עָבֵידְנָא יוֹמָא טָבָא לְרַבָּנַן. אָמַר רָבָא תֵּיתֵי לִי, דְּכִי אֲתָא צוּרְבָּא מֵרַבָּנַן לְקַמַּאי לְדִינָא, לָא מָזֵיגְנָא רֵישִׁי אַבֵּי סַדְיָא כַּמָּה דְּלָא מְהַפֵּיכְנָא בְּזָכוּתֵיהּ. אָמַר מָר בַּר רַב אָשֵׁי: פְּסִילְנָא לֵיהּ לְצוּרְבָּא מֵרַבָּנַן לְדִינָא. מַאי טַעְמָא? — דְּחַבִּיב עֲלַי כְּגוּפַאי, וְאֵין אָדָם רוֹאֶה חוֹבָה לְעַצְמוֹ.
I make a feast for the Sages. Rava said: May I receive my reward because when a young Torah scholar comes before me for judgment, I do not put my head on the pillow until I seek as many of his merits as possible, based on conditions and his claims. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: I am disqualified to sit in judgment of a young Torah scholar. What is the reason that I am disqualified? It is because the Torah scholar is as beloved to me as my own self, and a person does not find fault in himself.
רַבִּי חֲנִינָא מִיעֲטֵף וְקָאֵי אַפַּנְיָא דְמַעֲלֵי שַׁבְּתָא, אָמַר: ״בּוֹאוּ וְנֵצֵא לִקְרַאת שַׁבָּת הַמַּלְכָּה״. רַבִּי יַנַּאי לָבֵישׁ מָאנֵי מְעַלּוּ (שַׁבָּת) [וּמִיכַּסֵּי], וְאָמַר: ״בּוֹאִי כַלָּה, בּוֹאִי כַלָּה״. רַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא אִיקְּלַע לְבֵי רַבָּה בַּר רַב נַחְמָן. קָרִיבוּ לֵיהּ תְּלָת סָאוֵי טַחְיֵי. אֲמַר לְהוּ: מִי הֲוָה יָדְעִיתוּן דְּאָתֵינָא? אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ: מִי עֲדִיפַתְּ לַן מִינַּהּ?
The Gemara now returns to the issue of delight in and deference to Shabbat. Rabbi Ḥanina would wrap himself in his garment and stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve, and say: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride. The Gemara relates: Rabba bar Rav Huna happened to come to the house of Rabba bar Rav Naḥman. They brought before him three se’a of oiled biscuits. He said to them: Did you know I was coming and prepared all of this in my honor? They said to him: Are you more important to us than Shabbat? The biscuits were prepared in deference to Shabbat.
רַבִּי אַבָּא זָבֵן בִּתְלֵיסַר אִסְתִּירֵי פְּשִׁיטֵי בִּישְׂרָא מִתְּלֵיסַר טַבָּחֵי, וּמְשַׁלֵּים לְהוּ אַצִּינּוֹרָא דְּדַשָּׁא, וַאֲמַר לְהוּ: ״אַשּׁוּר הַיָּיא, אַשּׁוּר הַיָּיא״. רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ הֲוָה יָתֵיב אַתַּכְתָּקָא דְשִׁינָּא וּמוֹשֵׁיף נוּרָא. רַב עָנָן לָבֵישׁ גּוּנְדָּא, דְּתָנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל: בְּגָדִים שֶׁבִּישֵּׁל בָּהֶן קְדֵירָה לְרַבּוֹ — אַל יִמְזוֹג בָּהֶן כּוֹס לְרַבּוֹ.
Rabbi Abba bought thirteen plain staters [astirei peshitei] worth half a zuz of meat from thirteen butchers in deference to Shabbat, so that he would have various types of fine meat. And he would place the meats at the door hinge at the entrance to his house to hurry to bring another type of meat. And he said to the cooks, in order to rush them: Hurry and prepare it, hurry and prepare it. The Gemara also relates: Rabbi Abbahu would sit on an ivory chair [takhteka] and fan the fire cooking the food for Shabbat, in order to play a role in preparations for Shabbat. Rav Anan would don a simple black garment for the Shabbat preparations, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: While wearing the garments in which he cooked a pot of food for his master, one should not dilute a cup of wine for his Master. One should wear a garment appropriate for the task at hand.
