נשים במגילת רות - רות במקרא ובמדרש
1א
הדף מאת: תמי לוז-גרבר / המדרשה באורנים
2ב
הלימוד מתמקד בדמותה של רות: אישה מואבייה, אלמנה מבעלה, ערירית מילדים, שמצטרפת לחמותה במסע לארץ ישראל. נעקוב אחר דמותה של רות כפי שהיא עולה מן המקרא והמדרש.
3ג
מגילת רות, פרק ב'
וּלְנָעֳמִי מֹידַע {מוֹדַע} לְאִישָׁהּ אִישׁ גִּבּוֹר חַיִל מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת אֱלִימֶלֶךְ וּשְׁמוֹ בֹּעַז: (ב) וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה אֶל נָעֳמִי אֵלְכָה נָּא הַשָּׂדֶה וַאֲלַקֳטָה בַשִּׁבֳּלִים אַחַר אֲשֶׁר אֶמְצָא חֵן בְּעֵינָיו וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ לְכִי בִתִּי: (ג) וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּבוֹא וַתְּלַקֵּט בַּשָּׂדֶה אַחֲרֵי הַקֹּצְרִים וַיִּקֶר מִקְרֶהָ חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה לְבֹעַז אֲשֶׁר מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת אֱלִימֶלֶךְ: (ד) וְהִנֵּה בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים ה' עִמָּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ יְבָרֶכְךָ ה': (ה) וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּעַז לְנַעֲרוֹ הַנִּצָּב עַל הַקּוֹצְרִים לְמִי הַנַּעֲרָה הַזֹּאת: (ו) וַיַּעַן הַנַּעַר הַנִּצָּב עַל הַקּוֹצְרִים וַיֹּאמַר נַעֲרָה מוֹאֲבִיָּה הִיא הַשָּׁבָה עִם נָעֳמִי מִשְּׂדֵה מוֹאָב: (ז) וַתֹּאמֶר אֲלַקֳטָה נָּא וְאָסַפְתִּי בָעֳמָרִים אַחֲרֵי הַקּוֹצְרִים וַתָּבוֹא וַתַּעֲמוֹד מֵאָז הַבֹּקֶר וְעַד עַתָּה זֶה שִׁבְתָּהּ הַבַּיִת מְעָט: (ח) וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּעַז אֶל רוּת הֲלוֹא שָׁמַעַתְּ בִּתִּי אַל תֵּלְכִי לִלְקֹט בְּשָׂדֶה אַחֵר וְגַם לֹא תַעֲבוּרִי מִזֶּה וְכֹה תִדְבָּקִין עִם נַעֲרֹתָי: (ט) עֵינַיִךְ בַּשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר יִקְצֹרוּן וְהָלַכְתְּ אַחֲרֵיהֶן הֲלוֹא צִוִּיתִי אֶת הַנְּעָרִים לְבִלְתִּי נָגְעֵךְ וְצָמִת וְהָלַכְתְּ אֶל הַכֵּלִים וְשָׁתִית מֵאֲשֶׁר יִשְׁאֲבוּן הַנְּעָרִים: (י) וַתִּפֹּל עַל פָּנֶיהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַדּוּעַ מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ לְהַכִּירֵנִי וְאָנֹכִי נָכְרִיָּה: (יא) וַיַּעַן בֹּעַז וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הֻגֵּד הֻגַּד לִי כֹּל אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂית אֶת חֲמוֹתֵךְ אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אִישֵׁךְ וַתַּעַזְבִי אָבִיךְ וְאִמֵּךְ וְאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתֵּךְ וַתֵּלְכִי אֶל עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעַתְּ תְּמוֹל שִׁלְשׁוֹם: (יב) יְשַׁלֵּם ה' פָּעֳלֵךְ וּתְהִי מַשְׂכֻּרְתֵּךְ שְׁלֵמָה מֵעִם ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בָּאת לַחֲסוֹת תַּחַת כְּנָפָיו: (יג) וַתֹּאמֶר אֶמְצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֲדֹנִי כִּי נִחַמְתָּנִי וְכִי דִבַּרְתָּ עַל לֵב שִׁפְחָתֶךָ וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אֶהְיֶה כְּאַחַת שִׁפְחֹתֶיךָ: (יד) וַיֹּאמֶר לָה בֹעַז לְעֵת הָאֹכֶל גּשִׁי הֲלֹם וְאָכַלְתְּ מִן הַלֶּחֶם וְטָבַלְתְּ פִּתֵּךְ בַּחֹמֶץ וַתֵּשֶׁב מִצַּד הַקּוֹצְרִים וַיִּצְבָּט לָהּ קָלִי וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּע וַתֹּתַר: (טו) וַתָּקָם לְלַקֵּט וַיְצַו בֹּעַז אֶת נְעָרָיו לֵאמֹר גַּם בֵּין הָעֳמָרִים תְּלַקֵּט וְלֹא תַכְלִימוּהָ: (טז) וְגַם שֹׁל תָּשֹׁלּוּ לָהּ מִן הַצְּבָתִים וַעֲזַבְתֶּם וְלִקְּטָה וְלֹא תִגְעֲרוּ בָהּ: (יז) וַתְּלַקֵּט בַּשָּׂדֶה עַד הָעָרֶב וַתַּחְבֹּט אֵת אֲשֶׁר לִקֵּטָה וַיְהִי כְּאֵיפָה שְׂעֹרִים: (יח) וַתִּשָּׂא וַתָּבוֹא הָעִיר וַתֵּרֶא חֲמוֹתָהּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר לִקֵּטָה וַתּוֹצֵא וַתִּתֶּן לָהּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר הוֹתִרָה מִשָּׂבְעָהּ: (יט) וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ חֲמוֹתָהּ אֵיפֹה לִקַּטְתְּ הַיּוֹם וְאָנָה עָשִׂית יְהִי מַכִּירֵךְ בָּרוּךְ וַתַּגֵּד לַחֲמוֹתָהּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה עִמּוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר שֵׁם הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי עִמּוֹ הַיּוֹם בֹּעַז: (כ) וַתֹּאמֶר נָעֳמִי לְכַלָּתָהּ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַה' אֲשֶׁר לֹא עָזַב חַסְדּוֹ אֶת הַחַיִּים וְאֶת הַמֵּתִים וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ נָעֳמִי קָרוֹב לָנוּ הָאִישׁ מִגֹּאֲלֵנוּ הוּא: (כא) וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה גַּם כִּי אָמַר אֵלַי עִם הַנְּעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לִי תִּדְבָּקִין עַד אִם כִּלּוּ אֵת כָּל הַקָּצִיר אֲשֶׁר לִי: (כב) וַתֹּאמֶר נָעֳמִי אֶל רוּת כַּלָּתָהּ טוֹב בִּתִּי כִּי תֵּצְאִי עִם נעֲרוֹתָיו וְלֹא יִפְגְּעוּ בָךְ בְּשָׂדֶה אַחֵר: (כג) וַתִּדְבַּק בְּנַעֲרוֹת בֹּעַז לְלַקֵּט עַד כְּלוֹת קְצִיר הַשְּׂעֹרִים וּקְצִיר הַחִטִּים וַתֵּשֶׁב אֶת חֲמוֹתָהּ:
