|א. שאלות כלליות|
|A. General Questions|
1. What is the reason that the prohibition of work on Shabbat is given at the end of all of the commands about the Tabernacle in God's words; but that when Moses came to give the commands about the Tabernacle, he began with prohibition of work on Shabbat?
2. הסבר את שינוי הסדר על ידי ההבדל הכללי שבין הפרשיות תרומה, תצוה, כי-תשא (עד ל"ב) ובין פרשיות הביצוע ויקהל, פקודי.
2. Explain the difference in the order, based on the general difference between Parshiot Terumah, Tetzveh and Ki Tissa (the instructions about the Tabernacle) on the one hand and the Parshiot of their execution, Vayekhel and Pukudei, on the other.
|ב. זמן מתן מצוות עשיית המשכן|
|B. The Timing of the Commandment of Making of the Tabernacle|
S.v. And Moshe gathered: And behold, Moses - after he commanded all that God said to him at Mount Sinai after the breaking of the tablets to Aaron and the princes and all of the Children of Israel, and he placed a veil on his face - proceeded to command and gather them together to him, all of the congregation, the men, the women and the infants. And it is likely that this was on the day after he came down. And he told all of them the matter of the tabernacle that he was commanded at first before he broke the tablets. Once the Holy One, blessed be He, had been appeased to them and gave them the second tablets and made a new covenant with them that God would go among them, they surely went back to their previous state and their nuptial love, and it was [hence] known that the Divine Presence would be among them, like the matter that He commanded at first - as He had stated (Exodus 25:8), "And make Me a sanctuary, so I will dwell among you." And so Moses commanded them now, according to everything he was commanded at first.
(א) קח את אהרן ועל דרך הישר נצטוה משה במלאכת המשכן קודם למעשה העגל וכשנתרצה לו הקב"ה והבטיחו שישרה שכינתו בתוכם ידע מעצמו שמצות המשכן במקומה עומדת וצוה לישראל עליה כמו שפירשתי בפרשת ויקהל (שם לה א).
S.v. Take Aaron: According to the straightforward approach, Moses was commanded about the work of the Tabernacle before the story of the [golden] calf. And once the Holy One, blessed be He, was appeased, and He promised that He would have His Divine Presence dwell among them, [Moses] knew on his own that the commandment of the Tabernacles was [reinstated]. So he commanded Israel about it, as I explained in Parshat Vayakhel (above on Exodus 35:1).
והשווה לדבריו דברי:
But compare his words to the words below:
ויתן אל משה וגו׳ AND HE GAVE UNTO MOSES etc. — There is no “earlier” or “later” (no chronological order) in the events related in the Torah: in fact the incident of the golden calf (related in ch. 31) happened a considerable time before the command regarding the work of the Tabernacle was given (ch. 25 and the following chapters). For on the seventeenth of Tammuz were the Tablets broken (when the people were worshipping the calf) and on the Day of Atonement God became reconciled with Israel (after Moses had prayed 80 days for forgivenness; so that it is very unlikely that the command for the building of the Tabernacle should have been given before that day) and on the next day, the eleventh of Tishri (cf. Rashi on Exodus 33:11, at end of comment on ושב אל המחנה), they began to bring their contributions for the Tabernacle which was set up on the first of Nisan. (From the seventeenth of Tammuz until the eleventh of Tishri are almost three months — ימים רבים) (Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Tisa 31).
ושב אל המחנה .( AND HE RETURNED INTO THE CAMP — ... For on the seventeenth of Tammuz the tablets were broken, on the eighteenth he burnt the calf and punished the of fenders, on the nineteenth he ascended the mountain, as it is said (Exodus 32:30) “And it came to pass on the morrow (the day after he had punished the wrongdoers; cf. vv. 26—29), that Moses said unto the people”, [Ye have sinned a great sin and now I will go up to the Lord]”. There he spent forty days and sought mercy for the people, as it is said, (Deuteronomy 9:18) “And I threw myself down before the Lord [as at the first, forty days and forty nights]”. These terminated on the last day of Ab (there were 11 days from the 19th to the 29th of Tammuz therefore 29 days in Ab complete the forty) and he then returned to the people. On the first day of the New Moon of Ellul it was said to him, (Exodus 34:2) “And be ready in the morning] and go up in the morning unto mount Sinai” — to receive the second tablets. He again spent there the forty days of which it is stated, (Deuteronomy 10:10) “[And I stayed in the mountain, according to the first, days, [forty days and forty nights]”. The words כימים הראשונים, “like the first days”, cannot refer to the number of days for this is stated immediately afterwards; they are to be joined with עמדתי — I stayed in the same state as on the first days: How were the first forty days passed? In God’s good-will (because the Israelites had not yet sinned)! So, too, the last forty days were passed in God’s good-will — from which you must admit that the intervening forty days were passed in God’s anger. On the tenth of Tishri God became reconciled with Israel in joy and perfect affection and said to Moses: “I have forgiven!” and handed him over the second tablets, whereupon Moses went down and began to command them concerning the work of the Tabernacle (cf. Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Tisa 31; Seder Olam 6; Rashi on Exodus 18:13, Deuteronomy 9:18 and also Taanit 36b). They were occupied in its construction until the first of Nisan...
