Kabbalas Shabbos is not just Tefilla, but a state of mind:
- Accepting obligations and prohibitions of Shabbos
- Greeting Shabbos
The term "KABBALAS Shabbos" does not appear in the Mishnah or Gemara; we do find examples of acts done in preparation for Shabbos:
1. Accepting obligations and prohibitions of Shabbos:
2. Greeting Shabbos
Absent in both excerpts are actual directives to perform acts of Kabbalas Shabbos.
- This may explain why the two major Siddurim from era of the Ge’onim – Seder Rav Amram Gaon and the Siddur Rav Saadya Gaon – omit any reference to Kabbalas Shabbos.
- Mishneh Brurah explains that answering ברכו signals start of Maariv, and at that moment all work must cease. [Women light candles when they are ready to accept the particulars of Shabbos, but men should really be conscious to affirmatively accept the obligations and prohibitions of Shabbos during Mizmor Shir.]
- Saying Tehillim 92 probably began among Sefardim (based on Sefer HaMinhagim Hilchos Shabbos p. 133), and later adopted by Ashkenazim.
Siddurim today identify Kabbalas Shabbos as the chapters of Tehillim and Lecha Dodi, etc.
- This is a relatively recent addition, which occurred after the death of the ARI.
Sources that make comparisons of Shabbos to מלכה and כלה: