מה בין "טובת שכל" ל"יפת תואר"? על דמותה של אביגיל
1א
הדף מאת: שירה זיוון / מרכז יעקב הרצוג
2ב
בלימוד זה נבחן את דמותה של אביגיל כפי שהיא מצטיירת במדרשי חז"ל. נראה כיצד העריכו חז"ל את חוכמתה ואת יכולתה לדבר ללבו של דוד, תוך העברת ביקורת. בד בבד עם הערכה זו, מופיעה במדרשים ופירושים רבים גם ביקורת של חז"ל על התנהגותה של אביגיל, שנתפסה כיהירה, אינטרסנטית ופתיינית.
3 ג
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Escalante-abigail.jpg
דוד ואביגיל
4ד
סיפורה של אביגיל
(ב) וְאִישׁ בְּמָעוֹן וּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַכַּרְמֶל, וְהָאִישׁ גָּדוֹל מְאֹד, וְלוֹ צֹאן שְׁלֹשֶׁת-אֲלָפִים, וְאֶלֶף עִזִּים; וַיְהִי בִּגְזֹז אֶת-צֹאנוֹ בַּכַּרְמֶל. (ג) וְשֵׁם הָאִישׁ נָבָל וְשֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲבִגָיִל; וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת-שֶׂכֶל וִיפַת תֹּאַר, וְהָאִישׁ קָשֶׁה וְרַע מַעֲלָלִים וְהוּא כלבו (כָלִבִּי) [רש"י: צאצא של כלב בן יפונה]. (ד) וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי-גֹזֵז נָבָל אֶת-צֹאנוֹ. (ה) וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד עֲשָׂרָה נְעָרִים; וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַנְּעָרִים, עֲלוּ כַרְמֶלָה וּבָאתֶם אֶל-נָבָל, וּשְׁאֶלְתֶּם-לוֹ בִשְׁמִי לְשָׁלוֹם. (ו) וַאֲמַרְתֶּם כֹּה לֶחָי; וְאַתָּה שָׁלוֹם וּבֵיתְךָ שָׁלוֹם וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר-לְךָ שָׁלוֹם. (ז) וְעַתָּה שָׁמַעְתִּי כִּי גֹזְזִים לָךְ; עַתָּה הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר-לְךָ הָיוּ עִמָּנוּ - לֹא הֶכְלַמְנוּם וְלֹא נִפְקַד לָהֶם מְאוּמָה כָּל-יְמֵי הֱיוֹתָם בַּכַּרְמֶל. (ח) שְׁאַל אֶת נְעָרֶיךָ וְיַגִּידוּ לָךְ, וְיִמְצְאוּ הַנְּעָרִים חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ - כִּי-עַל-יוֹם טוֹב בָּנוּ; תְּנָה-נָּא אֵת אֲשֶׁר תִּמְצָא יָדְךָ לַעֲבָדֶיךָ וּלְבִנְךָ לְדָוִד. (ט) וַיָּבֹאוּ נַעֲרֵי דָוִד, וַיְדַבְּרוּ אֶל-נָבָל כְּכָל-הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּשֵׁם דָּוִד; וַיָּנוּחוּ. (י) וַיַּעַן נָבָל אֶת עַבְדֵי דָוִד וַיֹּאמֶר, מִי דָוִד וּמִי בֶן-יִשָׁי; הַיּוֹם רַבּוּ עֲבָדִים הַמִּתְפָּרְצִים אִישׁ מִפְּנֵי אֲדֹנָיו. (יא) וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת לַחְמִי וְאֶת-מֵימַי וְאֵת טִבְחָתִי אֲשֶׁר טָבַחְתִּי לְגֹזְזָי; וְנָתַתִּי לַאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֵי מִזֶּה הֵמָּה. (יב) וַיַּהַפְכוּ נַעֲרֵי-דָוִד לְדַרְכָּם; וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּגִּדוּ לוֹ כְּכֹל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה. (יג) וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲנָשָׁיו חִגְרוּ אִישׁ אֶת-חַרְבּוֹ, וַיַּחְגְּרוּ אִישׁ אֶת-חַרְבּוֹ, וַיַּחְגֹּר גַּם-דָּוִד אֶת-חַרְבּוֹ; וַיַּעֲלוּ אַחֲרֵי דָוִד כְּאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת אִישׁ, וּמָאתַיִם יָשְׁבוּ עַל-הַכֵּלִים. (יד) וְלַאֲבִיגַיִל אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הִגִּיד נַעַר-אֶחָד מֵהַנְּעָרִים לֵאמֹר: הִנֵּה שָׁלַח דָּוִד מַלְאָכִים מֵהַמִּדְבָּר לְבָרֵךְ אֶת-אֲדֹנֵינוּ, וַיָּעַט בָּהֶם. (טו) וְהָאֲנָשִׁים טֹבִים לָנוּ מְאֹד; וְלֹא הָכְלַמְנוּ וְלֹא-פָקַדְנוּ מְאוּמָה כָּל-יְמֵי הִתְהַלַּכְנוּ אִתָּם בִּהְיוֹתֵנוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה. (טז) חוֹמָה הָיוּ עָלֵינוּ גַּם-לַיְלָה גַּם-יוֹמָם, כָּל-יְמֵי הֱיוֹתֵנוּ עִמָּם רֹעִים הַצֹּאן. (יז) וְעַתָּה דְּעִי וּרְאִי מַה-תַּעֲשִׂי - כִּי-כָלְתָה הָרָעָה אֶל-אֲדֹנֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל-בֵּיתוֹ; וְהוּא בֶּן-בְּלִיַּעַל מִדַּבֵּר אֵלָיו. (יח) וַתְּמַהֵר אבוגיל (אֲבִיגַיִל) וַתִּקַּח מָאתַיִם לֶחֶם וּשְׁנַיִם נִבְלֵי-יַיִן, וְחָמֵשׁ צֹאן עשוות (עֲשׂוּיוֹת) וְחָמֵשׁ סְאִים קָלִי, וּמֵאָה צִמֻּקִים וּמָאתַיִם דְּבֵלִים; וַתָּשֶׂם עַל-הַחֲמֹרִים. (יט) וַתֹּאמֶר לִנְעָרֶיהָ עִבְרוּ לְפָנַי, הִנְנִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם בָּאָה; וּלְאִישָׁהּ נָבָל לֹא הִגִּידָה. (כ) וְהָיָה הִיא רֹכֶבֶת עַל-הַחֲמוֹר וְיֹרֶדֶת בְּסֵתֶר הָהָר, וְהִנֵּה דָוִד וַאֲנָשָׁיו יֹרְדִים לִקְרָאתָהּ; וַתִּפְגֹשׁ אֹתָם. (כא) וְדָוִד אָמַר, אַךְ לַשֶּׁקֶר שָׁמַרְתִּי אֶת-כָּל-אֲשֶׁר לָזֶה בַּמִּדְבָּר, וְלֹא-נִפְקַד מִכָּל-אֲשֶׁר-לוֹ, מְאוּמָה; וַיָּשֶׁב-לִי רָעָה, תַּחַת טוֹבָה. (כב) כֹּה-יַעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים לְאֹיְבֵי דָוִד וְכֹה יֹסִיף: אִם-אַשְׁאִיר מִכָּל-אֲשֶׁר-לוֹ עַד-הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר. (כג) וַתֵּרֶא אֲבִיגַיִל, אֶת-דָּוִד, וַתְּמַהֵר וַתֵּרֶד מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר וַתִּפֹּל לְאַפֵּי דָוִד עַל-פָּנֶיהָ, וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרֶץ. (כד) וַתִּפֹּל עַל-רַגְלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר, בִּי-אֲנִי אֲדֹנִי הֶעָו ֹן וּתְדַבֶּר-נָא אֲמָתְךָ בְּאָזְנֶיךָ, וּשְׁמַע אֵת דִּבְרֵי אֲמָתֶךָ. (כה) אַל-נָא יָשִׂים אֲדֹנִי אֶת-לִבּוֹ אֶל-אִישׁ הַבְּלִיַּעַל הַזֶּה עַל-נָבָל, כִּי כִשְׁמוֹ כֶּן-הוּא - נָבָל שְׁמוֹ וּנְבָלָה עִמּוֹ; וַאֲנִי אֲמָתְךָ לֹא רָאִיתִי אֶת-נַעֲרֵי אֲדֹנִי אֲשֶׁר שָׁלָחְתָּ. (כו) וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי, חַי-ה' וְחֵי-נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ ה' מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים, וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ; וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ, וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל-אֲדֹנִי רָעָה. (כז) וְעַתָּה הַבְּרָכָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר-הֵבִיא שִׁפְחָתְךָ לַאדֹנִי; וְנִתְּנָה לַנְּעָרִים הַמִּתְהַלְּכִים בְּרַגְלֵי אֲדֹנִי. (כח) שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע אֲמָתֶךָ: כִּי עָשֹׂה-יַעֲשֶׂה ה' לַאדֹנִי בַּיִת נֶאֱמָן, כִּי-מִלְחֲמוֹת ה' אֲדֹנִי נִלְחָם, וְרָעָה לֹא-תִמָּצֵא בְךָ מִיָּמֶיךָ. (כט) וַיָּקָם אָדָם לִרְדָפְךָ, וּלְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת-נַפְשֶׁךָ; וְהָיְתָה נֶפֶשׁ אֲדֹנִי צְרוּרָה בִּצְרוֹר הַחַיִּים, אֵת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאֵת נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ יְקַלְּעֶנָּה בְּתוֹךְ כַּף הַקָּלַע. (ל) וְהָיָה כִּי-יַעֲשֶׂה ה' לַאדֹנִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר-דִּבֶּר אֶת-הַטּוֹבָה עָלֶיךָ - וְצִוְּךָ לְנָגִיד עַל-יִשְׂרָאֵל. (לא) וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי, וְלִשְׁפָּךְ-דָּם חִנָּם, וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ; וְהֵיטִב ה' לַאדֹנִי, וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת-אֲמָתֶךָ. (לב) וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲבִיגַל: בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחֵךְ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לִקְרָאתִי. (לג) וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי. (לד) וְאוּלָם, חַי-ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מְנָעַנִי מֵהָרַע אֹתָךְ כִּי לוּלֵי מִהַרְתְּ ותבאתי (וַתָּבֹאת) לִקְרָאתִי - כִּי אִם-נוֹתַר לְנָבָל עַד-אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר. (לה) וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד מִיָּדָהּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר-הֵבִיאָה לוֹ; וְלָהּ אָמַר, עֲלִי לְשָׁלוֹם לְבֵיתֵךְ - רְאִי שָׁמַעְתִּי בְקוֹלֵךְ וָאֶשָּׂא פָּנָיִךְ. (לו) וַתָּבֹא אֲבִיגַיִל אֶל-נָבָל וְהִנֵּה-לוֹ מִשְׁתֶּה בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ, וְלֵב נָבָל טוֹב עָלָיו, וְהוּא שִׁכֹּר עַד-מְאֹד; וְלֹא-הִגִּידָה לּוֹ דָּבָר קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל עַד-אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר. (לז) וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר בְּצֵאת הַיַּיִן מִנָּבָל, וַתַּגֶּד-לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶת-הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה; וַיָּמָת לִבּוֹ בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְהוּא הָיָה לְאָבֶן. (לח) וַיְהִי כַּעֲשֶׂרֶת הַיָּמִים וַיִּגֹּף ה' אֶת-נָבָל, וַיָּמֹת. (לט) וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד כִּי מֵת נָבָל, וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֲשֶׁר רָב אֶת-רִיב חֶרְפָּתִי מִיַּד נָבָל וְאֶת-עַבְדּוֹ חָשַׂךְ מֵרָעָה, וְאֵת רָעַת נָבָל הֵשִׁיב ה' בְּרֹאשׁוֹ; וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיְדַבֵּר בַּאֲבִיגַיִל לְקַחְתָּהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה. (מ) וַיָּבֹאוּ עַבְדֵי דָוִד אֶל-אֲבִיגַיִל הַכַּרְמֶלָה; וַיְדַבְּרוּ אֵלֶיהָ לֵאמֹר, דָּוִד שְׁלָחָנוּ אֵלַיִךְ לְקַחְתֵּךְ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה. (מא) וַתָּקָם, וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה, וַתֹּאמֶר, הִנֵּה אֲמָתְךָ לְשִׁפְחָה לִרְחֹץ רַגְלֵי עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי. (מב) וַתְּמַהֵר וַתָּקָם אֲבִיגַיִל, וַתִּרְכַּב עַל הַחֲמוֹר, וְחָמֵשׁ נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הַהֹלְכוֹת לְרַגְלָהּ; וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי דָוִד, וַתְּהִי-לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה.
And there was a man in Ma῾on, whose possessions were in the Karmel; and the man was very wealthy, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats: and he was shearing his sheep in the Karmel. Now the name of the man was Naval; and the name of his wife Avigayil: and she was a woman of good understanding, and fair of form: but the man was hardhearted and evil in his doings; and he was of the house of Kalev. And David heard in the wilderness that Naval was shearing his sheep. And David sent out ten young men, and David said to the young men, Go up to the Karmel, and go to Naval, and greet him in my name: and thus shall you say to him, A hearty greeting! Peace be both to thee, and peace to thy house, and peace to all that thou hast. And now I have heard that thou hast shearers: now thy shepherds who were with us, we hurt them not, neither was there anything of theirs missing, all the while they were on the Karmel. Ask thy young men, and they will tell thee. Therefore, let the young men find favour in thy eyes: for we come on a festive occasion: give, I pray thee, to my servants and to David thy son, whatever thy generosity prompts thee. And when David’s young men came, they spoke to Naval according to all those words in the name of David, and waited. And Naval answered David’s servants, and said, Who is David? and who is the son of Yishay? there are many servants nowadays that break away every man from his master. Shall I then take my bread, and my water, and the fresh meat that I have killed for my shearers, and give it to men from I know not where? So David’s young men turned their way, and went back, and came and told him according to all those sayings. And David said to his men, Let every man gird his sword. And they girded on every man his sword; and David also girded on his sword: and there went up after David about four hundred men; and two hundred remained with the baggage. But one of the young men told Avigayil, Naval’s wife, saying, Behold, David sent messengers out of the wilderness to greet our master; and he railed at them. But the men were very good to us, and we were not insulted nor did we miss any thing, all the time we went about with them, when we were in the fields: they were a wall to us both by night and day, all the while we were with them keeping the sheep. Now therefore know and consider what thou wilt do; for evil is determined against our master, and against all his household: for he is such a base fellow, that no man can speak to him. Then Avigayil made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready prepared, and five measures of parched corn, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid them on asses. And she said to her servants, Go on before me; behold, I come after you. But she told not her husband Naval. And it was so, as she rode on the ass, that she came down by the covert of the hill, and, behold, David and his men came down against her; and she met them. Now David was saying, Surely in vain have I guarded all that this fellow has in the wilderness, so that nothing of his possessions was missing: and he has rendered me evil for good. So and more also do God to the enemies of David, if I leave alive of all his people by the morning light so much as a single man. And when Avigayil saw David, she hastened, and descended from the ass, and fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground, and fell at his feet, and said, Upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be: and let thy handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thy ears, and hear the words of thy handmaid. Let not my lord, I pray thee, take heed of this worthless fellow, Naval: for as his name is, so is he; Naval is his name, and folly is with him: but I thy handmaid did not see the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval. And now this blessing which thy handmaid has brought to my lord, let it be given to the young men that follow my lord. I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thy handmaid: for the Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fights the battles of the Lord, and evil has not been found in thee all thy days. Though a man rises to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul: yet the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bond of life with the Lord thy God; and the souls of thy enemies, them shall he sling out, as out of the hollow of a sling. And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he has spoken concerning thee, and shall have appointed thee ruler over Yisra᾽el; that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid. And David said to Avigayil, Blessed be the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, who sent thee this day to meet me: and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand. For in very deed, as the Lord God of Yisra᾽el lives, who has kept me back from hurting thee, if thou hadst not hastened and come to meet me, surely there had not been left to Naval by the morning light so much as a single man! So David received of her hand that which she had brought him, and said to her, Go up in peace to thy house; see, I have hearkened to thy voice, and have granted thy request. And Avigayil came to Naval; and, behold, he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king; and Naval’s heart was merry within him, for he was very drunk: and so she told him nothing, less or more, until the morning light. But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Naval, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, and he became as a stone. And it came to pass about ten days after, that the Lord smote Naval, and he died. And when David heard that Naval was dead, he said, Blessed be the Lord, that has pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Naval, and has kept his servant from evil: for the Lord has requited the wickedness of Naval upon his own head. And David sent and spoke with Avigayil, to take her to him to wife. And when the servants of David were come to Avigayil to the Karmel, they spoke to her, saying, David sent us to thee, to take thee to him to wife. And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth, and said, Behold, let thy handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord. And Avigayil hastened, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five girls of hers that went after her; and she went after the messengers of David, and became his wife.
5ה
דיון
  • מדוע מדגיש המספר, כבר בתחילת הפרק, את ההבדלים בין נבל הרע לאביגיל הטובה - מה תפקידה של הבחנה מוקדמת זו?
  • כיצד מצטיירת התנהגותם של הגברים (דוד ונבל) לעומת התנהגותה של אביגיל?
  • במה מתבטאת חוכמתה של אביגיל המכונה "טובת שכל"? באילו דרכים היא מצליחה לשכנע את דוד לוותר על נקמתו בנבל?
  • קראו שוב את פסוקים לט-מב ונסו להיזכר בסיפור מקביל שבו דוד לוקח לו אשה אחרת. מי היא אותה אשה? מה מסמלת ההקבלה?
  • כיצד אתם מפרשים את בקשתה של אביגיל מדוד "וזכרת את אמתך" (פסוק לא)?
6ו
"טובת שכל"- כיצד אפיינו חז"ל את חוכמתה וטוב שכלה של אביגיל:
7ז
"לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל-מָחֲלַת מַשְׂכִּיל לְדָוִד: אָמַר נָבָל בְּלִבּוֹ, אֵין אֱלֹהִים"
טובה היתה אביגיל מכל הקורבנות שבעולם, שאילו עשה אותו מעשה שחשב, אילו היה מקריב כל הקרבנות שבעולם לא היתה לו כפרה והיא באת אליו ומלטתו, הוי שטובה היתה לו מכל קרבנות. הוי "למנצח על מחלת" שמחלה לו כשם שהקרבנות מוחלין. אמר הקב"ה יבוא הטובה ותהיה לטוב וילך הרע ברעתו שנאמר "ויהי כעשרת הימים ויגוף". [...] אמרה לו אביגיל לדוד: אדוני דוד, אם יבוא הדין הזה לפניך מה אתה עושה- ילך העני ויאמר לבעל הבית עשה עמי צדקה ותן לי פת אחת ואינו נזקק לו [אינו נענה לו] והעני נופל עליו והרגו, אם אין כאין אצלך לדין, מה אתה אומ' לו? [...]
זאת לפוקה אל תפקפק כפיך ואל תאמר בשביל שאני מלך אין אדם מוכחיחני הוכח אתה לעצמך וכן הוא אומר "התקוששו וקושו" [צפניה, פרק ב, פסוק א]- אם תרצה לקשט אחרים קשֹט עצמך תחלה ואחר כך קשֹט אחרים [...]
8ח
דיון
  • כיצד מצטיירת אביגיל במדרש זה? במה מתבטאת חוכמתה?
  • במדרש מסופר כי אביגיל הוכיחה את דוד באמצעות משל. אילו עוד משלים סייעו לדוד בהמשך דרכו?
  • כיצד מפרשים בעלי המדרש את אמירתה של אביגיל "ולא תהיה לך לפוקה"?
