ויתן אל משה וגו'. אֵין מֻקְדָּם וּמְאֻחָר בַּתּוֹרָה – מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל קֹדֶם לְצִוּוּי מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָמִים רַבִּים הָיָה – שֶׁהֲרֵי בְי"ז בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים נִתְרַצָּה הַקָּבָּ"ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּלְמָחֳרָת הִתְחִילוּ בְנִדְבַת הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְהוּקַם בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן (תנחומא): ויתן אל משה וגו׳ AND HE GAVE UNTO MOSES etc. — There is no “earlier” or “later” (no chronological order) in the events related in the Torah: in fact the incident of the golden calf (related in ch. 31) happened a considerable time before the command regarding the work of the Tabernacle was given (ch. 25 and the following chapters). For on the seventeenth of Tammuz were the Tablets broken (when the people were worshipping the calf) and on the Day of Atonement God became reconciled with Israel (after Moses had prayed 80 days for forgivenness; so that it is very unlikely that the command for the building of the Tabernacle should have been given before that day) and on the next day, the eleventh of Tishri (cf. Rashi on Exodus 33:11, at end of comment on ושב אל המחנה), they began to bring their contributions for the Tabernacle which was set up on the first of Nisan. (From the seventeenth of Tammuz until the eleventh of Tishri are almost three months — ימים רבים) (Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Tisa 31).
ככלתו. ככלתו כְּתִיב – חָסֵר – שֶׁנִּמְסְרָה לוֹ תּוֹרָה בְּמַתָּנָה כְּכַלָּה לֶחָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִלְמֹד כֻּלָּהּ בִּזְמַן מֻעָט כָּזֶה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מַה כַּלָּה מִתְקַשֶּׁטֶת בְּכ"ד קִשּׁוּטִין – הֵן הָאֲמוּרִים בְּסֵפֶר יְשַׁעְיָה – אַף תַּלְמִיד חָכָם צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בָּקִי בְּכ"ד סְפָרִים: ככלתו WHEN HE FINISHED [SPEAKING] — The word ככלתו is written defectively (without a ו after the ל) to intimate that the Torah was handed over to Moses as a gift (note the word ויתן), complete in every respect, even as the bride (the word ככלתו is taken to be connected with “כלה”, bride) is handed over to the bridegroom completely equipped with all she requires — for in a period brief as this which Moses spent on the mountain, he must have been unable to learn in its entirety every law to be derived from it. Another explanation why the word is written defective is: just as a bride (כלה) bedecks herself with 24 ornaments — those which are mentioned in the book of Isaiah (ch. 3) — so a scholar (תלמיד חכם) ought to be thoroughly versed in the contents of the 24 books of Scripture (Midrash Tanchuma, Ki Tisa 16).
לדבר אתו. הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים שֶׁבִּוְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים: לדבר אתו TO SPEAK WITH HIM the statutes and the judgments contained in the section beginning with ואלה המשפטים (ch. Exodus 21 ff.).
לדבר אתו. מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מֹשֶׁה שׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הַגְּבוּרָה וְחוֹזְרִין וְשׁוֹנִין אֶת הַהֲלָכָה שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחַד: לדבר אתו TO SPEAK “WITH” HIM — The use of the word אתו “with him” teaches us that Moses first heard the laws from the mouth of the Almighty and that then they both again repeated each Halacha together (Exodus Rabbah 41:5).
לחת. לחת כְּתִיב שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת (שם): לחת TABLETS — The word is written defectively לחת (without a ו between ח and ת), thus intimating that they were both alike in every respect (Exodus Rabbah 41:6).