ויהי משה בהר, each time Moses ascended the mountain from this point on he remained on it for a period of 40 days and forty nights. This period corresponds to the time it takes for a fertilised egg in a woman’s womb to achieve a critical status that permits us to refer to it as a fetus. Moses’ stay on the mountain for such periods of time effected his spiritual progress in a similar manner, elevating him to higher spiritual dimensions. The evidence lies in the fact that eventually Moses’ face radiated so much spiritual illumination that the people were frightened by this phenomenon and Moses had to veil his head. (Exodus 34,29) Moses had been meant to achieve this stature already at the end of his first 40 days’ stay on the mountain, but the people’s making the golden calf and worshipping it, foiled this plan. G’d Himself told Moses to descend due to his people having become corrupt (Exodus 32,7). According to our tradition, Moses’ second stay of forty days on the mountain was a period when G’d’s anger at the people had not yet abated, so that he could not be rewarded with the distinction G’d had in mind for him. He attained that distinction only during his third stay on the mountain when he was also instructed concerning the construction of the Tabernacle seeing that he was told to place the second set of Tablets in the Holy Ark (Exodus 25,21). This did not refer to an ark within which to place the shattered first set of Tablets. In fact, according to tradition, seeing that the letters written by G’d on the first set of Tablets had “flown” away, the remnants of those Tablets which were eventually placed in another ark are not referred to as “The testimony,” seeing they did not contain any writing anymore at that point. (compare Pesachim 87) Commencing with 25,8 where G’d says to Moses that He will take up permanent residence in the Tabernacle to be built, the first 2500 years of mankind’s history where G’d was equally accessible anywhere has come to an end, and there would be a centralised form of worship as part of the Jewish religion. Instead of G’d permitting the erection of altars anywhere it pleased man, and His coming to meet man at such sites, (Exodus 20,20) now the roles are reversed and He will be in residence in His palace on earth, and anyone who wishes to pray to Him effectively will have to do this at that Temple. There will be groups of people charged with the sacrificial service in the Temple, the priests, and laymen will not be allowed into the inner sanctum of this Temple at all. This, in short, is the message of Exodus 28,1 “and you (Moses) bring close (To Me) your brother Aaron.” Actually, the tribe of Levi had not yet been selected until after the affair of the golden calf...
1. What is the difference between the commentators above about establishing the time for the giving of the commandment of making the Tabernacle to Moses?
2. What is the significance of establishing the time, in understanding the reason for this commandment?
3. What is the proof that Ramban could bring from our parsha that Moses had already informed Israel beforehand about God's commandment to make the Tabernacle; and that he was informing them a second time in our parsha.
|ג. שבת ומשכן - שאלות ברש"י|
|C. Shabbat and the Tabernacle - Questions in Rashi|
ששת ימים SIX DAYS [MAY WORK BE DONE] — He intentionally mentioned to them the prohibition in reference to the Sabbath before the command about the building of the Tabernacle in order to intimate that it does not set aside (supersede) the Sabbath (cf. Mekhilta d'Rabbi Yishmael 35:1:1).
"אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ וְאֶת שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ"
השווה לדברי רש"י אלה את דבריו בויקרא י"ט ג':
Compare these words of Rashi to his words on Leviticus 19:3:
ד"ה ואת שבתותי תשמורו: סמך שבת למורא אב לומר אף על פי שהזהרתיך על מורא אב, אם יאמר לך: "חלל את השבת" – אל תשמע לו, וכן בשאר כל המצוות.
ואת שבתתי תשמרו AND MY SABBATHS SHALL YE KEEP — Scripture places the commandment of observing the Sabbath immediately after that of fearing one’s father in order to suggest the following: “Although I admonish you regarding the fear due to your father, yet if he bids you: "Desecrate the Sabbath", do not listen to him” — and the same is the case with any of the other commandments.
1. Rashi words here ostensibly contradict his words there. What is the contradicition?
2. How can you resolve the contradiction?
|ד. שמירת השבת|
|D. Shabbat Observance|
ואתה דבר אל בני ישראל וכו': ... (שמירת השבת) הוא דבר פנימי המקשר ביני וביניכם שהוא דבר שהוא ביני ונכנס ביניכם שהוא תוך נפשכם שהוא מעין היותכם היכל לשכינתי. שהיא גם הוא חלק אלוה ית'... וא"כ כיון שהמשכן אין השראת שכינה בו מצד עצמו. כ"א באדם כמד"א ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם. כי בתוכו לא נאמר אלא בתוכם שהוא כי היכל ה' הוא האדם וממנו יתפשט אל המשכן. וא"כ אמור מעתה איך בשבת שהאדם הוא היכל ה' יעשה מלאכה במשכן שהוא עצמו מצד עצמו אין בו שכינה אלא ממה שנמשך לו מן האדם. שע"י היות האדם היכל ה' נמשך אל המשכן: ועוד טעם שני והוא כי השבת היא לאדם קדושה לדורות והמשכן הוא אינו אלא בזמנו ואיך נדחה קדושה שהיא לדורות על מה שאינו אלא קצת זמן וז"א לדורותיכם:
S.v. And you shall speak to the Children of Israel, etc.: ... [Shabbat observance] is an inner thing that connects between Me and you, as it is something that is within Me and goes into you, meaning in[to] your souls - such that your souls become like a sanctuary for My Divine Presence, which is also a part of God, may He be blessed... And if so, since the dwelling of the Divine Presence in the Tabernacle is not intrinsic, but rather a result of man - as it is found (Exodus 25:8), "'And make Me a sanctuary, so I will dwell among you'; 'so among it,' is not stated, but rather, 'so among them'"; which is because the sanctuary of God is man, and it spreads out from him to the Tabernacle - if so, I will ask from this, how is it that man who is the sanctuary of God would do work on Shabbat upon the Tabernacle which does not intrinsically have the Divine Presence within it, but only from that which is drawn to it from man; as it is drawn to the Tabernacle from man, in his being the sanctuary of God. And there is also a second reason; and that is that the Shabbat [represents] eternal holiness for man, whereas the Tabernacle is only for its time. So how could the holiness that is for [all] generations be overridden by that which is only for a limited time. And this is [the meaning] of that which is written, "for your generations."
...הביטו וראו כי אין ראוי לחלל שבת על מלאכת המשכן, כי הלוא המשכן וכל כליו בהיעשותם אין בהם קדושה, עד יוקם המשכן על מכונו, ותשרה עליו שכינה, נמצא שאין מעשה המשכן רק הכנה אל דבר שאחר היעשותו יהיה קודש, אמנם השבת אין צריך לומר שהוא עצמו קודש...
Look and see that it is not fitting to profane Shabbat with the work of the Tabernacle. For is it not that the Tabernacle and all of its vessels do not have holiness in them until the Tabernacle is established in its place and the Divine Presence rests upon it? It comes out that the making of the Tabernacle is only a preparation for something that will only be holy after its making. However, there is no need to say that Shabbat is intrinsically holy...
1. To which question does Alshich give three answers here (in the above two quotes)?
2. Why does he give the first two answers in Parshat Kit Tissa and the last answer in our parsha?
4. What is the difference between the answers of Alshich and those answers?
|ה. מלאכת המשכן ושבת|
|E. The Work of the Tabernacle and Shabbat|
"וַיַּקְהֵ֣ל מֹשֶׁ֗ה אֶֽת־כָּל־עֲדַ֛ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אֵ֚לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה לַעֲשֹׂ֥ת אֹתָֽם׃ שֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִים֮ תֵּעָשֶׂ֣ה מְלָאכָה֒ "
"Moses then convoked the whole Israelite community and said to them: These are the things that the LORD has commanded you to do: On six days work may be done."
S.v. These are the things that the LORD has commanded you to do...: On six days work may be done. He said, "These are the things that the Lord commanded to do for the work of the Tabernacle, all of its vessels and and all of its service." And he had Shabbat precede, to say that you shall do work for these things on six days, but not on the seventh day - which is holy to the Lord. And it is from here that [we derive that] the work of the Tabernacle does not override Shabbat; and not from the midrash, [relating to the word], "ach (however)," - as I explained in Seder Ki Tissa (on Exodus 31:13).1
1. What are the difficulties in verses 1-2 that Ramban resolves?
2. Why does the derivation from our verse about Shabbat overriding work on the Sanctuary appear stronger to him than its deriviation from Exodus 32:13?
|ו. "לא תבערו אש"|
|F. "You shall kindle no fire"|
ר' שמשון רפאל הירש:
הבערת אש היא מצד אחד מלאכה שאינה בונה, יוצרת, אלא מקלקלת, הורסת. ומצד שני דווקא היכולת להבעיר אש היא המאפשרת ומבטיחה את שלטונו של האדם עלי אדמות, כי רק בעזרת האש יכול היה להכין את כלי עבודתו, וניתן בידו להפריד ולחבר ולחדור לפנימיותם של גופים...
R. Samson Raphael Hirsch:
On the one hand, the burning of fire is a type of work that is not constructive, but rather damages and destroys. But on the other hand, it is specifically the ability to burn fire that enables and assures man's control over the earth. For it is only with the assistance of fire that he can prepare his work tools, and that he has the ability to separate, combine and penetrate into substances...
1. Explain the two opinions cited by Rashi.
2. הרב הירש רואה בייחודה של מלאכה זו – כפי שהוסבר בדבריו לעיל – חיזוק לשתי הדעות המובאות ברש"י. התוכל להסביר כיצד?
2. Rabbi Hirsch sees the novelty of this type of work - as explained in his words above - as bolstering both opinions cited by Rashi. Can you explain how?