רַב סָפְרָא מְחָרֵיךְ רֵישָׁא. רָבָא מָלַח שִׁיבּוּטָא. רַב הוּנָא מַדְלֵיק שְׁרָגֵי. רַב פָּפָּא גָּדֵיל פְּתִילָתָא. רַב חִסְדָּא פָּרֵים סִילְקָא. רַבָּה וְרַב יוֹסֵף מְצַלְּחִי צִיבֵי. רַבִּי זֵירָא מְצַתֵּת צַתּוֹתֵי. רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק מְכַתֵּף וְעָיֵיל, מְכַתֵּף וְנָפֵיק. אָמַר: אִילּוּ מִקַּלְעִין לִי רַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי אַסִּי, מִי לָא מְכַתֵּיפְנָא קַמַּיְיהוּ? וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: רַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי אַסִּי מְכַתְּפִי וְעָיְילִי, מְכַתְּפִי וְנָפְקִי, אָמְרִי: אִילּוּ אִיקְּלַע לַן רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, מִי לָא מְכַתְּפִינַן קַמֵּיהּ?!
Rav Safra would roast the head of an animal to prepare it for Shabbat. Rava salted a shibuta fish in deference to Shabbat. Rav Huna kindled lamps in deference to Shabbat. Rav Pappa spun the wicks for the Shabbat lamp. Rav Ḥisda cut the beets in preparation for Shabbat. Rabba and Rav Yosef cut wood. Rabbi Zeira prepared thin sticks for kindling. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak would load objects on his shoulder and enter, load objects on his shoulder and exit. He said: If Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened to visit me, would I not load objects on my shoulder before them? So too, it is fitting to do so in deference to Shabbat. And some say that Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would load objects on their shoulders and enter, load objects on their shoulders and exit. They said: If Rabbi Yoḥanan happened to come to visit us, would we not load objects on our shoulders before him?
יוֹסֵף מוֹקַר שַׁבֵּי, הֲוָה הָהוּא גּוֹי בְּשִׁבָבוּתֵיהּ דַּהֲוָה נְפִישִׁי נִכְסֵיהּ טוּבָא. אָמְרִי לֵיהּ כַּלְדָּאֵי: כּוּלְּהוּ נִכְסֵי — יוֹסֵף מוֹקַר שַׁבֵּי אָכֵיל לְהוּ. אֲזַל זַבְּנִינְהוּ לְכוּלְּהוּ נִיכְסֵי, זְבַן בְּהוּ מַרְגָּנִיתָא, אוֹתְבַהּ בִּסְיָינֵיהּ. בַּהֲדֵי דְּקָא עָבַר מַבָּרָא — אַפְרְחֵיהּ זִיקָא, שַׁדְיֵיהּ בְּמַיָּא, בַּלְעֵיהּ כַּוְורָא. אַסְּקוּהּ, אַיְיתוּהּ אַפַּנְיָא דְּמַעֲלֵי שַׁבְּתָא. אָמְרִי: מַאן זָבֵין כִּי הַשְׁתָּא? אָמְרִי לְהוּ: זִילוּ אַמְטְיוּהּ לְגַבֵּי יוֹסֵף מוֹקַר שַׁבֵּי דִּרְגִיל דְּזָבֵין. אַמְטְיוּהּ נִיהֲלֵיהּ, זַבְנֵיהּ, קַרְעֵיהּ אַשְׁכַּח בֵּיהּ מַרְגָּנִיתָא. זַבְּנַיהּ בִּתְלֵיסַר עִילִּיָּתָא דְּדִינָרֵי דְּדַהֲבָא. פְּגַע בֵּיהּ הָהוּא סָבָא אֲמַר: מַאן דְּיָזֵיף שַׁבְּתָא — פַּרְעֵיהּ שַׁבְּתָא.
The Gemara relates with regard to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat: There was a gentile in his neighborhood whose property was extremely plentiful. The astrologers said to the gentile with regard to all his property: Yosef who cherishes Shabbat will consume it. The gentile went and sold all of his property, and with the money he received he bought a pearl, and he placed it in his hat. When he was crossing a river in a ferry, the wind blew his hat and cast it into the water, and a fish swallowed it. The fish was caught and removed from the water and it was brought to shore adjacent to nightfall on Shabbat eve. The fishermen said: Who buys fish at a time like this? The townspeople said to the fishermen: Go bring it to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat, as he regularly purchases delicacies in deference to Shabbat. They brought it to him and he purchased it. He ripped the fish open and found a pearl inside it. He sold it for thirteen vessels filled with golden dinars (Tosafot). This elderly man who encountered him and said: One who lends to Shabbat, Shabbat repays him.
בְּעָא מִינֵּיהּ רַבִּי מֵרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי: עֲשִׁירִים שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמָּה הֵן זוֹכִין? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁמְּעַשְּׂרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר״ — עַשֵּׂר בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁתִּתְעַשֵּׁר. שֶׁבְּבָבֶל בַּמָּה הֵן זוֹכִין? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁמְּכַבְּדִין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה.
Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: With regard to the wealthy of Eretz Yisrael, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they tithe, as it is stated: “A tithe you shall tithe [asser te’asser] from all the crops of your seed that come out of the field each year” (Deuteronomy 14:22). The Sages interpreted this homiletically: Take a tithe [asser] so that you will become wealthy [titasher]. He asked: With regard to the wealthy of Babylonia, who are not obligated to tithe, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor the Torah and the Sages in Babylonia.
וְשֶׁבִּשְׁאָר אֲרָצוֹת בַּמָּה הֵן זוֹכִין? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁמְּכַבְּדִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא: פַּעַם אַחַת נִתְאָרַחְתִּי אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת בְּלוּדְקִיָּא, וְהֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו שֻׁלְחָן שֶׁל זָהָב מַשּׂוֹי שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנֵי אָדָם, וְשֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שַׁלְשְׁלָאוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף קְבוּעוֹת בּוֹ, וּקְעָרוֹת וְכוֹסוֹת וְקִיתוֹנִיּוֹת וּצְלוֹחִיּוֹת קְבוּעוֹת בּוֹ, וְעָלָיו כׇּל מִינֵי מַאֲכָל וְכׇל מִינֵי מְגָדִים וּבְשָׂמִים. וּכְשֶׁמַּנִּיחִים אוֹתוֹ אוֹמְרִים: ״לַה׳ הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ וְגוֹ׳״. וּכְשֶׁמְּסַלְּקִין אוֹתוֹ אוֹמְרִים: ״הַשָּׁמַיִם שָׁמַיִם לַה׳ וְהָאָרֶץ נָתַן לִבְנֵי אָדָם״. אָמַרְתִּי לוֹ: בְּנִי בַּמֶּה זָכִיתָ לְכָךְ? אָמַר לִי: קַצָּב הָיִיתִי, וּמִכׇּל בְּהֵמָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נָאָה, אָמַרְתִּי: זוֹ תְּהֵא לַשַּׁבָּת. אָמַרְתִּי לוֹ: [אַשְׁרֶיךָ שֶׁזָּכִיתָ], וּבָרוּךְ הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁזִּיכְּךָ לְכָךְ.
With regard to the wealthy of other countries, where there are no Sages, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor Shabbat, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One time I was hosted at the home of a homeowner in Laodicea and they brought before him a table of gold that was so heavy it required sixteen people to carry it, and there were sixteen chains of silver attached to it, and there were bowls and cups and pitchers and flasks attached to it, and there were all sorts of food, and delicacies, and fragrant spices on it. And when they placed it there they would say: “The earth and all that fills it is God’s, the world and all that inhabit it” (Psalms 24:1). And when they removed it they would say: “The heavens are God’s heavens, but the earth He gave to mankind” (Psalms 115:16). I said to him: My son, what did you do to merit this? He said to me: I was a slaughterer, and when I would come across parts from every animal that I slaughtered that was fine, I would say: This will be for Shabbat. I said to him: Happy are you that you merited this, and blessed is God, Who has afforded you this merit.
