Jewish Gender
(כב) וַיִּ֩בֶן֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֧ים ׀ אֶֽת־הַצֵּלָ֛ע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַ֥ח מִן־הָֽאָדָ֖ם לְאִשָּׁ֑ה וַיְבִאֶ֖הָ אֶל־הָֽאָדָֽם׃
(22) And God יהוה fashioned the side that had been taken from the Human into a woman, bringing her to the Human.
(כז) וַיִּבְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ בְּצַלְמ֔וֹ בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּרָ֣א אֹת֑וֹ זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בָּרָ֥א אֹתָֽם׃
(27) And God created humankind in the divine image, creating it in the image of God— creating them male and female.
לָא, דְּכוּלֵּי עָלְמָא חֲדָא יְצִירָה הֲוַאי. מָר סָבַר בָּתַר מַחְשָׁבָה אָזְלִינַן, וּמָר סָבַר בָּתַר מַעֲשֶׂה אָזְלִינַן. כִּי הָא דְּרַב יְהוּדָה רָמֵי, כְּתִיב: ״וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ״, וּכְתִיב: ״זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם״, הָא כֵּיצַד? בַּתְּחִלָּה עָלָה בְּמַחְשָׁבָה לִבְראוֹת שְׁנַיִם, וּלְבַסּוֹף נִבְרָא אֶחָד.
The Gemara rejects that suggestion: No, everyone agrees that it was only one act of creation. However, one Sage holds: It is according to the initial thought that we proceed. And one Sage holds: It is according to the action that we proceed. God’s initial thought was to create man and woman as separate entities. Ultimately, they were created as one entity. That explanation is like the following. Rav Yehuda raises a contradiction. In one verse it is written: “And God created man in His own image” (Genesis 1:27), indicating one act of creation, and in another verse it is written: “Male and female He created them” (Genesis 5:2), indicating two acts. How can this apparent contradiction be resolved? Initially, the thought entered God’s mind to create two, but ultimately only one was actually created.
לְכִדְרַבִּי אֲבָהוּ. דְּרַבִּי אֲבָהוּ רָמֵי, כְּתִיב: ״זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם״, וּכְתִיב: ״(כִּי) בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אוֹתוֹ״. בַּתְּחִלָּה עָלְתָה בְּמַחְשָׁבָה לִבְראוֹת שְׁנַיִם, וּלְבַסּוֹף לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא אֶחָד.
The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raised a contradiction between the verses: On the one hand it is written: “Male and female, He created them,” in the plural, and on the other hand it is written: “So God created man in His own image, for in the image of God He created him” (Genesis 1:27), in the singular. At first, the thought entered God’s mind to create two, and ultimately, only one was actually created.
(א) אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ (ויקרא יב, ב), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם נוֹחֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, הַזֶּה וְהַבָּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּדִכְתִיב (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּבְרָא דוּ פַּרְצוּפִין נִבְרָא וּנְסָרוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה שְׁנַיִם גַּבִּים, גַּב לְזָכָר גַּב לִנְקֵבָה.
(1) "A woman when she gives seed (conceives)" [Leviticus 12:2]: That's what is written, "You have created me behind and before." [Psalms 139:5] Said Rabbi Yochanan: If man merits, he inherits two worlds, this one and the coming one, that's what is written: "You have created me behind and before (front)." And if not, he comes to give reckoning, as it says, "And You laid your hand (kapcha) on me." [ibid], as it is written, [Job 13:21] "Withdraw your hand (kapcha) far from me." Said Rav Shmuel bar Nachman: When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first man, he created him as an androgynous being. Reish Lakish: When it was created, dual faces [together] were created, and it was cut, and two were made. [One] back was male, [one] back was female.
(כה) וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לֹא זִכְרוּת וְלֹא נְקֵבוּת אֶלָּא אָטוּם הוּא הַנִּקְרָא טֻמְטוּם וְגַם הוּא סָפֵק. וְאִם נִקְרַע הַטֻּמְטוּם וְנִמְצָא זָכָר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּזָכָר וַדַּאי. וְאִם נִמְצָא נְקֵבָה הֲרֵי הוּא נְקֵבָה. וְטֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס שֶׁהָיוּ בֶּן שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחֶזְקַת גְּדוֹלִים וְהֵם שֶׁנְּדַבֵּר בָּהֶן בְּכָל מָקוֹם:
(25) A person who possesses neither a male sexual organ nor a female sexual organ, but instead, his genital area is a solid mass, is called a tumtum. There is also doubt with regard [to this person's status]. If an operation is carried out and a male [organ is revealed], he is definitely considered to be a male. If a female [organ is revealed], she is definitely considered to be a female. When a tumtum or an androgynous reaches the age of twelve years and one day, they are assumed to be adults. Whenever these terms are mentioned, the intent is individuals of this age.
(כד) מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אֵיבַר זִכְרוּת וְאֵיבַר נְקֵבוּת הוּא הַנִּקְרָא אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס וְהוּא סָפֵק אִם זָכָר סָפֵק אִם נְקֵבָה. וְאֵין לוֹ סִימָן שֶׁיִּוָּדַע בּוֹ אִם הוּא זָכָר וַדַּאי אִם הִיא נְקֵבָה וַדָּאִית לְעוֹלָם:
(24) A person who possesses both a male sexual organ and a female sexual organ is called an androgynous. There is doubt whether such a person should be classified as a male or as a female; there is no physical sign that can ever enable such a distinction to be made.
(ו) וְאֵלּוּ הֵן סִימָנֵי אַיְלוֹנִית. כָּל שֶׁאֵין לָהּ דָּדִין. וּמִתְקַשָּׁה בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ. וְאֵין לָהּ שִׁפּוּלֵי מֵעַיִם כְּנָשִׁים. וְקוֹלָהּ עָבֶה וְאֵינָהּ נִכֶּרֶת בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשָּׁה. וְהַנַּעֲרָה וְהַבּוֹגֶרֶת וְהָאַיְלוֹנִית כָּל אַחַת מִשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן נִקְרֵאת גְּדוֹלָה:
(6) The following are the physical signs of barrenness: a) she lacks [protruding] breasts; b) she stiffens during sexual relations; c) her lower abdomen does not resemble a woman's, d) her voice is deep and cannot be differentiated from that of a man. All three, a maiden, a mature woman and a barren woman, are referred to by the term gedolah [adult woman]. [Unlike children, they are held responsible for their conduct.]
(יג) וְאֵלּוּ הֵן סִימָנֵי סָרִיס. כָּל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ זָקָן. וּשְׂעָרוֹ לָקוּי. וּבְשָׂרוֹ מַחֲלִיק. וְאֵין מֵימֵי רַגְלָיו מַעֲלִים רְתִיחָה. וּכְשֶׁמֵּטִיל מַיִם אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כִּפָּה. וְשִׁכְבַת זַרְעוֹ דִּיהָה. וְאֵין מֵימֵי רַגְלָיו מַחְמִיצִין. וְרוֹחֵץ בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים וְאֵינוֹ מַעֲלֶה בְּשָׂרוֹ הֶבֶל. וְקוֹלוֹ לָקוּי וְאֵינוֹ נִכָּר בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשָּׁה:
(יד) וְסָרִיס זֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא סְרִיס חַמָּה בְּכָל מָקוֹם. אֲבָל הַבֵּן שֶׁחָתְכוּ אוֹ נִתְּקוּ אוֹ מִעֲכוּ גִּידָיו אוֹ בֵּיצָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָעַכּוּ''ם עוֹשִׂין הוּא הַנִּקְרָא סְרִיס אָדָם. וּכְשֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֶּן י''ג שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד נִקְרָא גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵין זֶה מֵבִיא סִימָן לְעוֹלָם:
(13) These are the signs of impotency: a) One lacks a beard, b) his hair grows inadequately, c) his flesh is hairless, d) his urine does not produce vapor, e) his urine does not flow in an arc, f) his semen is off color, g) his urine does not ferment, h) when he washes in the winter, his flesh does not produce steam, and i) his voice is high pitched and cannot be differentiated from that of a woman.
(14) An impotent person of this type is referred to as a s'ris chamah [one who became impotent because of fever]. When, however, the genitals of a male have been cut, severed or crushed, as the gentiles do, the person is called a s'ris adam [one who became impotent as a result of human activity]. When such a person reaches the age of thirteen and one day, he is considered to be an adult, for he will never manifest signs of maturity.
(א) וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן.
(1) (1) 'And E-lohim said 'let's make Adam in our image, as our likeness' (Gen. 1:26) - Rabbi Yochanan opened with 'You hedge me before and behind; You lay Your hand upon me' (Ps. 139:5) and rabbi Yochanan said: 'if Adam had merits, he eats two worlds, as it's written 'You formed me before/achor and behind/kedem', and if not, he comes to receive judgment and accounting, as its written 'You lay Your hand upon me'. Said R. Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne [androginos], as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him double-faced [du-par’tsufin], and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Before/achor and behind/kedem You formed me” [Ps. 139:5].
(א) אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס יֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים, וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַנָּשִׁים, וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים, וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ דְּרָכִים אֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לֹא לַאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא לַנָּשִׁים:
(ב) כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים: מְטַמֵּא בְּלֹבֶן כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וְזוֹקֵק לְיִבּוּם כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וּמִתְעַטֵּף וּמִסְתַּפֵּר כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וְנוֹשֵׂא אֲבָל לֹא נִשָּׂא כַּאֲנָשִׁים, וְחַיָּב בְּכָל מִצְוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה כַּאֲנָשִׁים:
(ג) כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַנָּשִׁים: מְטַמֵּא בְּאֹדֶם כַּנָּשִׁים, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְיַחֵד עִם הָאֲנָשִׁים כַּנָּשִׁים, וְאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עַל "בַּל תַּקִּיף" וְלֹא עַל "בַּל תַּשְׁחִית" וְלֹא עַל "בַּל תְּטַמֵּא לַמֵּתִים" כַּנָּשִׁים, וּפָסוּל מִן הָעֵדוּת כַּנָּשִׁים, וְאֵינוֹ נִבְעַל בַּעֲבֵירָה כַּנָּשִׁים, וְנִפְסַל מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה כַּנָּשִׁים:
(ד) כֵּיצַד שָׁוֶה לַאֲנָשִׁים וְלַנָּשִׁים: חַיָּבִים עַל מַכָּתוֹ וְעַל קִלְלָתוֹ כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְכַנָּשִׁים, וְהַהוֹרְגוֹ שׁוֹגֵג גּוֹלֶה וּמֵזִיד נֶהֱרַג כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים, וְיוֹשֶׁבֶת עָלָיו דָּם טָמֵא וְדָם טָהוֹר כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְכַנָּשִׁים, וְחוֹלֵק בְּקָדְשֵׁי קֳדָשִׁים כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְכַנָּשִׁים, וְנוֹחֵל לְכָל הַנְּחָלוֹת כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְכַנָּשִׁים, וְאִם אָמַר "הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר:
(ה) כֵּיצַד אֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לֹא לַאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא לַנָּשִׁים: אֵין חַיָּבִים לֹא עַל מַכָּתוֹ וְלֹא עַל קִלְלָתוֹ לֹא כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא כַּנָּשִׁים, וְאֵינוֹ נֶעֱרָךְ לֹא כַּאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא כַּנָּשִׁים, וְאִם אָמַר "הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה לֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא אִשָּׁה" אֵינוֹ נָזִיר. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר: אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרִיָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ הוּא וְלֹא יָכְלוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַכְרִיעַ עָלָיו אִם הוּא אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה. אֲבָל טֻמְטוּם אֵינוֹ כֵּן, פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא אִישׁ פְּעָמִים שֶׁהוּא אִשָּׁה:
(1) The hermaphrodite is in some ways like men, and in other ways like women. In other ways he is like men and women, and in others he is like neither men nor women.
(2) In what ways is he like men? He causes impurity with white discharge, like men; He dresses like men; He can take a wife but not be taken as a wife, like men. [When he is born] his mother counts the blood of purification, like men; He may not be secluded with women, like men. He is not maintained with the daughters, like men; He transgresses the law of: “You shall not round” (Leviticus 19:2 and “You shall not defile for the dead,” (Leviticus 21:1) like men; And he must perform all the commandments of the Torah, like men.
(3) And in what ways is he like women? He causes impurity with red discharge, like women; And he must not be secluded with men, like women; And he doesn’t make his brother’s wife liable for yibbum (levirate marriage); And he does not share [in the inheritance] with the sons, like women; And he cannot eat most holy sacrifices, like women. At his birth his mother counts the blood of her impurity like [they do when they give birth to a] girl; And he is disqualified from being a witness, like women. If he had illicit intercourse, he is disqualified from eating terumah, like women.
(4) In what ways is he like both men and women? One who strikes him or curses him is liable, as in the case of men and women; One who unwittingly kills him must go into exile, and if on purpose, then [the slayer] receives the death penalty, as in the case of men and women. His mother must [at his birth] bring an offering, as in the case of men and women. He may eat holy things that are eaten outside of the Temple; And he may inherit any inheritance, as in the case of men and women.
(5) And in what is he different from both men and women? One does not burn terumah if it came into contact with his discharge, Neither is he liable for entering the temple while impure, unlike men or women. He must not be sold as a Hebrew slave, unlike men or women. He cannot be evaluated, unlike men or women. If one says: “I will be a nazirite, if he is neither a man nor a woman,” then he becomes a nazirite. Rabbi Yose says: the hermaphrodite is a unique creature, and the sages could not decide about him. But this is not so with a tumtum (one of doubtful), for sometimes he is a man and sometimes he is a woman.
אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ: בְּאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס מָה לִי אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל? תָּא שְׁמַע, דְּאָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל לְרַב עָנָן: לֵיתַהּ לְבָרַיְיתָא מִקַּמֵּי מַתְנִיתִין. הַרְכָּבָה מָה לִי אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל? תָּא שְׁמַע, דַּאֲמַר לֵיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל לְרַב עָנָן: תְּנִי כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר שְׁלֹשָׁה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים. קוֹשִׁי מָה לִי אָמַר רַב? תֵּיקוּ. קִידּוּשׁ מָה לִי אָמַר רַב? אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: תָּא שְׁמַע, דְּאָמַר רַב הוּנָא אָמַר רַב: אֵין הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: מַאי חָזֵית דְּסָמְכַתְּ אַהָא? סְמוֹךְ אַהָא! דְּאָמַר רַב אַדָּא אָמַר רַב: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי. ״אָמְרִי בֵּי רַב״ — מַנּוּ? רַב הוּנָא, וְרַב הוּנָא אָמַר: אֵין הֲלָכָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: טוּמְטוּם וְכוּ׳. אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי: מַאי עָבֵיד לֵיהּ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה לְטוּמְטוּם דְּבֵירֵי, דְּאוֹתְבוּהּ אַבֵּי כּוּרְסְיָה וְאִיקְּרַע, וְאוֹלֵיד שְׁבַע בְּנִין! וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר לָךְ: חַזֵּר עַל בָּנָיו מֵאַיִן הֵם. תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: טוּמְטוּם לֹא יַחְלוֹץ, שֶׁמָּא יִקָּרַע וְנִמְצָא סְרִיס חַמָּה. אַטּוּ כֹּל דְּמִקְּרַע זָכָר הָוֵי? הָכִי קָאָמַר: שֶׁמָּא יִקָּרַע וְנִמְצָא נְקֵבָה, וַאֲפִילּוּ נִמְצָא זָכָר — שֶׁמָּא יִמָּצֵא סָרִיס חַמָּה. מַאי בֵּינַיְיהוּ? אָמַר רָבָא: לִפְסוֹל בִּמְקוֹם אַחִין וְלַחְלוֹץ שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם אַחִין אִיכָּא בֵּינַיְיהוּ. אָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא אֲחוּהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר זַבְדִּי אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב: אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס חַיָּיבִין עָלָיו סְקִילָה, מִשְּׁתֵּי מְקוֹמוֹת. מֵיתִיבִי, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אָמַר: אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס חַיָּיבִין עָלָיו סְקִילָה כַּזָּכָר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים — בְּזַכְרוּת שֶׁלּוֹ, אֲבָל בְּנַקְבוּת שֶׁלּוֹ — פָּטוּר! הוּא דְּאָמַר כִּי הַאי תַּנָּא, דְּתַנְיָא, רַבִּי סִימַאי אוֹמֵר: אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס חַיָּיבִין עָלָיו סְקִילָה מִשְּׁתֵּי מְקוֹמוֹת. מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי סִימַאי? אָמַר רָבָא: בַּר הַמְדּוּרֵי אַסְבְּרַהּ לִי: ״וְאֶת זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה״, אֵי זֶהוּ זָכָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שְׁנֵי מִשְׁכָּבוֹת — הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר זֶה אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס. וְרַבָּנַן, אַף עַל גַּב דְּאִית בֵּיהּ שְׁנֵי מִשְׁכָּבוֹת — ״אֶת זָכָר״ כְּתִיב. וְרַבָּנַן, זָכָר גְּרֵידָא מְנָא לְהוּ? מֵ״אִשָּׁה״. בְּאִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ מְנָא לְהוּ? מִ״וְּאִשָּׁה״. אָמַר רַב שֵׁזְבִי אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: לֹא לַכֹּל אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס זָכָר מְעַלְּיָא הוּא, שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר כֵּן, בְּמוּקְדָּשִׁין — יִקְדַּשׁ. וּמְנָלַן דְּלָא קָדֵשׁ — דְּתָנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַנִּרְבָּע וְהַמּוּקְצֶה וְהַנֶּעֱבָד וְהָאֶתְנַן וּמְחִיר וְטוּמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס — מְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים אַבֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: טוּמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס אֵין מְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים אַבֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה. שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: כׇּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה — אַתָּה מוֹצִיא טוּמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס מִבֵּינֵיהֶם. וְעוֹף, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה — אִי אַתָּה מוֹצִיא טוּמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס מִבֵּינֵיהֶם. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: אַף אֲנַן נָמֵי תְּנֵינָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר:
A dilemma was raised before the Sages: As for a hermaphrodite, what did Shmuel say? It was stated in the name of Rav that the halakha is ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei with regard to a hermaphrodite, but no ruling was attributed to Shmuel concerning this case. The Gemara suggests: Come and hear, as Shmuel said to Rav Anan: The baraita is not to be relied upon in the presence of the mishna. This indicates that Shmuel rejects Rabbi Yosei’s opinion as stated in the baraita that a hermaphrodite is considered a creature unto himself. The Gemara asks further: Concerning grafting, what did Shmuel say? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear, as Shmuel said to Rav Anan that he should teach in accordance with the opinion of the one who said that it is prohibited to plant for thirty-three days before Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year. Evidently, he ruled on this matter in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and not that of Rabbi Yosei. The Gemara continues to ask along these lines: With regard to the case of protracted labor, what did Rav say? Does he accept Rabbi Yosei’s opinion, as does Shmuel? No resolution was found for this question, and the Gemara concludes that this dilemma shall stand unresolved. The Gemara further inquires: With regard to proscription, what did Rav say? Rav Yosef said: Come and hear, as Rav Huna said that Rav said that the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Abaye said to him: What did you see that led you to rely on that source? Rely on this source; as Rav Adda said that Rav said that the halakha is in fact in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. There is, then, a tradition that Rav accepted Rabbi Yosei’s view. The Gemara responds: When it is stated that the Sages of the school of Rav said a teaching, to whom is it referring? The reference is to Rav Huna. And it was Rav Huna who said that the halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. It may be presumed, then, that Rav Adda’s version of Rav’s ruling is in error, as preference is given to the report of Rav’s preeminent disciple, Rav Huna. § It is taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: If a tumtum, whose external sexual organs are indeterminate, was torn open so that his genitals were exposed, and he was found to be a male, he must not perform ḥalitza because he is treated like a eunuch. Rabbi Ami said: What would Rabbi Yehuda do with the tumtum living in the town of Biri, who was placed in a seat for an operation, and the tissue covering his genitals was torn open and he later fathered seven children? Evidently, a tumtum who was torn open is not necessarily sexually impotent. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehuda could have said to you: Go and inquire about his children and find out from where they came. He did not believe that they were fathered by this man but rather by someone else. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: A tumtum must not perform ḥalitza, as perhaps he will be torn open and found to be a eunuch by natural causes. The Gemara asks: Why did he formulate his teaching in this manner? Is that to say that every tumtum who is torn open is a male? It is certainly possible for a tumtum to be found to be a female. The Gemara explains: This is what he said: A tumtum must not perform ḥalitza, as perhaps he will be torn open and found to be a female, who certainly cannot perform ḥalitza, and even if he is found to be a male, perhaps he will be found to be a eunuch by natural causes. The Gemara asks: What is the practical halakhic difference between the opinions of Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei? Rava said: There is a practical difference between them as to whether the ḥalitza performed by a tumtum disqualifies the brothers in a case where there are other brothers in addition to the tumtum. According to Rabbi Yehuda, a tumtum is regarded as definitely sexually impotent, and therefore his ḥalitza is of no consequence. Therefore, if the tumtum went ahead and performed ḥalitza, he has not disqualified the other brothers from performing levirate marriage. According to Rabbi Yosei, however, he is only doubtfully sexually impotent, and therefore he has disqualified the other brothers from performing levirate marriage. And there is also a difference between them as to whether the tumtum must perform ḥalitza where there are no other brothers besides him. According to Rabbi Yehuda he need not do so, whereas according to Rabbi Yosei he must perform ḥalitza owing to his uncertain status. § Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Abba, brother of Rabbi Yehuda bar Zavdi, said that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: With regard to a hermaphrodite, one is liable to receive the punishment of stoning on his account for intercourse at two places, whether one penetrated him anally, in the manner of homosexual intercourse, or through his female organ. The Gemara raises an objection against this from the following teaching. Rabbi Eliezer said: If one had intercourse with a hermaphrodite, he is liable to be punished with stoning on his account as if he had relations with a male. In what case is this statement said? It is if he had relations with him through his male organ, i.e., in the manner of homosexual intercourse, but if he engaged in intercourse with him through his female organ, he is exempt. The Gemara answers that Rav stated his opinion in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in the following baraita: Rabbi Simai says: With regard to a hermaphrodite, one is liable to be punished with stoning on his account for intercourse at two places. The Gemara asks: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Simai? Rava said: The Sage bar Hamedurei explained the matter to me, based on an allusion to this halakha found in the Bible. The verse states: “And you shall not lie with a male as with a woman [mishkevei isha]” (Leviticus 18:22). The phrase mishkevei isha, referring to lying with a woman, appears in the plural. Now, what male has two manners of lying? You must say that this is referring to a hermaphrodite, and the plural form mishkevei, meaning: Lyings, indicates that there is liability for both manners of intercourse with him. The Gemara asks: And how do the Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Simai counter this argument? The Gemara explains: Although he has two manners of lying, it is nevertheless written: “With a male,” indicating that one is liable to be stoned on a hermaphrodite’s account only if he had relations with him in the manner of a male. The Gemara asks: And the Rabbis, who explain this entire verse as referring to a hermaphrodite, from where do they derive that a man is prohibited from engaging in relations with an ordinary male? The Gemara answers: They derive it from the words “a woman.” The Gemara asks further: And from where do the Rabbis derive that one is liable to be punished for engaging in intercourse with a woman who is forbidden to him even if he engaged in relations in an unnatural manner, i.e., anal intercourse? The Gemara responds: They derive it from the inclusive “and” in “and…with a woman.” § Rav Shezvi said that Rav Ḥisda said: Not in all regards did Rabbi Eliezer say that a hermaphrodite is a proper male. As, if you say so, that a hermaphrodite is a proper male in every aspect, then with regard to consecrated animals an animal that is a hermaphrodite should become sacred if one consecrated it. And from where do we derive that it does not become sacred? As the Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a bird used for sexual relations with a human being, and one set aside for idolatrous purposes, and one that itself was worshipped as an idol, and one given as payment to a prostitute (see Deuteronomy 23:19), and one that was the price of a dog received in exchange for the sale of a dog (see Deuteronomy 23:19), and similarly, a bird that is a tumtum or a hermaphrodite, if one killed any of these birds by pinching their necks in the manner of an offering rather than by ritual slaughter, the birds render him and the garments he is wearing ritually impure, when the birds are eaten and come into contact with his throat. The reason is that pinching is valid only for sacrificial birds; any other bird that is killed by pinching is deemed an unslaughtered carcass. Since none of these birds are fit to be sacrificed, pinching their necks renders them unslaughtered carcasses, and the unslaughtered carcass of a clean bird imparts ritual impurity when it is eaten and reaches the individual’s throat. Rabbi Eliezer says: If one pinched the neck of a bird that is a tumtum or a hermaphrodite, it does not render him and the garments he is wearing ritually impure when it is eaten and comes into contact with his throat, as the sanctity of an offering does in fact apply to it. As Rabbi Eliezer would say: Wherever it is explicitly stated in the Torah “male” and “female,” you are to remove a tumtum and a hermaphrodite from among them, as their gender status is in doubt. This is true of animal offerings, with regard to which the Torah uses the terms male and female. In the case of a bird-offering, however, since male and female are not stated with regard to it, but instead the Torah simply mentions turtledoves and young pigeons, you are not to remove a tumtum and a hermaphrodite from among them, as they are fit for the altar. It is evident then that Rabbi Eliezer maintains that a hermaphrodite is not considered a proper male with respect to offerings. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: We too learned this explicitly in a baraita that states: Rabbi Eliezer says:
(ב) אֵיזֶהוּ פְצוּעַ דַּכָּא, כֹּל שֶׁנִּפְצְעוּ הַבֵּיצִים שֶׁלּוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ אַחַת מֵהֶן. וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה, כֹּל שֶׁנִּכְרַת הַגִּיד. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּיֵּר מֵהָעֲטָרָה אֲפִלּוּ כְּחוּט הַשַּׂעֲרָה, כָּשֵׁר. פְּצוּעַ דַּכָּא וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה, מֻתָּרִין בְּגִיּוֹרֶת וּמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת, וְאֵינָן אֲסוּרִין אֶלָּא מִלָּבֹא בַקָּהָל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כג), לֹא יָבֹא פְצוּעַ דַּכָּא וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה בִּקְהַל ה':
(2) And who is deemed a man with crushed testicles? It is anyone whose testicles have been wounded, even one of them. And one whose penis has been severed is anyone whose sexual member has been cut off. As for the measure that renders him unfit, if there remains a portion of the corona, even as much as a hairsbreadth, he is still fit. However, if nothing at all is left of the corona, he is considered as one with a severed penis, for whom it is prohibited by Torah law to marry a Jewish woman. A man with crushed testicles or with other wounds to his genitals and one whose penis has been severed are permitted to marry a female convert or an emancipated maidservant, and they are prohibited only from entering into the congregation and marrying a woman who was born Jewish, as it is stated: “A man wounded with crushed testicles or a severed penis shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 23:2).
אַף אָנוּ נֹאמַר: ״אַיְילוֹנִית״ — דּוּכְרָנִית, דְּלָא יָלְדָה.
We too will say: Ailonit, a sexually underdeveloped woman, is a term meaning: Like a ram [dukhranit], because like a male sheep [ayyil] she does not bear children.
(ד) אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, שָׁמַעְתִּי שֶׁהַסָּרִיס חוֹלֵץ, וְחוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְהַסָּרִיס לֹא חוֹלֵץ וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְאֵין לִי לְפָרֵשׁ. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אֲנִי אֲפָרֵשׁ. סְרִיס אָדָם חוֹלֵץ וְחוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיְתָה לוֹ שְׁעַת הַכֹּשֶׁר. סְרִיס חַמָּה לֹא חוֹלֵץ וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה לוֹ שְׁעַת הַכֹּשֶׁר. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא סְרִיס חַמָּה חוֹלֵץ, וְחוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ רְפוּאָה. סְרִיס אָדָם לֹא חוֹלֵץ וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ רְפוּאָה. הֵעִיד רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן בְּתֵירָא עַל בֶּן מְגוּסַת שֶׁהָיָה בִירוּשָׁלַיִם סְרִיס אָדָם, וְיִבְּמוּ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, לְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא:
(4) Rabbi Yehoshua said: I heard two rulings from my teachers. One ruling is that a eunuch performs ḥalitza with his yevama, and his brothers perform ḥalitza with his wife, and the other ruling is that a eunuch does not perform ḥalitza with his yevama, and his brothers do not perform ḥalitza with his wife. And I cannot explain these two rulings, as I do not remember the circumstances to which each ruling applies. Rabbi Akiva said: I will explain. A eunuch caused by man, i.e., one who became emasculated after birth, performs ḥalitza with his yevama and his brothers perform ḥalitza with his wife, because he had an hour of fitness, a time when he was fertile. On the other hand, a eunuch by natural causes, i.e., who was entirely lacking in sexual capacity from birth, does not perform ḥalitza with his yevama and his brothers do not perform ḥalitza with his wife, because he did not have an hour of fitness, as he never had the potential to father children. Rabbi Eliezer says: No; rather, the opposite is the case: A eunuch by natural causes performs ḥalitza with his yevama and his brothers perform ḥalitza with his wife because he can be cured, whereas a eunuch caused by man does not perform ḥalitza with his yevama and his brothers do not perform ḥalitza with his wife because he cannot be cured. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Beteira testified about a man named ben Megusat, who lived in Jerusalem and was a eunuch caused by man, that his brothers nevertheless entered into levirate marriage with his wife, in order to fulfill and confirm the statement of Rabbi Akiva.
אמר רבי אמי אברהם ושרה טומטמין היו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, א) הביטו אל צור חוצבתם ואל מקבת בור נוקרתם וכתיב (ישעיהו נא, ב) הביטו אל אברהם אביכם ואל שרה תחוללכם אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה שרה אמנו אילונית היתה שנאמר (בראשית יא, ל) ותהי שרי עקרה אין לה ולד אפי' בית ולד אין לה
Rabbi Ami said: Abraham and Sarah were tumtumin, as it is stated: “Look to the rock from where you were hewn, and to the hole of the pit from where you were dug” (Isaiah 51:1), and it is written “Look to Abraham your father and to Sarah who bore you” (Isaiah 51:2), which indicates that sexual organs were fashioned for them, signified by the words hewn and dug, over the course of time. Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: Our mother Sarah was an aylonit, as it is stated: “And Sarah was barren; she had no child” (Genesis 11:30). The superfluous words: “She had no child,” indicate that she did not have even a place, i.e., a womb, for a child.
(כז) וַיִּבְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ בְּצַלְמ֔וֹ בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּרָ֣א אֹת֑וֹ זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בָּרָ֥א אֹתָֽם׃
(27) And God created humankind in the divine image, creating it in the image of God— creating them male and female.
(ו) הַ לְיְהֹוָה֙ תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹ֔את עַ֥ם נָבָ֖ל וְלֹ֣א חָכָ֑ם הֲלוֹא־הוּא֙ אָבִ֣יךָ קָּנֶ֔ךָ ה֥וּא עָשְׂךָ֖ וַֽיְכֹנְנֶֽךָ׃
(6) Do you thus requite יהוה, O dull and witless people? Is not this the Father who created you— Fashioned you and made you endure!
(יג) יַרְכִּבֵ֙הוּ֙ עַל־[בָּ֣מֳתֵי] (במותי) אָ֔רֶץ וַיֹּאכַ֖ל תְּנוּבֹ֣ת שָׂדָ֑י וַיֵּנִקֵ֤הֽוּ דְבַשׁ֙ מִסֶּ֔לַע וְשֶׁ֖מֶן מֵחַלְמִ֥ישׁ צֽוּר׃
(13) [God] set them atop the highlands, To feast on the yield of the earth; Nursing them with honey from the crag, And oil from the flinty rock,
(יח) צ֥וּר יְלָדְךָ֖ תֶּ֑שִׁי וַתִּשְׁכַּ֖ח אֵ֥ל מְחֹלְלֶֽךָ׃
(18) You neglected the Rock who begot you, Forgot the God who labored to bring you forth.
(יד) הֶחֱשֵׁ֙יתִי֙ מֵֽעוֹלָ֔ם אַחֲרִ֖ישׁ אֶתְאַפָּ֑ק כַּיּוֹלֵדָ֣ה אֶפְעֶ֔ה אֶשֹּׁ֥ם וְאֶשְׁאַ֖ף יָֽחַד׃
(14) “I have kept silent far too long, Kept still and restrained Myself; Now I will scream like a woman in labor, I will pant and I will gasp.
(יח) לֵ֗ב חֹ֭רֵשׁ מַחְשְׁב֣וֹת אָ֑וֶן רַגְלַ֥יִם מְ֝מַהֲר֗וֹת לָר֥וּץ לָֽרָעָֽה׃ (יט) יָפִ֣יחַ כְּ֭זָבִים עֵ֣ד שָׁ֑קֶר וּמְשַׁלֵּ֥חַ מְ֝דָנִ֗ים בֵּ֣ין אַחִֽים׃ {פ} (כ) נְצֹ֣ר בְּ֭נִי מִצְוַ֣ת אָבִ֑יךָ וְאַל־תִּ֝טֹּ֗שׁ תּוֹרַ֥ת אִמֶּֽךָ׃
(18) A mind that hatches evil plots, Feet quick to run to evil, (19) A false witness testifying lies, And one who incites brothers to quarrel. (20) My son, keep your father’s commandment; Do not forsake your mother’s teaching.
(כב) יְֽהֹוָ֗ה קָ֭נָנִי רֵאשִׁ֣ית דַּרְכּ֑וֹ קֶ֖דֶם מִפְעָלָ֣יו מֵאָֽז׃ (כג) מֵ֭עוֹלָם נִסַּ֥כְתִּי מֵרֹ֗אשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָֽרֶץ׃ (כד) בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמ֥וֹת חוֹלָ֑לְתִּי בְּאֵ֥ין מַ֝עְיָנ֗וֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָֽיִם׃ (כה) בְּטֶ֣רֶם הָרִ֣ים הׇטְבָּ֑עוּ לִפְנֵ֖י גְבָע֣וֹת חוֹלָֽלְתִּי׃ (כו) עַד־לֹ֣א עָ֭שָׂה אֶ֣רֶץ וְחוּצ֑וֹת וְ֝רֹ֗אשׁ עַפְר֥וֹת תֵּבֵֽל׃ (כז) בַּהֲכִינ֣וֹ שָׁ֭מַיִם שָׁ֣ם אָ֑נִי בְּחֻ֥קוֹ ח֝֗וּג עַל־פְּנֵ֥י תְהֽוֹם׃ (כח) בְּאַמְּצ֣וֹ שְׁחָקִ֣ים מִמָּ֑עַל בַּ֝עֲז֗וֹז עִינ֥וֹת תְּהֽוֹם׃ (כט) בְּשׂ֘וּמ֤וֹ לַיָּ֨ם ׀ חֻקּ֗וֹ וּ֭מַיִם לֹ֣א יַֽעַבְרוּ־פִ֑יו בְּ֝חוּק֗וֹ מ֣וֹסְדֵי אָֽרֶץ׃ (ל) וָאֶהְיֶ֥ה אֶצְל֗וֹ אָ֫מ֥וֹן וָאֶהְיֶ֣ה שַׁ֭עֲשׁוּעִים י֤וֹם ׀ י֑וֹם מְשַׂחֶ֖קֶת לְפָנָ֣יו בְּכׇל־עֵֽת׃
(22) “The LORD created me at the beginning of His course As the first of His works of old. (23) In the distant past I was fashioned, At the beginning, at the origin of earth. (24) There was still no deep when I was brought forth, No springs rich in water; (25) Before [the foundations of] the mountains were sunk, Before the hills I was born. (26) He had not yet made earth and fields, Or the world’s first clumps of clay. (27) I was there when He set the heavens into place; When He fixed the horizon upon the deep; (28) When He made the heavens above firm, And the fountains of the deep gushed forth; (29) When He assigned the sea its limits, So that its waters never transgress His command; When He fixed the foundations of the earth, (30) I was with Him as a confidant, A source of delight every day, Rejoicing before Him at all times,
אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִילַאי: כׇּל אָדָם שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה — שָׁרוּי בְּלֹא שִׂמְחָה, בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, בְּלֹא טוֹבָה. בְּלֹא שִׂמְחָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״וְשָׂמַחְתָּ אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ״. בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״לְהָנִיחַ בְּרָכָה אֶל בֵּיתֶךָ״. בְּלֹא טוֹבָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״לֹא טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ״.
§ Apropos the discussion with regard to the mitzva to have children, the Gemara cites statements about marriage in general. Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Ḥanilai said: Any man who does not have a wife is left without joy, without blessing, without goodness. He proceeds to quote verses to support each part of his statement. He is without joy, as it is written: “And you shall rejoice, you and your household” (Deuteronomy 14:26), which indicates that a man is in a joyful state only when he is with his household, i.e., his wife. He is without blessing, as it is written: “To cause a blessing to rest in your house” (Ezekiel 44:30), which indicates that blessing comes through one’s house, i.e., one’s wife. He is without goodness, as it is written: “It is not good that man should be alone” (Genesis 2:18), i.e., without a wife.
רָבָא אָמַר: מְקַשְּׁטָא לֵיהּ תַּכָּא וּמַהְדְּרָא לֵיהּ גַּבָּא. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא: כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָּשָׂא אָדָם אִשָּׁה עֲוֹנוֹתָיו מִתְפַּקְּקִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״מָצָא אִשָּׁה מָצָא טוֹב וַיָּפֶק רָצוֹן מֵה׳״. בְּמַעְרְבָא כִּי נָסֵיב אִינָשׁ אִיתְּתָא, אָמְרִי לֵיהּ הָכִי: ״מָצָא״ אוֹ ״מוֹצֵא״? ״מָצָא״ דִּכְתִיב: ״מָצָא אִשָּׁה מָצָא טוֹב״, מוֹצֵא דִּכְתִיב: ״וּמוֹצֶא אֲנִי מַר מִמָּוֶת אֶת הָאִשָּׁה״. אָמַר רָבָא: אִשָּׁה רָעָה מִצְוָה לְגָרְשָׁהּ, דִּכְתִיב: ״גָּרֵשׁ לֵץ וְיֵצֵא מָדוֹן וְיִשְׁבּוֹת דִּין וְקָלוֹן״, וְאָמַר רָבָא: אִשָּׁה רָעָה וּכְתוּבָּתָהּ מְרוּבָּה — צָרָתָהּ בְּצִדָּהּ. דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי: בַּחֲבִרְתַּהּ, וְלָא בְּסִילְתָּא. וְאָמַר רָבָא: קָשָׁה אִשָּׁה רָעָה כְּיוֹם סַגְרִיר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״דֶּלֶף טוֹרֵד בְּיוֹם סַגְרִיר וְאֵשֶׁת מִדְיָנִים נִשְׁתָּוָה״. וְאָמַר רָבָא: בֹּא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה טוֹבָה אִשָּׁה טוֹבָה, וְכַמָּה רָעָה אִשָּׁה רָעָה. כַּמָּה טוֹבָה אִשָּׁה טוֹבָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״מָצָא אִשָּׁה מָצָא טוֹב״, אִי בְּגַוַּהּ מִשְׁתַּעֵי קְרָא — כַּמָּה טוֹבָה אִשָּׁה טוֹבָה, שֶׁהַכָּתוּב מְשַׁבְּחָהּ. אִי בַּתּוֹרָה מִשְׁתַּעֵי קְרָא — כַּמָּה טוֹבָה אִשָּׁה טוֹבָה, שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה נִמְשְׁלָה בָּהּ.
And Rava said: Come and see how good a good wife is and how bad a bad wife is. How good is a good wife? As it is written: Whoever finds a wife finds good. If the verse speaks of her, a wife, this demonstrates how good a good wife is, as the Bible praises her. If the verse speaks metaphorically of the Torah, it nevertheless indicates how good a good wife is, as the Torah is compared to her.
מְלַמֵּד שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׁוֹשְׁבִינוּת לָאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, מִכָּאן לַגָּדוֹל שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שׁוֹשְׁבִינוּת לַקָּטָן וְאַל יֵרַע לוֹ. וּלְמַאן דְּאָמַר פַּרְצוּף, הֵי מִינַּיְיהוּ סָגֵי בְּרֵישָׁא? אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: מִסְתַּבְּרָא דְּזָכָר סָגֵי בְּרֵישָׁא, דְּתַנְיָא: לֹא יְהַלֵּךְ אָדָם אֲחוֹרֵי אִשָּׁה בַּדֶּרֶךְ, וַאֲפִילּוּ הִיא אִשְׁתּוֹ. נִזְדַּמְּנָה עַל הַגֶּשֶׁר יְסַלְּקֶנָּה לִצְדָדִין. וְכׇל הָעוֹבֵר אֲחוֹרֵי אִשָּׁה בַּנָּהָר — אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא.
This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, was Adam the first man’s best man, attending to all his wedding needs and bringing his wife to him. From here we learn that a greater individual should serve as a best man for a lesser individual and should not feel bad about it as something beneath his dignity. The Gemara asks: And according to the one who says that Eve was a face or side of Adam, which one of them walked in front? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable to say that the male walked in front, as this is proper behavior, as it was taught in a baraita: A man should not walk behind a woman on a path, even if she is his wife. If she happens upon him on a bridge, he should walk quickly in order to catch up to her and consequently move her to his side, so that she will not walk before him. And anyone who walks behind a woman in a river, where she has to lift up her skirt in order to cross, has no share in the World-to-Come.
(ד) רִ֤יבוּ בְאִמְּכֶם֙ רִ֔יבוּ כִּי־הִיא֙ לֹ֣א אִשְׁתִּ֔י וְאָנֹכִ֖י לֹ֣א אִישָׁ֑הּ וְתָסֵ֤ר זְנוּנֶ֙יהָ֙ מִפָּנֶ֔יהָ וְנַאֲפוּפֶ֖יהָ מִבֵּ֥ין שָׁדֶֽיהָ׃
(4) Rebuke your mother, rebuke her— For she is not My wife And I am not her husband— And let her put away her harlotry from her face And her adultery from between her breasts.
(יח) וְהָיָ֤ה בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה תִּקְרְאִ֖י אִישִׁ֑י וְלֹא־תִקְרְאִי־לִ֥י ע֖וֹד בַּעְלִֽי׃
(18) And in that day —declares the LORD— You will call [Me] Ishi, And no more will you call Me Baali.
(ה) כִּ֤י בֹעֲלַ֙יִךְ֙ עֹשַׂ֔יִךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ וְגֹֽאֲלֵךְ֙ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֱלֹהֵ֥י כׇל־הָאָ֖רֶץ יִקָּרֵֽא׃
(5) For He who made you will espouse you— His name is “LORD of Hosts.” The Holy One of Israel will redeem you— He is called “God of all the Earth.”
(ט) רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר, שְׁלשָׁה בְּרִיּוֹת הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בּוֹרֵא בְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם, בְּאֶחָד בָּרָא שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ וְאוֹרָה. בַּשֵּׁנִי, רָקִיעַ וְגֵיהִנֹּם וּמַלְאָכִים. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, אִילָנוֹת וּדְשָׁאִין וְגַן עֵדֶן. בָּרְבִיעִי, חַמָּה וּלְבָנָה וּמַזָּלוֹת. בַּחֲמִישִׁי, עוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים וְלִוְיָתָן. בַּשִּׁשִּׁי, אָדָם וְחַוָּה וּרְמָשִׂים. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּנְחָס בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בָּרָא שִׁשָּׁה, אָדָם, וְחַוָּה, וְרֶמֶשׂ, וּבְהֵמָה, וְחַיָה, וּמְרִיאִים. אָמַר רַבִּי בְּנָיָא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים וְעָשָׂה אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת, כָּל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָתִיד לִבְרֹאת בַּשְּׁבִיעִי, הִקְדִּים וּבָרָא אוֹתוֹ בַּשִּׁשִּׁי.
(9) Rabbi Levi said in the name of Rabbi Chama bar Chanina: Three creations created The Holy One, blessed be He, on each day: on the first, heaven, earth, and light; on the second, the firmament, Gehenna, and the angels; on the third, trees, herbs, and the Garden of Eden; on the fourth, the sun, the moon, and the constellations; on the fifth, birds, fish, and the Leviathan; on the sixth, Adam, Eve, and moving creatures. Rabbi Pinchas said: On the sixth He created six things: Adam, Eve, moving creatures, cattle, wild beasts, and demons. Rabbi Benayah said: "That God created and did/made" is not written here, but "that God created to do/make": All that the Holy One, blessed be He, would have created on the seventh, He did earlier and created it on the sixth.
רַבִּי חֲנִינָא מִיעֲטֵף וְקָאֵי אַפַּנְיָא דְמַעֲלֵי שַׁבְּתָא, אָמַר: ״בּוֹאוּ וְנֵצֵא לִקְרַאת שַׁבָּת הַמַּלְכָּה״. רַבִּי יַנַּאי לָבֵישׁ מָאנֵי מְעַלּוּ (שַׁבָּת) [וּמִיכַּסֵּי], וְאָמַר: ״בּוֹאִי כַלָּה, בּוֹאִי כַלָּה״.
Rabbi Ḥanina would wrap himself in his garment and stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve, and say: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride.
(א) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־אַבְרָ֔ם לֶךְ־לְךָ֛ מֵאַרְצְךָ֥ וּמִמּֽוֹלַדְתְּךָ֖ וּמִבֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַרְאֶֽךָּ׃
(1) יהוה said to Abram, “Go forth from your native land and from your father’s house to the land that I will show you.
(יא) וְאַבְרָהָ֤ם וְשָׂרָה֙ זְקֵנִ֔ים בָּאִ֖ים בַּיָּמִ֑ים חָדַל֙ לִהְי֣וֹת לְשָׂרָ֔ה אֹ֖רַח כַּנָּשִֽׁים׃
(11) Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years; Sarah had stopped having her periods.
(יד) וְהָיָ֣ה הַֽנַּעֲרָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֹמַ֤ר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ הַטִּי־נָ֤א כַדֵּךְ֙ וְאֶשְׁתֶּ֔ה וְאָמְרָ֣ה שְׁתֵ֔ה וְגַם־גְּמַלֶּ֖יךָ אַשְׁקֶ֑ה אֹתָ֤הּ הֹכַ֙חְתָּ֙ לְעַבְדְּךָ֣ לְיִצְחָ֔ק וּבָ֣הּ אֵדַ֔ע כִּי־עָשִׂ֥יתָ חֶ֖סֶד עִם־אֲדֹנִֽי׃
(14) let the maiden to whom I say, ‘Please, lower your jar that I may drink,’ and who replies, ‘Drink, and I will also water your camels’—let her be the one whom You have decreed for Your servant Isaac. Thereby shall I know that You have dealt graciously with my master.”
(טז) וְהַֽנַּעֲרָ֗ טֹבַ֤ת מַרְאֶה֙ מְאֹ֔ד בְּתוּלָ֕ה וְאִ֖ישׁ לֹ֣א יְדָעָ֑הּ וַתֵּ֣רֶד הָעַ֔יְנָה וַתְּמַלֵּ֥א כַדָּ֖הּ וַתָּֽעַל׃
(16) The maiden was very beautiful—[and] a virgin, no man having known her. She went down to the spring, filled her jar, and came up.
(כח) וַתָּ֙רׇץ֙ הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ וַתַּגֵּ֖ד לְבֵ֣ית אִמָּ֑הּ כַּדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה׃
(28) The maiden ran and told all this to her mother’s household.
(נה) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אָחִ֙יהָ֙ וְאִמָּ֔הּ תֵּשֵׁ֨ב הַנַּעֲרָ֥ אִתָּ֛נוּ יָמִ֖ים א֣וֹ עָשׂ֑וֹר אַחַ֖ר תֵּלֵֽךְ׃
(55) But her brother and her mother said, “Let the maiden remain with us some ten days; then you may go.”
(נז) וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ נִקְרָ֣א לַֽנַּעֲרָ֑ וְנִשְׁאֲלָ֖ה אֶת־פִּֽיהָ׃
(57) And they said, “Let us call the girl and ask for her reply.”
(יא) וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יַעֲקֹ֔ב אֶל־רִבְקָ֖ה אִמּ֑וֹ הֵ֣ן עֵשָׂ֤ו אָחִי֙ אִ֣ישׁ שָׂעִ֔ר וְאָנֹכִ֖י אִ֥ישׁ חָלָֽק׃
(11) Jacob answered his mother Rebekah, “But my brother Esau is a hairy man and I am smooth-skinned.
(כה) וַיֵּצֵ֤א הָרִאשׁוֹן֙ אַדְמוֹנִ֔י כֻּלּ֖וֹ כְּאַדֶּ֣רֶת שֵׂעָ֑ר וַיִּקְרְא֥וּ שְׁמ֖וֹ עֵשָֽׂו׃ (כו) וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֞ן יָצָ֣א אָחִ֗יו וְיָד֤וֹ אֹחֶ֙זֶת֙ בַּעֲקֵ֣ב עֵשָׂ֔ו וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יַעֲקֹ֑ב וְיִצְחָ֛ק בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה בְּלֶ֥דֶת אֹתָֽם׃
(25) The first one emerged red, like a hairy mantle all over; so they named him Esau. (26) Then his brother emerged, holding on to the heel of Esau; so they named him Jacob. Isaac was sixty years old when they were born.
(לג) וַיֶּחֱרַ֨ד יִצְחָ֣ק חֲרָדָה֮ גְּדֹלָ֣ה עַד־מְאֹד֒ וַיֹּ֡אמֶר מִֽי־אֵפ֡וֹא ה֣וּא הַצָּֽד־צַ֩יִד֩ וַיָּ֨בֵא לִ֜י וָאֹכַ֥ל מִכֹּ֛ל בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא וָאֲבָרְכֵ֑הוּ גַּם־בָּר֖וּךְ יִהְיֶֽה׃ (לד) כִּשְׁמֹ֤עַ עֵשָׂו֙ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י אָבִ֔יו וַיִּצְעַ֣ק צְעָקָ֔ה גְּדֹלָ֥ה וּמָרָ֖ה עַד־מְאֹ֑ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאָבִ֔יו בָּרְכֵ֥נִי גַם־אָ֖נִי אָבִֽי׃
(33) Isaac was seized with very violent trembling. “Who was it then,” he demanded, “that hunted game and brought it to me? Moreover, I ate of it before you came, and I blessed him; now he must remain blessed!” (34) When Esau heard his father’s words, he burst into wild and bitter sobbing, and said to his father, “Bless me too, Father!”
(יח) וְעָלֶ֙יהָ֙ כְּתֹ֣נֶת פַּסִּ֔ים כִּי֩ כֵ֨ן תִּלְבַּ֧שְׁןָ בְנוֹת־הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ הַבְּתוּלֹ֖ת מְעִילִ֑ים וַיֹּצֵ֨א אוֹתָ֤הּ מְשָֽׁרְתוֹ֙ הַח֔וּץ וְנָעַ֥ל הַדֶּ֖לֶת אַחֲרֶֽיהָ׃
(18) She was wearing an ornamented tunic, for maiden princesses were customarily dressed in such garments.—His attendant took her outside and barred the door after her.
(ו) וַיַּעֲזֹ֣ב כׇּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֮ בְּיַד־יוֹסֵף֒ וְלֹא־יָדַ֤ע אִתּוֹ֙ מְא֔וּמָה כִּ֥י אִם־הַלֶּ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁר־ה֣וּא אוֹכֵ֑ל וַיְהִ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף יְפֵה־תֹ֖אַר וִיפֵ֥ה מַרְאֶֽה׃
(6) He left all that he had in Joseph’s hands and, with him there, he paid attention to nothing save the food that he ate. Now Joseph was well built and handsome.
אמר רבי יוחנן אנא אישתיירי משפירי ירושלים האי מאן דבעי מחזי שופריה דרבי יוחנן נייתי כסא דכספא מבי סלקי ונמלייה פרצידיא דרומנא סומקא ונהדר ליה כלילא דוורדא סומקא לפומיה ונותביה בין שמשא לטולא ההוא זהרורי מעין שופריה דר' יוחנן איני והאמר מר שופריה דרב כהנא מעין שופריה דרבי אבהו שופריה דר' אבהו מעין שופריה דיעקב אבינו שופריה דיעקב אבינו מעין שופריה דאדם הראשון ואילו ר' יוחנן לא קא חשיב ליה שאני ר' יוחנן דהדרת פנים לא הויא ליה ר' יוחנן הוה אזיל ויתיב אשערי טבילה אמר כי סלקן בנות ישראל מטבילת מצוה לפגעו בי כי היכי דלהוו להו בני שפירי כוותי גמירי אורייתא כוותי אמרו ליה רבנן לא מסתפי מר מעינא בישא אמר להו אנא מזרעא דיוסף קאתינא דלא שלטא ביה עינא בישא דכתיב (בראשית מט, כב) בן פורת יוסף בן פורת עלי עין ואמר ר' אבהו אל תקרי עלי עין אלא עולי עין ר' יוסי בר חנינא אמר מהכא (בראשית מח, טז) וידגו לרוב בקרב הארץ מה דגים שבים מים מכסים אותם ואין העין שולטת בהן אף זרעו של יוסף אין העין שולטת בהן יומא חד הוה קא סחי ר' יוחנן בירדנא חזייה ריש לקיש ושוור לירדנא אבתריה אמר ליה חילך לאורייתא אמר ליה שופרך לנשי א"ל אי הדרת בך יהיבנא לך אחותי דשפירא מינאי קביל עליה בעי למיהדר לאתויי מאניה ולא מצי הדר
With regard to Rabbi Yoḥanan’s physical features, the Gemara adds that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: I alone remain of the beautiful people of Jerusalem. The Gemara continues: One who wishes to see something resembling the beauty of Rabbi Yoḥanan should bring a new, shiny silver goblet from the smithy and fill it with red pomegranate seeds [partzidaya] and place a diadem of red roses upon the lip of the goblet, and position it between the sunlight and shade. That luster is a semblance of Rabbi Yoḥanan’s beauty. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Was Rabbi Yoḥanan so beautiful? But doesn’t the Master say: The beauty of Rav Kahana is a semblance of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu; the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu is a semblance of the beauty of Jacob, our forefather; and the beauty of Jacob, our forefather, is a semblance of the beauty of Adam the first man, who was created in the image of God. And yet Rabbi Yoḥanan is not included in this list. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥanan is different from these other men, as he did not have a beauty of countenance, i.e., he did not have a beard. The Gemara continues to discuss Rabbi Yoḥanan’s beauty. Rabbi Yoḥanan would go and sit by the entrance to the ritual bath. He said to himself: When Jewish women come up from their immersion for the sake of a mitzva, after their menstruation, they should encounter me first, so that they have beautiful children like me, and sons learned in Torah like me. This is based on the idea that the image upon which a woman meditates during intercourse affects the child she conceives. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: Isn’t the Master worried about being harmed by the evil eye by displaying yourself in this manner? Rabbi Yoḥanan said to them: I come from the offspring of Joseph, over whom the evil eye does not have dominion, as it is written: “Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountain [alei ayin]” (Genesis 49:22); and Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not read the verse as saying: “By a fountain [alei ayin]”; rather, read it as: Those who rise above the evil eye [olei ayin]. Joseph’s descendants are not susceptible to the influence of the evil eye. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said that this idea is derived from here: “And let them grow [veyidgu] into a multitude in the midst of the earth” (Genesis 48:16). Just as with regard to fish [dagim] in the sea, the water covers them and the evil eye therefore has no dominion over them, as they are not seen, so too, with regard to the offspring of Joseph, the evil eye has no dominion over them. The Gemara relates: One day, Rabbi Yoḥanan was bathing in the Jordan River. Reish Lakish saw him and jumped into the Jordan, pursuing him. At that time, Reish Lakish was the leader of a band of marauders. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to Reish Lakish: Your strength is fit for Torah study. Reish Lakish said to him: Your beauty is fit for women. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: If you return to the pursuit of Torah, I will give you my sister in marriage, who is more beautiful than I am. Reish Lakish accepted upon himself to study Torah. Subsequently, Reish Lakish wanted to jump back out of the river to bring back his clothes, but he was unable to return, as he had lost his physical strength as soon as he accepted the responsibility to study Torah upon himself.
(ה) וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶל־נְעָרָ֗יו שְׁבוּ־לָכֶ֥ם פֹּה֙ עִֽם־הַחֲמ֔וֹר וַאֲנִ֣י וְהַנַּ֔עַר נֵלְכָ֖ה עַד־כֹּ֑ה וְנִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖ה וְנָשׁ֥וּבָה אֲלֵיכֶֽם׃ (ו) וַיִּקַּ֨ח אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֶת־עֲצֵ֣י הָעֹלָ֗ה וַיָּ֙שֶׂם֙ עַל־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֔וֹ וַיִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָד֔וֹ אֶת־הָאֵ֖שׁ וְאֶת־הַֽמַּאֲכֶ֑לֶת וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם יַחְדָּֽו׃
(5) Then Abraham said to his servants, “You stay here with the ass. The boy and I will go up there; we will worship and we will return to you.” (6) Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and put it on his son Isaac. He himself took the firestone and the knife; and the two walked off together.
(ט) וַיָּבֹ֗אוּ אֶֽל־הַמָּקוֹם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָֽמַר־ל֣וֹ הָאֱלֹהִים֒ וַיִּ֨בֶן שָׁ֤ם אַבְרָהָם֙ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וַֽיַּעֲרֹ֖ךְ אֶת־הָעֵצִ֑ים וַֽיַּעֲקֹד֙ אֶת־יִצְחָ֣ק בְּנ֔וֹ וַיָּ֤שֶׂם אֹתוֹ֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ מִמַּ֖עַל לָעֵצִֽים׃
(9) They arrived at the place of which God had told him. Abraham built an altar there; he laid out the wood; he bound his son Isaac; he laid him on the altar, on top of the wood.
וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב יִצְחָ֖ק בִּגְרָֽר׃
So Isaac stayed in Gerar.
וַֽיִּשְׁאֲל֞וּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמָּקוֹם֙ לְאִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֑וא כִּ֤י יָרֵא֙ לֵאמֹ֣ר אִשְׁתִּ֔י פֶּן־יַֽהַרְגֻ֜נִי אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמָּקוֹם֙ עַל־רִבְקָ֔ה כִּֽי־טוֹבַ֥ת מַרְאֶ֖ה הִֽוא׃
When the local leaders asked him about his wife, he said, “She is my sister,” for he was afraid to say “my wife,” thinking, “The local leaders might kill me on account of Rebekah, for she is beautiful.”
וַיְהִ֗י כִּ֣י אָֽרְכוּ־ל֥וֹ שָׁם֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וַיַּשְׁקֵ֗ף אֲבִימֶ֙לֶךְ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים בְּעַ֖ד הַֽחַלּ֑וֹן וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה יִצְחָק֙ מְצַחֵ֔ק אֵ֖ת רִבְקָ֥ה אִשְׁתּֽוֹ׃
When some time had passed, Abimelech king of the Philistines, looking out of the window, saw Isaac fondling his wife Rebekah.
וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ לְיִצְחָ֗ק וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַ֣ךְ הִנֵּ֤ה אִשְׁתְּךָ֙ הִ֔וא וְאֵ֥יךְ אָמַ֖רְתָּ אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֑וא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ יִצְחָ֔ק כִּ֣י אָמַ֔רְתִּי פֶּן־אָמ֖וּת עָלֶֽיהָ׃
Abimelech sent for Isaac and said, “So she is your wife! Why then did you say: ‘She is my sister’?” Isaac said to him, “Because I thought I might lose my life on account of her.”
וַיָּ֨שׇׁב יִצְחָ֜ק וַיַּחְפֹּ֣ר ׀ אֶת־בְּאֵרֹ֣ת הַמַּ֗יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר חָֽפְרוּ֙ בִּימֵי֙ אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֔יו וַיְסַתְּמ֣וּם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אַחֲרֵ֖י מ֣וֹת אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֤א לָהֶן֙ שֵׁמ֔וֹת כַּשֵּׁמֹ֕ת אֲשֶׁר־קָרָ֥א לָהֶ֖ן אָבִֽיו׃
Isaac dug anew the wells which had been dug in the days of his father Abraham and which the Philistines had stopped up after Abraham’s death; and he gave them the same names that his father had given them.
וַיְבִאֶ֣הָ יִצְחָ֗ק הָאֹ֙הֱלָה֙ שָׂרָ֣ה אִמּ֔וֹ וַיִּקַּ֧ח אֶת־רִבְקָ֛ה וַתְּהִי־ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֖ה וַיֶּאֱהָבֶ֑הָ וַיִּנָּחֵ֥ם יִצְחָ֖ק אַחֲרֵ֥י אִמּֽוֹ׃ {פ}
Isaac then brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah, and he took Rebekah as his wife. Isaac loved her, and thus found comfort after his mother’s death.