And Naomi had a kinsman of her husband’s, a mighty man of valour, of the family of Elimelech, and his name was Boaz. And Ruth the Moabitess said unto Naomi: ‘Let me now go to the field, and glean among the ears of corn after him in whose sight I shall find favour.’ And she said unto her: ‘Go, my daughter.’ And she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers; and her hap was to light on the portion of the field belonging unto Boaz, who was of the family of Elimelech. And, behold, Boaz came from Beth-lehem, and said unto the reapers: ‘The LORD be with you.’ And they answered him: ‘The LORD bless thee.’ Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the reapers: ‘Whose damsel is this?’ And the servant that was set over the reapers answered and said: ‘It is a Moabitish damsel that came back with Naomi out of the field of Moab; and she said: Let me glean, I pray you, and gather after the reapers among the sheaves; so she came, and hath continued even from the morning until now, save that she tarried a little in the house.’ Then said Boaz unto Ruth: ‘Hearest thou not, my daughter? Go not to glean in another field, neither pass from hence, but abide here fast by my maidens. Let thine eyes be on the field that they do reap, and go thou after them; have I not charged the young men that they shall not touch thee? and when thou art athirst, go unto the vessels, and drink of that which the young men have drawn.’ Then she fell on her face, and bowed down to the ground, and said unto him: ‘Why have I found favour in thy sight, that thou shouldest take cognizance of me, seeing I am a foreigner?’ And Boaz answered and said unto her: ‘It hath fully been told me, all that thou hast done unto thy mother-in-law since the death of thy husband; and how thou hast left thy father and thy mother, and the land of thy nativity, and art come unto a people that thou knewest not heretofore. The LORD recompense thy work, and be thy reward complete from the LORD, the God of Israel, under whose wings thou art come to take refuge.’ Then she said: ‘Let me find favour in thy sight, my LORD; for that thou hast comforted me, and for that thou hast spoken to the heart of thy handmaid, though I be not as one of thy handmaidens.’ And Boaz said unto her at meal-time: ‘Come hither, and eat of the bread, and dip thy morsel in the vinegar.’ And she sat beside the reapers; and they reached her parched corn, and she did eat and was satisfied, and left thereof. And when she was risen up to glean, Boaz commanded his young men, saying: ‘Let her glean even among the sheaves, and put her not to shame. And also pull out some for her of purpose from the bundles, and leave it, and let her glean, and rebuke her not.’ So she gleaned in the field until even; and she beat out that which she had gleaned, and it was about an ephah of barley. And she took it up, and went into the city; and her mother-in-law saw what she had gleaned; and she brought forth and gave to her that which she had left after she was satisfied. And her mother-in-law said unto her: ‘Where hast thou gleaned to-day? and where wroughtest thou? blessed be he that did take knowledge of thee.’ And she told her mother-in-law with whom she had wrought, and said: ‘The man’s name with whom I wrought to-day is Boaz.’ And Naomi said unto her daughter-in-law: ‘Blessed be he of the LORD, who hath not left off His kindness to the living and to the dead.’ And Naomi said unto her: ‘The man is nigh of kin unto us, one of our near kinsmen.’ And Ruth the Moabitess said: ‘Yea, he said unto me: Thou shalt keep fast by my young men, until they have ended all my harvest.’ And Naomi said unto Ruth her daughter-in-law: ‘It is good, my daughter, that thou go out with his maidens, and that thou be not met in any other field.’ So she kept fast by the maidens of Boaz to glean unto the end of barley harvest and of wheat harvest; and she dwelt with her mother-in-law.
4ד
דיון
שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
  • מדוע יצאה רות ללקט שיבולים?
  • איך מגיב בועז לנוכחותה של רות בשדהו?
  • איך מגיבה נעמי לליקוט השעורים של רות. כשהיא שומעת שמדובר בשדה של בועז?
  • בנקודה זו, באילו אפשרויות יכול הסיפור להתפתח? (נסו להתעלם מההמשך הידוע לכם ולכתוב תסריטים...)
  • 5ה
    לימוד מדרשים מתוך "רות רבה"
    6ו
    "וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה אֶל נָעֳמִי אֵלְכָה נָּא הַשָּׂדֶה וַאֲלַקֳטָה בַשִּׁבֳּלִים אַחַר אֲשֶׁר אֶמְצָא חֵן בְּעֵינָיו וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ לְכִי בִתִּי" (רות ב, ב). רבי ינאי אמר: בת ארבעים שנה היתה ואין קוראין בת אלא לבת ארבעים שנה. "וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּבוֹא" (ב, ג) - עד כדון לא אזלת [=עד כאן לא הלכה]? ואת אמרת "וַתָּבוֹא", רבי יהודה בר' סימון אמר: התחילה מסיימת לפניה הדרכים.
    "וַיִּקֶר מִקְרֶהָ" - א"ר יוחנן: כל הרואה אותה מריק קרי.
    "חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה... מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת אֱלִימֶלֶךְ" - שניתן לה ממי שהוא ראוי ליפול בחלקה.
    "And Ruth the Moabitess said unto Naomi: 'Let me now go to the field, and glean among the ears of corn after him in whose sight I shall find favor (Ruth 2:2)". Rabbi Yannai said "she was forty years old ("a daughter of forty years") and they did not call her a "daughter" but rather "a daughter of forty years"". "And she went, and came (Ruth 2:3)": not yet had she left, and you say "and she came"? Rabbi Yehudah the son of Rabbi Simon said "she started leaving marks before her on the paths". "And she happened by chance (veyiqer miqreha)" Rabbi Yochanan said: "Everyone who saw her orgasmed (meriq qeri)". "The portion of the field...of the family of Elimelech (Ruth 2:3)": it was given to her from what would fall as her "portion".
    7ז
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • מה מטריד את הדרשן? אילו פרטים הוסיף הדרשן לסיפור המגילה?
    • כיצד מצטיירת דמותה של רות במדרש זה?
    • כיצד מצטיירים היחסים בין רות ונעמי?
    8ח
    "לְמִי הַנַּעֲרָה הַזֹּאת?" (ב, ה) - ולא הוה חכים לה? [=ולא הכיר אותה?] אלא כיון שראה אותה נעימה ומעשיה נאים, התחיל שואל עליה. כל הנשים שוחחות ומלקטות, וזו יושבת ומלקטת. כל הנשים מסלקות כליהם, וזו משלשלת כליה. כל הנשים משחקות עם הקוצרים, וזו מצנעת עצמה. כל הנשים מלקטות בין העמרים, וזו מלקטת מן ההפקר.
    "וַיַּעַן הַנַּעַר הַנִּצָּב עַל הַקּוֹצְרִים וַיֹּאמַר נַעֲרָה מוֹאֲבִיָּה הִיא" (ב, ו), ואת אמרת מעשיה נאים ונעימים? אלא רבתה רפתה לה.
    "Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the reapers (Ruth 2:5)": over how many was he set? Rabbi Eliezer the son of Miriam: "over forty two he was set, because, see!: "And Solomon numbered all the strangers that were in the land of Israel...And he set 70,000 of them to bear burdens (2 Chronicles 2:16-17)", and he who works this way is able to see and know what a worker does. "Whose maiden is this?" And he did not recognize her? Rather when he saw that she was pleasant and her demeanor modest, he began to ask about her. All the women bent to glean, but she sat and gleaned. All the women raised their dresses [to work], but she let down her dress. All the women laughed with the reapers, but she was reserved by herself. All the women gleaned between the sheaves, but she gleaned from the public leavings. And in the same way "And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner ['Abner, whose son is this youth?] (1 Samuel 17:55)": and he did not recognize him. Yet the day before he had sent to Jesse and said: "'Let David stand before me; for he has found favor in my sight. (1 Samuel 16:22)"; so now he is asking about him? Rather when Saul saw the head of the Philistine in his hand he began to ask about him. Is he [a descendant] from Perez, he was a king. Or is he from Zerah, he was a judge? And Doeg the Edomite happened at that time to be present and said to him: "Even if he is a descendant of Perez, is he not forbidden? Is not he forbidden by his family? Is he not [a descendant] from Ruth, the Moabitess?" But Abner said to him, "but has not the new halakhah been made, "Ammonite but not Ammonitess, Moabite but not Moabitess"? And Doeg said to him "If [we follow the precedent] then Edomite but not Edomitess, Egyptian but not female Egyptian? Why were the men rejected, was it “Because they met you not with bread and with water? (Deut 23:5)". The women were also to have gone to meet the men?" And for a moment the halakhah was hidden from Abner's eyes. Saul said to him "[as for] the halakhah that was hidden from your eyes, go and ask Samuel and his Beit Din. When he came near to Samuel and his Beit Din he said to him: "So, from where do you hold your opinion? It is not from Doeg. Doeg is a heretic and he is not going to leave the world in peace, and I cannot let you go until it is solved." And Samuel said: "As it is written: "All glorious is the king's daughter within the palace (Psalm 45:14)" for a woman, she does not go out, and for a man he does go out: "and because they hired against you (Deuteronomy 23:5)". It is for a man to hire and not a woman". "And the servant that was set over the reapers answered and said: 'It is a Moabite maiden' (Ruth 2:6)". And you said her demeanor is pleasant and modest. Rather her mother in law taught her.
    9ט
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • מה מטריד את הדרשן? אילו פרטים הוסיף הדרשן לסיפור המגילה?
    • כיצד מצטיירת דמותה של רות במדרש זה?
    10י
    "וַתִּפֹּל עַל פָּנֶיהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַדּוּעַ מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ לְהַכִּירֵנִי וְאָנֹכִי נָכְרִיָּה" (ב, י) - מלמד שנתנבאה שהוא עתיד להכירה כדרך כל הארץ.
    "Then she fell on her face, and bowed down to the ground (Ruth 2:10)" this teaches that she prophesied she was going to be familiar like the way of the whole earth.
    11יא
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • מה מוסיף מדרש זה על תכונותיה של רות?
    • איך מצטיירים היחסים בין רות לבועז?
    12יב
    "וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה גַּם כִּי אָמַר אֵלַי עִם הַנְּעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לִי תִּדְבָּקִין" (ב, כא) – אמר ר' חנין בר לוי: בודאי מואביה היא זו, הוא אמר "וְכֹה תִדְבָּקִין עִם נַעֲרֹתָי" (ב, ח) והיא אמרה "עִם הַנְּעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לִי".
    "וַתִּדְבַּק בְּנַעֲרוֹת בֹּעַז" (ב, כג) – אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמן: מתחלת קציר שעורים עד כלות קציר החטים שלשה חדשים.
    "And Ruth the Moabitess said: 'Yea, he said unto me: You shall keep fast by my young men, until they have ended all my harvest.' (Ruth 2:21)". Rabbi Chanin the son of Levi said: "She really was a Moabitess, considering he said "you shall stay near my maidens (Ruth 2:8)". And she said instead "You shall keep fast by my young men". "So she kept fast by the maidens of Boaz [to glean unto the end of barley harvest and of wheat harvest; and she dwelt with her mother-in-law] (Ruth 2:23)". Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman said: "from the end of the barley harvest to the end of the wheat harvest is three months". "And she dwelt with her mother-in-law...And Naomi her mother-in-law said unto her: 'My daughter, shall I not seek rest for thee, that it may be well with thee? And now is there not Boaz our kinsman (Ruth 2:23-3:2)".
    13יג
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • איזה פער בעלילה משלים מדרש זה?
    14יד
    "וְיָרַדְתְּ הַגֹּרֶן" - וְיָרַדְתְּי כתב. אמרה לה: זכותי תחת עמך.
    "Wash yourself, and anoint yourself (Ruth 3:3): "wash" yourself from the soiling of idolatry, "and anoint": this means with mitzvot and righteousness. "And put your raiment upon thee" because she was naked, but rather "Shabbat clothes". From this Rabbi Chanina said: "it is required that a man have for himself two cloaks, one for weekdays and one of Shabbat", and thus Rabbi Simlai interpreted in public and they wept saying "as we dress on weekdays, so we dress on Shabbat." He said to them, "we are required to change them up". "And descend to the threshing floor": she said to her "my merit will go down with you". Another explanation for "And descend to the threshing floor", from here that they do not make threshing floors except in the lower part in the city. It is said that Rabbi Shimon the son of Chalafta bought a certain field from Rabbi Chiyya. Rabbi Shimon said: "how much does it produce?" Rabbi Chiyya said "100 kors". So he sowed it and it grew and produced less than 100. And Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Chiyya: "did not my master say that this produces 100 kors? So I sowed it and it grew and produced less than 100". He replied to him: "yes". And he said "but it produced less". He responded "where did you set up the threshing floor?". He said: "in the upper city". Rabbi Chiyya responded: "isn't it written "and go down to the threshing floor" and so because of this sift the chaff and it will produce the balance".
    15טו
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • מה המתח שעולה מהפער בין הקרי והכתיב בהוראותיה של נעמי לרות במגילה?
    • איזה פתרון מציע המדרש למתח הזה?
    16טז
    "וַיֹּאכַל בֹּעַז וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ" (ג, ז) - למה "וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ"? שבירך על מזונו.
    דבר אחר: "וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ" - שאכל מיני מתיקה אחר המזון, שהיא מרגלת לשון לתורה.
    דבר אחר: "וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ" - שעסק בדברי תורה, שנאמר "טוֹב לִי תוֹרַת פִּיךָ" (תהלים קיט, כב). דבר אחר: "וַיִּיטַב לִבּוֹ" - שהיה מבקש אשה, שנאמר "מָצָא אִשָּׁה מָצָא טוֹב" (משלי יח, כב).
    "וַיָּבֹא לִשְׁכַּב בִּקְצֵה הָעֲרֵמָה" - ר' יהודה נשיאה בעא קומי [=שאל לפני] ר' פנחס בר חמא: בועז גדול הדור היה, ואת אמרת "בִּקְצֵה הָעֲרֵמָה"? אמר לו: לפי שהיו אותו הדור שטופים בזמה והיו נותנין שכר לזונות מן הגרנות, הה"ד [הדא הוא דכתיב = זהו שכתוב] "אַל תִּשְׂמַח יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל גִּיל כָּעַמִּים כִּי זָנִיתָ מֵעַל אֱלֹהֶיךָ אָהַבְתָּ אֶתְנָן עַל כָּל גָּרְנוֹת דָּגָן" (הושע ט, א), ואין דרכן של צדיקים לעשות כן. ולא עוד אלא לפי שהצדיקים רחוקים מן הגזל, וע"כ ממונם חביב עליהם.
    "And when Boaz had eaten and drunk, and his heart was merry (Ruth 3:7)": why was "his heart merry"? Because he had blessed his food. Another interpretation: "And his heart was merry" because he had eaten dessert after the meal and that accustoms the tongue to Torah. Another interpretation: "And his heart was merry" because he was engaged in the words of the Torah, as it is said: "Good to me is the Torah of your mouth (Psalm 119:72). Another interpretation: "And his heart was merry" because he was seeking a wife, as it is said "He who has found a wife has found good (Proverbs 18:22)". "He went to lie down at the end of the heap of corn (Ruth 3:7)". Rabbi Judah the Nasi asked Rabbi Pinchas the son of Chama: "Boaz was a great man of his generation, but it says "at the end of the heap of corn"? And Rabbi Pinchas replied: "Because that very generation was obsessed with promiscuity, and they gave money to prostitutes from their threshing floors. See! It is written "Rejoice not, O Israel, unto exultation, like the peoples, for you have gone astray from your God, you hast loved a harlot's hire upon every corn-floor (Hosea 9:1)". And this was not the way of the righteous to do this, and further, it being the case that the mouth of the righteous is far from stolen money, so their wealth is valued by them".
    17יז
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • איזה פער בעלילה משלים המדרש?
    • כיצד מצטייר בועז במדרש?
    18יח
    "חֶרְדַּת אָדָם יִתֵּן מוֹקֵשׁ ובוֹטֵחַ בַּה' יְשֻׂגָּב" (משלי כט, כה). "חֶרְדַּת אָדָם יִתֵּן מוֹקֵשׁ" - חרדה שהחריד יעקב ליצחק, דכתיב "וַיֶּחֱרַד יִצְחָק חֲרָדָה" (בראשית כז, לג), ובדין היה שיקללנו, אלא "ובוֹטֵחַ בַּה' יְשֻׂגָּב" - נתת בלבו וברכו, שנאמר "גַּם בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה" (שם). חרדה שהחרידה רות לבועז, דכתיב "וַיֶּחֱרַד הָאִישׁ וַיִּלָּפֵת" (ג, ח) ובדין הוא שיקללנה, אלא "ובוֹטֵחַ בַּה' יְשֻׂגָּב" - נתת בלבו וברכה, שנאמר "בְּרוּכָה אַתְּ לַה' בִּתִּי" (ג, י). "וַיִּלָּפֵת" - לפתתו כחזזית. התחיל ממשמש בשערה, אמר רוחות אין להם שער. אמר לה: מי את, רוח או אשה? אמרה: אשה. פנויה את או אשת איש? אמרה לו: פנויה. טמאה את או טהורה? אמרה לו: טהורה. והנה אשה טהורה מכל הנשים שוכבת מרגלותיו, שנאמר "וַיֹּאמֶר מִי אָתְּ וַתֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי רוּת אֲמָתֶךָ" (ג, ט).
    אמר רבי ברכיה: ארורים הרשעים, להלן כתיב "וַתִּתְפְּשֵׂהוּ בְּבִגְדוֹ לֵאמֹר שִׁכְבָה עִמִּי" (בראשית לט, יב), אבל הכא "וּפָרַשְׂתָּ כְנָפֶךָ עַל אֲמָתְךָ".
    "At midnight (Ruth 3:8)": "I arise at midnight to praise You for the judgments of Your righteousness (Psalm 119:62)." Rabbi Pinchas in the name of Rabbi Eliezer son of Jacob: "the harp and the lyre were set above the head of David and when he was awakened in the middle of the night, he stood and played on them". Rabbi Levi said: the the harp was hung "for the judgments of Your righteousness", the "judgments" that you brought to Pharaoh, as it is said: "But Hashem afflicted Pharaoh and his household with mighty plagues (Genesis 12:17)", and the "righteousness" that is what you did with Abraham and Sarah". Another interpretation: "for the judgments of Your righteousness", the "judgments" that you brought on the Egyptians and the "righteousness, what you did with our fathers in Egypt, since it was not possible for them to perform themselves the mitzvot and they would be saved, and you gave to them two mitzvot which they were to perform them selves and they would be saved, and they were these: the blood of Passover and the blood of circumcision. Rabbi Levi said "on the same night the blood of Passover was mixed with the blood of circumcision, as it is said: "When I passed by you and saw you wallowing in your blood, I said to you: “Live in spite of your blood.” Yea, I said to you: “Live in spite of your blood (Ezekiel 16:6)"." Another interpretation: "for the judgments of Your righteousness", the "judgments are those which you brought on the Ammonites and Moabites, and the "righteousness" what you did with my [David's] grandfather and grandmother, because if he afflicted her with a curse once, and from where would I have come?, and you placed in his heart to bless her, as it is said: "Blessed are you to Hashem, my daughter (Ruth 3:10)": "A man’s fears become a trap for him, But he who trusts in Hashem shall be safeguarded (Proverbs 29:25)". Rabbi Akiva went on a journey to Rome and he said to a son of his house: "go and buy me something pleasing to everyone from the market" and he went and bought fowl for him, and he said to him: "why were you so long? Did you have to trap them?" And he said: "[yes] because they are frightened of people", and Akiva read to him this verse: "A man’s fears become a trap for him". The fear (trembling) is that which Jacob caused Isaac, as it is written: "Isaac was seized with very violent trembling (Genesis 27:33)." And justly he could have cursed him, but rather "But he who trusts in Hashem shall be safeguarded" and you placed it in his heart to bless him, as it is said: "now he must remain blessed!(Genesis 27:33)". This fear, that is what Ruth caused Boaz, as it is said "the man was frightened, and turned himself (Ruth 3:8)". And he justly could have cursed her, but rather "But he who trusts in Hashem shall be safeguarded" and you placed it in his heart to bless her, as it is said "Blessed are you to Hashem, my daughter (Ruth 3:10)". "And he turned himself" she clasped him like ivy and he began to touch her hair, and said "spirits do not have hair" and so he said to her "who are you", a spirit or a woman, and she said "a woman". "Are you unmarried or a man's wife?" and she said to him "unmarried". "Are you unclean or clean" and she said to him "clean". "And, behold, a woman", the cleanest of all the women "lay at his feet", as it is said "And he said 'who are you?' and she said 'I am Ruth your maidservant (Ruth 3:9)". Rabbi Berechyah said: "curesed are the wicked, as there it is written "she caught hold of him by his garment and said, “Lie with me!” (Genesis 39:12)" but here "spread therefore your cloak over your handmaid (Ruth 3:9)".
    19יט
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • כיצד מצטייר בועז במדרש?
    • כיצד מצטיירת רות במדרש?
    20כ
    ר' יוחנן וריש לקיש ורבנן:
    רבי יוחנן אמר: לעולם אל ימנע אדם עצמו מלילך אצל זקן לברכו, בועז היה בן שמונים שנה ולא נפקד, כיון שהתפללה עליו אותה צדקת מיד נפקד, שנאמר "וַתֹּאמֶר נָעֳמִי לְכַלָּתָהּ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַה'" (ב, כ).
    ריש לקיש אמר: רות בת ארבעים שנה היתה ולא נפקדה, כיון שנשאת למחלון וכיון שהתפלל עליה אותו צדיק נפקדה, שנאמר "וַיֹּאמֶר בְּרוּכָה אַתְּ לַה' בִּתִּי" (ג, י).
    ורבנן אמרין: שניהם לא נפקדו אלא מברכותיהן של צדיקים, שנאמר "וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בַּשַּׁעַר וְהַזְּקֵנִים עֵדִים יִתֵּן ה' אֶת הָאִשָּׁה" (ד, יא).
    "הֵיטַבְתְּ חַסְדֵּךְ הָאַחֲרוֹן מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן" וגו' (ג, י) – אמר ר' שמואל בר רב יצחק: האשה אוהבת בחור מסכן מזקן עשיר.
    "And he said blessed are you to Hashem, my daughter; you have shown more kindness at the end than the beginning (Ruth 3:10)". Rabbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish and the Rabbis: Rabbi Yochanan said: "forever a man should not restrain himself from going to an old man for his blessing. Boaz was eighty years old and he was not endowed [with children]. When the righteous woman prayed for him, from that he was endowed, as it is said "and Naomi said 'blessed is he to Hashem' (Ruth 2:20)"". Reish Lakish said: "Ruth was forty years old and she had not been endowed [with children] when she was married to Machlon, and when the righteous man prayed for her, she was endowed, as it is said "And he said 'blessed are you to Hashem, my daughter (Ruth 3:10)". And the Rabbis said: "Both of them were not endowed, but rather they were blessed by the righteous, as it is said "And all the people that were in the gate, and the elders, said: We are witnesses. The Lord make the woman (Ruth 4:11)"". "You have shown more kindness at the end than the beginning": Rabbi Samuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: "a woman loves a poor young man more than a wealthy old man".
    21כא
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • באילו ברכות מדובר ומה תפקידן?
    • כיצד מתואר בועז במדרש?
    22כב
    אמר ר' יוסי: שלשה הן שבא יצרן לתקפן ונזדרזו עליו כל אחד ואחד בשבועה, ואלה הן: יוסף ודוד ובועז... בועז מניין, שנאמר "חַי ה' שִׁכְבִי עַד הַבֹּקֶר" (ג, יג).
    ר' יהודה ור' חוניא - ר' יהודה אומר: כל אותו הלילה היה יצרו מקטרגו ואומר: את פנוי ומבקש אשה, והיא פנויה ומבקשת איש, עמוד ובועלה ותהיה לך לאשה! ונשבע ליצרו ואמר: "חַי ה'" - שאיני נוגע בה, ולאשה אמר "שִׁכְבִי עַד הַבֹּקֶר", "אִם יִגְאָלֵךְ טוֹב יִגְאָל".
    ור' חוניא אמר כתיב "גֶּבֶר חָכָם בַּעוֹז (משלי כד, ה) גבר חכם בועז, "וְאִישׁ דַּעַת מְאַמֶּץ כֹּחַ" שנזדרז על יצרו בשבועה.
    "Stay the night", this night you stay without a husband, but this is the last night you spend without a husband. "Then, in the morning, if he will redeem you, very well; let him redeem you; but if he will not redeem you, then I will redeem you (Ruth 3:13)". Rabbi Meir was sitting and expounding and expounding the law in Tiberias and Elisha, his rabbi, passed by on the street riding a horse on Shabbat. And they said to Rabbi Meir: "Look! Elisha is passing by in the street!" Rabbi Meir greeted him and Elisha said: "what are you up to expounding?" Rabbi Meir said "and Hashem blessed the end of Job's life more than the beginning (Job 42:12)". And Elisha responded: "What are you saying about it?" And he replied: ""blessed" that is he doubled his wealth for him". And Elisha said to him "Akiva your teacher did not used to say that, but rather "And Hashem blessed the end of Job's life more than the beginning": because of his mindful repentance and good deeds which were in his hand at the beginning. What else?" And Rabbi Meir responded: "the end of a matter is better than its beginning (Ecclesiastes 7:8)". And Elisha said "What did you say about that"? And Rabbi Meir replied "you have the example of a man who buys merchandise in his youth and he has a loss, and he profits from it in old age. Another interpretation: "the end of a matter is better than its beginning" you have the example of a man who does evil deeds in his youth but good deeds in his old age. Another interpretation: "the end of a matter is better than its beginning": a man can learn Torah in his youth and forget it, but in his old age he can renew it, and so "the end of a matter is better than its beginning". And Elisha said to him: "Akiva your teacher did not say this, but rather "the end of a matter is good" that is when it is good "from its beginning". And for me there is this example: Avuyah, my father, was a great man of his generation and when the time came for my circumcision he invited all the great men of Jerusalem, and he invited Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua among them. And when they ate and drank some sang songs and others alphabetic acrostics. Rabbi Eliezer said to Rabbi Joshua, these men are busying themselves on pointless things, and we are neglecting to pursue our affairs. So they began with the Torah and from the Torah the Prophets and from the Prophets to the writings and they rejoiced in these words as when they were given from Sinai surrounded by flaming fire. And were they not given from Sinai in fire, as it is said "And the mountain burned with a fire reaching up to the heart of the sky (Deuteronomy 4:11)"? And Avuya said "So great is the power of the Torah, this son of mine, if he survives, I will offer to give him to the Torah." And so because the intention of my thought was not for the sake of Heaven, my Torah did not continue in me. And what further did you discuss, Meir?" Rabbi Meir responded to him: "Gold or glass cannot match its value, Nor vessels of fine gold be exchanged for it (Job 28:17)". And he said: "What did you say about that?" And Rabbi Meir said: "These are words of the Torah which are difficult to buy as vessels of gold and easy to destroy like glass". Elisha responded: "Akiva your teacher did not speak this way, but rather as vessels of gold and glass if they are broken, it is possible to repair them, so a wise disciple that has lost his Mishnah is able to renew it". And then Elisha said: "return". And Rabbi Meir said: "Why?". And he responded: "because this is the edge of the Shabbat boundary". He responded: "How do you know?" Elisha said: "From the footsteps of my horse which has gone across 2,ooo amot. And Meir said: "And with all this wisdom of yours you will not return?" And Elisha responded: "That is not in my power". And he asked: "Why?". And Elisha explained to him "I was riding on a horse and while passing behind a synagogue on Yom Kippur that fell on Shabbat I heard a voice from Heaven break forth saying: "Turn back, O rebellious children (Jeremiah 3:22). Turn back to Me, and I will turn back to you (Malachi 3:7), except for Elisha the son of Avuya because he knows my strength and has rebelled against me". How did this thing happen to him? They said that one time he was sitting and reciting in the Valley of Geinosar and he saw that one man went to the top of a palm tree and took the mother bird with her young and descended without trouble, and on the day after Shabbat he saw another man go to the top of the palm tree and he took the young and sent away the mother and when he came down a snake bit him and he died. He said: "As it is written: "Let the mother go, and take only the young, in order that you may fare well and have a long life (Deuteronomy 22:7), but how is it good for this man and how is there a long life for this man?" And he did not know that it had been interpreted by Rabbi Akiva in public: "that you may fare well (tov)" in the world that is entirely good (<tov< i="">) and "have a long life (ha'arakhta)" that is in the length ('arokh) of eternity". And some were saying because he saw the tongue of Rabbi Judah the baker given to the mouth of a dog. And Elisha said: "If the tongue which occupied itself every day in Torah [is treated] thus, how much more the tongue of the one who knows nothing and is not occupied in Torah!" and thus he said "If so then there is no reward for the righteous and no resurrection of the dead!" And some were saying it is because his mother while pregnant was passing by the idolatrous temples and she smelled [the sacrifices] and they gave to her from the sacrificial meat and she ate it and it was poison spreading in her belly like the venom of a large snake. After many days Elisha the son of Avuya became sick and they said to Rabbi Meir: "Elisha your teacher is sick." He went to greet him and said "Repent again". And Elisha responded: "After this they would accept me?" And Rabbi Meir said: "You return man to dust (Psalm 90:3)”; until the crushing of the soul". As soon as he heard this Elisha son of Avuya wept and died. And Rabbi Meir was rejoicing and said: "my teacher was taken as he repented!". And when they buried Elisha, a light descended to burn his grave and they said to Rabbi Meir: "the grave of your teacher is burning". And he went and spread his tallit over it. And he said to Elisha: "Stay this night, and it shall be in the morning, that if he will perform unto thee the part of a kinsman, well (tov); let him do the kinsman's part but if he be not willing to do the part of a kinsman to thee, then will I do the part of a kinsman to thee, as Hashem lives; lie down until the morning.' (Ruth 3:13)". "Stay this night" in this world that is all night. "It shall be in the morning, that if he will perform unto thee the part of a kinsman, well": "It shall be in the morning" that is in the world that is all good"; "that if he will perform unto thee the part of a kinsman" that is the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is said "Good is Hashem to all (Psalm 145:9)". "If he be not willing to do the part of a kinsman to thee, then will I do the part of a kinsman to thee, as Hashem lives; lie down until the morning.'" and the fire stopped. And they said to him: "Our teacher, in the world to come if they say to you: 'would you rather see your father or your teacher', what would you say?" Rabbi Meir said: "my father and only then my teacher". And they said to him "Did they hear you or not?" And he replied: "Is it not the tradition that the case of the Torah with the Torah and the case of tefillin with tefillin may be saved? They save Elisha because of the merits of his Torah". After many days his daughters came seeking charity from Rabbi and he said: "May no one show him mercy; may none pity his orphans (Psalm 109:12)". They said to him "Do not consider his actions but his Torah!" And as soon as he heard that Rabbi began weeping and decreed that they should be given help, saying: "if he whose Torah was not for the name of Heaven stands thus, how much more so for he whose Torah was for the name of Heaven!" Rabbi Yose: "these are the three to whom the yetzer came to attack and they each strengthened themselves with an oath. And these are they: Joseph, David, and Boaz". Joseph, as it is written: "How then could I do this most wicked thing (Genesis 39:9)". Rabbi Chunya said in the name of Rabbi Idei: "Is the scripture ever mistaken? "And I sin against God (Genesis 39:9)"; but here "I sin against Hashem" is not written but "against God" and Joseph said "I will not sin and not do this most wicked thing". From where David? As it is said: "And David went on, “As Hashem lives, Hashem Himself will strike him down, or his time will come and he will die, or he will go down to battle and perish (1 Samuel 26:10)". To whom did he swear? Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Samuel the son of Nachman: Rabbi Eliezer said: "He swore to his yetzer". Rabbi Samuel son of Nachman: "He swore to Abishai son of Zeruah and he said: "As Hashem lives if you touch him I will mix your blood with his blood". From where Boaz? As it is said: "As Hashem lives lie down until the morning (Ruth 3:13)". Rabbi Yehudah and Rabbi Chunya: Rabbi Yehudah says "all that very night his yetzer fought with him and said: "You are unmarried and seek a wife, and she is unmarried and seeks a husband; stand up man and become the master of this woman!" And Boaz swore to his yetzer: "As Hashem lives I will not touch her!" And to the woman he said: "Stay this night. It shall be in the morning, that if he will perform unto thee the part of a kinsman, well". And Rabbi Chunya says: "It is written: "A wise man is strength (ba'oz) (Proverbs 24:5)"; [rather read] "A wise man is Boaz; a knowledgeable man exerts power" when he strengthened himself against his yetzer with an oath.
    23כג
    דיון
    שאלות ללימוד ולשיחה:
    • מדוע נשבע בועז? מה תפקיד השבועה? כיצד מתואר בועז במדרש?
    • מה מבטיח בועז לרות?
    24כד
    דיון
    שאלות לסיכום:
  • איך מצטיירות דמויותיהם של רות, בועז ונעמי במדרשים?
  • מה חידשו המדרשים על גיבורי המגילה בעיניכם?
  • מה לדעתכם הניע את רות?
  • האם ניתן לזהות במגילה או במדרשים התיחסות לעובדה שרות אלמנה אחרי עשר שנות נישואין?
  • האם ניתן למצוא במגילה ובמדרשים התיחסות לרצונה של רות בילד?
  • 26 כו
    28כח
    דף מספר 2 בסדרה נשים במגילת רות, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
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