל בפיוטים לימים נוראים?
  • איזה הסבר מוצא חן בעיניכם יותר? מדוע?
  • מדוע כותב פורת כי הכינוי 'אל שדי' הוא "כיצירה דינמית שאינה פוסקת"?
  • מהן ההשלכות האפשריות של כל פרשנות לגבי תפיסת האדם המאמין את אלוהיו?
13יג
שדי- מגילת רות
(כ) וַתֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶן, אַל-תִּקְרֶאנָה לִי נָעֳמִי קְרֶאןָ לִי מָרָא, כִּי הֵמַר שַׁדַּי לִי מְאֹד. (כא) אֲנִי מְלֵאָה הָלַכְתִּי, וְרֵיקָם הֱשִׁיבַנִי ה'. לָמָּה תִקְרֶאנָה לִי נָעֳמִי וַה' עָנָה בִי, וְשַׁדַּי הֵרַע לִי. (כב) וַתָּשָׁב נָעֳמִי וְרוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה כַלָּתָהּ עִמָּהּ הַשָּׁבָה מִשְּׂדֵי מוֹאָב; וְהֵמָּה בָּאוּ בֵּית לֶחֶם, בִּתְחִלַּת קְצִיר שְׂעֹרִים.
And she said unto them: ‘Call me not Naomi, call me Marah; for the Almighty hath dealt very bitterly with me. I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me back home empty; why call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?’ So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moabitess, her daughter-in-law, with her, who returned out of the field of Moab—and they came to Beth-lehem in the beginning of barley harvest.
14יד
אירי ישראלי-רושין, 'תנ"ך בהיבט נשי (שיעור על מגילת רות-הזנה)', מתוך אתר בית אדם שלם
שדי-מגילת רות: אירי ישראלי-רושין
מגילת רות היא מגילה, שחלק גדול מסודותיה חבוי מאחורי טכניקה של חזרה על מילים חשובות. המילה שדה היא אחת המילים היותר פופולאריות במגילה זו. המגילה, שבנויה מארבעה פרקים בלבד, מכילה את השורש ש.ד.ה., בווריאציות שונות, 18 פעמים. בחלק מן הפעמים, השימוש במילה שדה נראה לא הכרחי, מכיוון שאפשר היה לומר מואב, או ארץ מואב, ולא הייתה חובה לציין שוב ושוב "שדה מואב", אלא אם כן, לסופר היה חשוב לכוון אותנו לכך, שנשים לב לעניינים עמוקים הקשורים במושג זה. [...]
"השַד", האיבר דרכו האישה מזינה את תינוקה, כמו, "השדה", דרכו האדמה מזינה את האדם, וכמו אנרגיית "אל שדי", האחראית על הזרמת השפע, הינם כולם בעלי אותה אנרגיה של נתינה וברכה, ולכן הם מבוססים על אותן אותיות. נעמי מבכה את גורלה - הֵמַר שַׁדַּי לִי מְאֹד. נעמי אינה מרגישה מבורכת על ידי "אל שדי", אותה אנרגיית שפיעה, שאמורה לטפח, ולספק שפע מזון וההגנה. להיפך היא מקוללת שם.
למאמר המלא
© כל הזכויות שמורות ל כל הזכויות שמורות לאירי ישראלי-רושין, בית אדם שלם, התע"ש 26, כפר סבא
adamshalem.com
15טו
דיון
  • מהו הקשר בין שָׂדֶה, שַׁדַּי ושָׁד, על פי ישראלי-רושין?
  • מדוע, לדעתכם, דווקא במגילת רות מופיע השורש שד"ה בתדירות כה גבוהה?