9ט
ועמדו עליו שבע נביאות מאן נינהו שרה מרים דבורה חנה אביגיל חולדה ואסתר שרה [...] והיה היא רוכבת על החמור ויורדת בסתר ההר בסתר ההר [...] מיבעי ליה [רצה (דוד) לקיים עמה יחסים]. אמר רבה בר שמואל: על עסקי דם הבא מן הסתרים- נטלה דם והראתה לו [שהיא נידה]. אמר לה: וכי מראין דם בלילה? אמרה לו: וכי דנין דיני נפשות בלילה? אמר לה: מורד במלכות הוא [נבל] ולא צריך למידייניה! אמרה לו: עדיין שאול קיים ולא יצא טבעך בעולם [עוד לא נקבע כי אתה מלך באופן רשמי (אין לך מטבע)]. אמר לה (שמואל א כה, לג) "ברוך טעמך וברוכה את אשר כליתני [היום הזה] מבא בדמים". דמים תרתי משמע אלא מלמד שגילתה את שוקה והלך לאורה ג' פרסאות אמר לה: השמיעי לי [העני לי]! אמרה לו (שמואל א כה, לא): "לא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה".
before the creation of the world, but they were not created. The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. The Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by planting a few of them in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation, as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all. And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that the verse: “Who were snatched [kumtu]” (Job 22:16), is written for a blessing, as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. These are Torah scholars, who shrivel [mekamtin], i.e., humble, themselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [yesodam] was poured out as a stream” (Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [sod]. Shmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite song to God and then immediately cease to exist, as it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness” (Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: And this opinion disagrees with that of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: With each and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts” (Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur. § The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: One verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like pure white wool” (Daniel 7:9), and it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven” (Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. Here the verse in Daniel is referring to when He is in the heavenly academy, while there the verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is at war, for the Master said: There is no finer individual to study Torah in an academy than an old man, and there is no finer individual to wage war than a youth. A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion. The Gemara poses another question: One verse states: “His throne was fiery flames” (Daniel 7:9), and another phrase in the same verse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,” implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. One throne is for Him and one is for David, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to this issue: One throne for Him and one for David; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane, by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? Rather, the two thrones are designated for different purposes: One for judgment and one for righteousness. The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva accept this rebuff from him, or did he not accept it from him? The Gemara offers a proof: Come and hear the following teaching of a different baraita: One throne is for judgment and one is for righteousness; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doing occupying yourself with the study of aggada? This is not your field of expertise. Take [kelakh] your words to the topics of plagues and tents. Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the halakhot of the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. Rather, with regard to the two thrones: One throne is for a seat and one is for a small seat. The seat is to sit on, and the small seat is for His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool” (Isaiah 66:1). § The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. When Rav Dimi came from Israel to Babylonia, he said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed, i.e., he was not satisfied, until he said to them the great curse of the following verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable” (Isaiah 3:5). The Gemara asks: What are these eighteen curses? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them” (Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel. The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: “Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues. The Gemara interjects: Rav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. One of them said: They were proficient in six hundred orders of Mishna, and the other one said: In seven hundred orders of Mishna, only six of which remain today. “Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled” (Proverbs 9:5). “And every support of water”; these are the masters of aggada, who draw people’s hearts like water by means of aggada. “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition, one who masters the halakhot transmitted to him from his rabbis. “And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah, generating novel teachings in the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king. Why is he called a diviner? For it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king” (Proverbs 16:10). “An elder”; this is one fit for the position of head of an academy. “A captain of fifty,” do not read it as sar ḥamishim,” rather read it as sar ḥumashin”; this is one who knows how to engage in discourse with regard to the five books of [ḥamisha ḥumshei] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty” should be understood in accordance with Rabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From here we learn that one may not appoint a disseminator over the public to transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is less than fifty years of age. “And the