אָמַר לוֹ קֵיסָר לְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חֲנַנְיָא: מִפְּנֵי מָה תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁל שַׁבָּת רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף? אָמַר לוֹ: תַּבְלִין אֶחָד יֵשׁ לָנוּ וְשַׁבָּת שְׁמוֹ, שֶׁאָנוּ מְטִילִין לְתוֹכוֹ וְרֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף. אָמַר לוֹ: תֵּן לָנוּ הֵימֶנּוּ. אָמַר לוֹ: כׇּל הַמְשַׁמֵּר אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת — מוֹעִיל לוֹ, וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְשַׁמֵּר אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת — אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לוֹ.
The Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥananya: Why does the fragrance of a cooked Shabbat dish diffuse? He said to him: We have a certain spice called dill [shevet], which we place in the cooked dishes and its fragrance diffuses. The emperor said to him: Give us some of it. He said to him: For anyone who observes Shabbat, the spice is effective, and for one who does not observe Shabbat, it is not effective.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רֵישׁ גָּלוּתָא לְרַב הַמְנוּנָא: מַאי דִּכְתִיב ״וְלִקְדוֹשׁ ה׳ מְכוּבָּד״? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: זֶה יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ לֹא אֲכִילָה וְלֹא שְׁתִיָּה, אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה: כַּבְּדֵהוּ בִּכְסוּת נְקִיָּה. ״וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ״, רַב אָמַר: לְהַקְדִּים, וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: לְאַחֵר. אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ בְּנֵי רַב פָּפָּא בַּר אַבָּא לְרַב פָּפָּא: כְּגוֹן אֲנַן, דִּשְׁכִיחַ לַן בִּישְׂרָא וְחַמְרָא כׇּל יוֹמָא, בְּמַאי נִישַׁנְּיֵיהּ? אֲמַר לְהוּ: אִי רְגִילִיתוּ לְאַקְדּוֹמֵי — אַחֲרוּהּ, אִי רְגִילִיתוּ לְאַחוֹרֵיהּ — אַקְדְּמוּהּ. רַב שֵׁשֶׁת בְּקַיְטָא מוֹתֵיב לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן הֵיכָא דְּמָטְיָא שִׁימְשָׁא. בְּסִיתְוָא מוֹתֵיב לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן הֵיכָא דְּמָטְיָא טוּלָּא, כִּי הֵיכִי דְּלֵיקוּמוּ הַיָּיא. רַבִּי זֵירָא
The Exilarch said to Rav Hamnuna: What is the meaning of that which is written, “The holy one of God is honored” (Isaiah 58:13)? Rav Hamnuna said to him: That is Yom Kippur, when there is no eating or drinking, and so the Torah said: Honor it with a clean garment. And with regard to that which is stated about Shabbat, “And you shall honor it,” Rav said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast earlier than on other days, in order to show that one delights in eating it. And Shmuel said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast later, so that one’s appetite will be greater. The sons of Rav Pappa bar Abba said to Rav Pappa: People like us, for whom meat and wine is found on our table every day, in what manner can we change it on Shabbat? He said to them: If you are accustomed to eating your meal early, make it later on Shabbat; if you are accustomed to making it late, make it earlier on Shabbat. This difference will underscore the uniqueness of Shabbat. The Gemara relates: In the summer, Rav Sheshet would seat the Sages who attended his lecture in a place where the sun would reach; in the winter, he would seat the Sages in a place where the shade would reach. He did this so that they would stand quickly after the lecture ended and not engage in discussion, which would detract from the time devoted to delighting in Shabbat. Rabbi Zeira