16טז
ג. "אלו דדיה של תורה"
17יז
דברי התורה כדד
אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני [...]: לְמה נמשלו דברי תורה? כדד. מה דד זה, כל זמן שהתינוק ממשמש בו מוצא בו חלב, אף דברי תורה, כל זמן שאדם הוגה בהן מוצא בהן טעם: ["אַיֶּלֶת אֲהָבִים וְיַעֲלַת חֵן דַּדֶּיהָ יְרַוֻּךָ בְכָל עֵת] בְּאַהֲבָתָהּ תִּשְׁגֶּה תָמִיד" [משלי, ה, יט].
whenever a person searches it for figs to eat, he finds figs in it, as the figs on a tree do not ripen all at once, so that one can always find a recently ripened fig, so too, with matters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he finds in them new meaning. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “A loving hind and a graceful roe, let her breasts satisfy you at all times, and be you ravished always with her love” (Proverbs 5:19)? Why were matters of Torah compared to a hind? To tell you that just as with a hind, its womb is narrow and it is cherished by its mate each and every hour like the first hour, so too, matters of Torah are cherished by those who study them each and every hour like the first hour. “And a graceful roe” is expounded as follows: That the Torah bestows grace upon those who study it. “Let her breasts satisfy you at all times”; why were matters of Torah compared to a breast? Just as with a breast, whenever a baby searches it for milk to suckle, he finds milk in it, so too, with matters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he finds new meaning in them. “And be you ravished always with her love”; your love for Torah should always distract you from worldly matters, as was the case with Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat. They said of him, of Rabbi Elazar, that he would sit and engage in Torah study in the lower marketplace of Tzippori, and his cloak was lying in the upper marketplace of Tzippori. His mind was so focused on Torah study that he would act in this unusual manner. In this regard, the Gemara relates that it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Elazar said: One time a person came to take this cloak for himself and found a serpent on it guarding it. In further praise of the Torah and those who study it, a Sage of the school of Rav Anan taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You that ride on white donkeys, you that sit on rich cloths, and you that walk by the way, tell of it” (Judges 5:10)? “You that ride on white donkeys”; these are Torah scholars, who travel from city to city and from province to province to study Torah. “White [tzeḥorot]” are those who make it clear as noon [tzahorayim], i.e., who make the Torah comprehensible. “You that sit on couches [midin]” refers to those who judge [danin] an absolutely true judgment. “And you that walk”; these are the masters of Bible, who are the least important of the scholars. “By the way”; these are the more important masters of Mishna. “Tell of it”; these are the masters of Talmud, the most important of all, as all their conversation is about matters of Torah. The Gemara continues with this topic: Rav Sheizvi said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: What is the meaning of that which is written: “The slothful man [remiyya] will not roast [yaḥarokh] his catch” (Proverbs 12:27)? The deceitful [rammai] hunter will not live [yiḥyeh] a long life [ya’arikh]. A deceitful hunter continues to hunt more and more animals without holding on to the animals he has already caught. Similarly, someone who continues to study new material without reviewing what he has already learned will not be successful. Rav Sheshet said: Will a deceitful hunter have something to roast? One who acts in this way is a fool, but it is hard to describe him as deceitful. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: This is comparable to a hunter who is hunting birds; if he breaks the wings of the birds one by one as he captures them so that they will be unable to fly off again, his prey will be secured, and if not, they will not be secured. According to this explanation, the word rammai is interpreted as cunning rather than deceitful. A cunning hunter secures his prey; similarly, a cunning student reviews each lesson and thereby retains that which he learns. Similarly, Rabba said that Rav Seḥora said that Rav Huna said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Wealth gotten through vanity [hevel] shall be diminished; but he that gathers little by little shall increase” (Proverbs 13:11)? If a person turns his Torah into bundles [ḥavilot, derived from the word hevel by replacing the heh with a ḥet], studying large amounts at the same time, his Torah will diminish. And if not, i.e., if he learns little by little and reviews what he has learned, he that gathers little by little shall increase. Rabba said: The Sages know this, but nevertheless transgress it, i.e., they fail to heed this advice. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: I did this, learning little by little and regularly reviewing what I had learned, and my learning has indeed endured. The Gemara continues to discuss methods of Torah study. The Sages taught the following baraita: What was the order of teaching the Oral Law? How was the Oral Law first taught? Moses learned directly from the mouth of the Almighty. Aaron entered and sat before him, and Moses taught him his lesson as he had learned it from God. Aaron moved aside and sat to the left of Moses. Aaron’s sons entered, and Moses taught them their lesson while Aaron listened. Aaron’s sons moved aside; Elazar sat to the right of Moses and Itamar sat to the left of Aaron. Rabbi Yehuda disagreed with the first tanna with regard to the seating arrangements and said: Actually, Aaron would return to sit to the right of Moses. The elders entered and Moses taught them their lesson. The elders moved aside, and the entire nation entered and Moses taught them their lesson. Therefore, Aaron had heard the lesson four times, his sons heard it three times, the elders heard it twice, and the entire nation heard it once. Moses then departed to his tent, and Aaron taught the others his lesson as he had learned it from Moses. Aaron then departed and his sons taught the others their lesson. His sons then departed and the elders taught the rest of the people their lesson. Hence everyone, Aaron, his sons, the elders and all the people, heard the lesson taught by God four times. From here Rabbi Eliezer said: A person is obligated to teach his student his lesson four times. And it follows by way of an a fortiori inference: If Aaron, who learned from Moses himself, and Moses had received the Torah directly from the mouth of the Almighty, needed this regimen; an ordinary student learning from the mouth of an ordinary teacher, how much more so must he review his studies four times. Rabbi Akiva says: From where do we derive that a person is obligated to teach his student until he learns the material and understands it? As it is stated: “Now therefore write this song for you, and teach it to the children of Israel; put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 31:19). This verse indicates that one must teach Torah to others. And from where do we derive that one must teach his students until the material is organized in their mouths? As it is stated: “Put it in their mouths,” so that they should be capable of teaching it to others. And from where do we derive that a teacher must show his students the reasons for the teachings? As it is stated: “Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them” (Exodus 21:1), which indicates that the lesson must be set out in logical fashion for the students. With regard to the manner in which the Oral Law was taught, the Gemara asks: They should all have studied from Moses himself four times. The Gemara answers: The teaching was divided in this manner in order to give honor to Aaron and his sons, and also to give honor to the elders. The Gemara asks why a different method was not adopted, one which would have involved less trouble for Moses: Aaron should have entered and studied from Moses; his sons should then have entered and studied from Aaron; the elders should then have entered and studied from Aaron’s sons; and then they should have gone out and taught all of the Jewish people. The Gemara answers: Since Moses had studied directly from the mouth of the Almighty, it would be more effective for everyone to hear the Torah at least once from Moses himself. The Master said in the baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: Actually, Aaron would return to sit to the right of Moses, i.e., no matter how many people were present Aaron always sat to Moses’ right. The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion was it taught in a baraita dealing with the rules of etiquette: If three people were walking along the way, the teacher should walk in the middle and the greater of the two students should be to his right and the lesser one should be to his left? Shall we say that it is the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda and not that of the Sages? According to the Sages, the greater of the two students should be positioned to the left of the teacher so that the student’s right side faces his teacher. The Gemara answers: You can even say that this baraita was taught in accordance with the opinion of the Sages, and the reason they said that Aaron remained to Moses’ left even after the others entered is due to the trouble to Aaron if he would have to stand up and sit down again. Having discussed the importance of reviewing one’s Torah study, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Perida had a certain student whom he would have to teach four hundred times, and only then would he learn the material, as he was incapable of understanding it otherwise. One day they requested Rabbi Perida’s presence for a mitzva matter after the lesson. Rabbi Perida taught his student four hundred times as usual, but this time the student did not successfully learn the material. Rabbi Perida said to him: What is different now that you are unable to grasp the lesson? He said to him: From the time that they said to the Master that there is a mitzva matter for which he is needed, my mind was distracted from the lesson and every moment I said: Now the Master will get up, now the Master will get up to go and perform the mitzva and he will not complete the lesson. Rabbi Perida said to him: Pay attention this time and I will teach you, and know that I will not leave until you have fully mastered the lesson. He taught him again an additional four hundred times. Due to the merit of Rabbi Perida’s great devotion to his students, a Divine Voice emerged and said to him: Is it preferable to you that four hundred years be added to your life, or that you and the rest of your generation will merit the World-to-Come? He said: I prefer that I and my generation merit the World-to-Come. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angels: Give him both; he shall live a very long life and he and the rest of his generation will merit the World-to-Come. The Gemara continues its discussion with regard to methods of Torah study: Rav Ḥisda said: The Torah can be acquired only with mnemonic signs that aid the memory, as it is stated: “Put it in their mouths.” Do not read the phrase as: Put it [simah], but rather as: Its sign [simanah], thus indicating that mnemonic signs aid in memorizing the material. Rav Taḥalifa of the West, i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, heard this statement and went and said it before Rabbi Abbahu, who said: You learn this idea from there; we learn it from here, as the verse states: “Set up signposts [tziyyunim] for yourself; establish you markers” (Jeremiah 31:20), which is understood to mean: Establish mnemonic signs for the Torah. And from where may it be inferred that this term tziyyun denotes a sign? As it is written in a different verse: “And when they that pass through shall pass through the land, and any sees a human bone, he shall set up a sign [tziyyun] by it” (Ezekiel 39:15), i.e., a sign that there is a source of ritual impurity at that spot. Rabbi Eliezer said that we learn this same idea from here: “Say to wisdom, you are my sister, and call understanding, your kinswoman [moda]” (Proverbs 7:4), which means: Establish signs [moda’im] that convey knowledge of the Torah. Rava said with regard to this verse: Set appointed times [mo’adim] for Torah study.
18יח
דיון
  • מדוע בחר ר' שמואל בר נחמני למצוא דווקא בפסוק ארוטי ורומנטי מסֵפר משלי, דימוי של תורה המזינה את עם ישראל?
  • כיצד, לדעתכם, השתלבו דימויים נשיים כהיריון, לידה והנקה בעולם התלמודי הגברי?
19יט
שרה פרידלנד בן-ארזה, 'אגדת תורה', נחמה וינגרטן מינץ ותמר ביאלה (עורכות), דרשוני: מדרשי נשים, ידיעות אחרונות יהדות כאן ועכשיו תשס"ט, עמ' 117
אגדת תורה (מדרש מודרני)
[...] זה שאמר הכתוב 'כאח לי יונק שדי אִמי (שיר השירים, ח, א)- אלו דדיה של תורה, שכך דרש ר' שמואל בר נחמני: 'דדיה ירוֻּךֳ בכל עת' (משלי ה, יט) - נמשלו דברי תורה כדד. ושני דדים לתורה - דד לאחי ודד לי, דד לאנשים ודד לנשים. [...]
20כ
דיון
  • איזה שימוש עושה הכותבת במוטיב ההנקה כדי לנכס את עולם לימוד התורה גם לנשים?
  • האם לדעתכם, לימוד תורה של נשים "יונק" ומוזן אחרת מלימוד תורה של גברים?
21כא
לסיכום:
22כב
דיון
  • מהן ההשלכות האפשריות של הדגשת מוטיבים נשיים בדמות האלוהות ובאופי לימוד התורה, על האופן שבו גברים ונשים חווים כיום את יחסי האדם והאל? העזרו בדבריה של פרופ' תמר רוס:
23כג
תמר רוס, השלכות הפמיניזם, על תיאולוגיה יהודית אורתודוכסית, דעות, 1, 1998, עמ' 7
אין העניין כאן רק בהפיכה פשטנית של האלוהים מזכר לנקבה, אלא בתמורה יסודית בהגדרת כל כיוון יחסיו עם בריאתו. במקום אל היושב במרומים ושולט בנו, היינו מקבלים אלה המזינה ומקיימת אותנו מכוח היותה שרויה בעצם האדמה שמתחתנו. [...] אולי היינו מעדיפים לנצל דימויים של לידה
25 כה
27כז
דף מספר 4 בסדרה "היום הרת עולם, היום יעמיד במשפט": לימוד לקראת הימים הנוראים, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
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