man of favor”; this is one for whose sake favor is shown to his generation. The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor above, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor below, for example: Rabbi Abbahu, who would plead Israel’s case in the house of the emperor. “The counselor”; this is referring to one who knows how to intercalate years and determine months, due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. “The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wise through his questions. “Charmer [ḥarashim]”; this is referring to one so wise that when he begins speaking matters of Torah, all those listening are as though deaf [ḥershin], as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. “The skillful”; this is one who understands something new from something else he has learned. “Enchanter [laḥash]”; this is referring to one who is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [laḥash], i.e., the secrets of the Torah, transmitted to him. The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: “And I will make children their princes” (Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of “And I will make children [ne’arim] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [menu’arin] of mitzvot; such people will become the leaders of the nation. “And babes [ta’alulim] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: Ta’alulim means foxes [ta’alei], sons of foxes. In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. And the prophet Isaiah’s mind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable” (Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [na’ar]; these are people who are devoid of mitzvot, who will behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [nikleh] against the honorable [nikhbad]”; this means that one for whom major [kaved] transgressions are like minor ones [kalot] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whom even minor transgressions are like major ones in his mind. § The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. Rav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to exist among its people, as it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, and say: You have a cloak, be our ruler” (Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: Things that people are careful to keep covered as with a cloak, i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, are under your hand, as you are an expert with regard to them. What is the meaning of the end of that verse: “And this stumbling block” (Isaiah 3:6)? Things that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them, as they can be understood only with much effort, are under your hand. Although they will approach an individual with these statements, he “shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people” (Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: “Shall swear [yissa],” yissa is none other than an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [tissa] the name of the Lord your God in vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: “I will not be a healer [ḥovesh]” (Isaiah 3:7), which means: I was never one of those who sit [meḥovshei] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possess knowledge of neither the Bible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara. This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us, and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, he would have said that he learned and forgot, thereby avoiding shame. What is the meaning of “I will not be a healer,” which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: I will not be a healer at all, as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all. The Gemara raises another difficulty: Is that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her” (Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: This case is referring to words of Torah, while that case is referring to commerce. With regard to words of Torah, they were trustworthy; with regard to commerce, they were not. § The Gemara returns to the topic of the Design of the Divine Chariot. The Sages taught: An incident occurred involving Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai, who was riding on a donkey and was traveling along the way, and his student, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, was riding a donkey behind him. Rabbi Elazar said to him: My teacher, teach me one chapter in the Design of the Divine Chariot. He said to him: Have I not taught you: And one may not expound the Design of the Divine Chariot to an individual, unless he is a Sage who understands on his own accord? Rabbi Elazar said to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one thing that you taught me. In other words, he humbly requested to recite before him his own understanding of this issue. He said to him: Speak. Immediately, Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai alighted from the donkey, and wrapped his head in his cloak in a manner of reverence, and sat on a stone under an olive tree. Rabbi Elazar said to him: My teacher, for what reason did you alight from the donkey? He said: Is it possible that while you are expounding the Design of the Divine Chariot, and the Divine Presence is with us, and the ministering angels are accompanying us, that I should ride on a donkey? Immediately, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh began to discuss the Design of the Divine Chariot and expounded, and fire descended from heaven and encircled all the trees in the field, and all the trees began reciting song. What song did they recite? “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths…fruit trees and all cedars…praise the Lord” (Psalms 148:7–14). An angel responded from the fire, saying: This is the very Design of the Divine Chariot, just as you expounded. Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai stood and kissed Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh on his head, and said: Blessed be God, Lord of Israel, who gave our father Abraham a son like you, who knows how to understand, investigate, and expound the Design of the Divine Chariot. There are some who expound the Torah’s verses well but do not fulfill its imperatives well, and there are some who fulfill its imperatives well but do not expound its verses well, whereas you expound its verses well and fulfill its imperatives well. Happy are you, our father Abraham, that Elazar ben Arakh came from your loins. The Gemara relates: And when these matters, this story involving his colleague Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, were recounted before Rabbi Yehoshua, he was walking along the way with Rabbi Yosei the Priest. They said: We too shall expound the Design of the Divine Chariot. Rabbi Yehoshua began expounding. And that was the day of the summer solstice, when there are no clouds in the sky. Yet the heavens became filled with clouds, and there was the appearance of a kind of rainbow in a cloud. And ministering angels gathered and came to listen, like people gathering and coming to see the rejoicing of a bridegroom and bride. Rabbi Yosei the Priest went and recited these matters before Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai, who said to him: Happy are all of you, and happy are the mothers who gave birth to you; happy are my eyes that saw this, students such as these. As for you and I, I saw in my dream that we were seated at Mount Sinai, and a Divine Voice came to us from heaven: Ascend here, ascend here, for large halls [teraklin] and pleasant couches are made up for you. You, your students, and the students of your students are invited to the third group, those who will merit to welcome the Divine Presence. The Gemara poses a question: Is that so? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: There are three lectures. In other words, there are three Sages with regard to whom it states that they delivered lectures on the mystical tradition: Rabbi Yehoshua lectured on these matters before Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai; Rabbi Akiva lectured before Rabbi Yehoshua; and Ḥananya ben Ḥakhinai lectured before Rabbi Akiva. However, Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was not included in the list, despite the testimony that he lectured before Rabban Yoḥanan. The Gemara explains: Those who lectured and were also lectured to were included; but those who lectured and were not lectured to were not included. The Gemara asks: But wasn’t there Ḥananya ben Ḥakhinai, who was not lectured to, and yet he is included? The Gemara answers: Ḥananya ben Ḥakhinai actually lectured before one who lectured in front of his own rabbi, so he was also included in this list. § The Sages taught: Four entered the orchard [pardes], i.e., dealt with the loftiest secrets of Torah, and they are as follows: Ben Azzai; and ben Zoma; Aḥer, the other, a name for Elisha ben Avuya; and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva, the senior among them, said to them: When, upon your arrival in the upper worlds, you reach pure marble stones, do not say: Water, water, although they appear to be water, because it is stated: “He who speaks falsehood shall not be established before My eyes” (Psalms 101:7). The Gemara proceeds to relate what happened to each of them: Ben Azzai glimpsed at the Divine Presence and died. And with regard to him the verse states: “Precious in the eyes of the Lord is the death of His pious ones” (Psalms 116:15). Ben Zoma glimpsed at the Divine Presence and was harmed, i.e., he lost his mind. And with regard to him the verse states: “Have you found honey? Eat as much as is sufficient for you, lest you become full from it and vomit it” (Proverbs 25:16). Aḥer chopped down the shoots of saplings. In other words, he became a heretic. Rabbi Akiva came out safely. The Gemara recounts the greatness of ben Zoma, who was an expert interpreter of the Torah and could find obscure proofs: They asked ben Zoma: What is the halakha with regard to castrating a dog? The prohibition against castration appears alongside the sacrificial blemishes, which may imply that it is permitted to castrate an animal that cannot be sacrificed as an offering. He said to them: The verse states “That which has its testicles bruised, or crushed, or torn, or cut, you shall not offer to God, nor shall you do so in your land” (Leviticus 22:24), from which we learn: With regard to any animal that is in your land, you shall not do such a thing. They also asked ben Zoma: A woman considered to be a virgin who became pregnant, what is the halakha? A High Priest may marry only a virgin; is he permitted to marry her? The answer depends on the following: Are we concerned for the opinion of Shmuel? Shmuel says:
10י
דיון
  • אילו סגולות מיוחסות לאביגיל?
  • כיצד מוצג דוד במדרש? מדוע אמרו חכמים כי דוד תבע מאביגיל לשכב עמו?
  • כיצד מפרשים חכמים את אמירתה של אביגיל "לא תהיה לך זאת לפוקה"?
11יא
דיון
בגרסה המקבילה בתלמוד הירושלמי, במסכת גיטין מובא תיאור דומה לבבלי, בתוספת הבאה:
12יב
[וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה] - [...] פיקפוקי דברים היה שם. א"ל [אביגיל לדוד] כד תיפוק פקפוקתך יהו אומרים עליך שופך דמים את [כשתמלוך יאמרו עליך כי הנך שופך דמים] ולמכשול עון אתה עומד להכשל באשת איש [ואתה עומד בפני מכשול (חטא) "אשת איש"], מוטב אחת ולא שתים עדיתה רובה מן הדא מייתי לא תהא דא בדא [מכשול גדול יעמוד לפניך ולכן מוטב שלא תקח על עצמך גם מכשול זה] [...]
13יג
דיון
  • כיצד מפרש מדרש זה את הביטוי "ולא תהיה לך לפוקה"?
  • מה לומדים חכמים על אופיו של דוד לאור הדמיון בין סיפור זה לסיפור בת שבע?
לאחר שעלה דוד לשלטון והקים ממלכה מפוארת, הוא נתקל בהתנגדויות וניסיונות למרוד בו, כמו זה של שבע בן בכרי, המסופר בספר שמואל ב, פרק כ. לאחר מרדף של עמשא שר הצבא, אבישי ויואב בעקבות המורד, הם מגיעים לעיר אבל בית מעכה ומבקשים לשרוף את כל העיר עליו. מול יואב ניצבת אשה חכמה מן העיר הפונה אליו בדברים:
14יד
(טז) וַתִּקְרָא אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה מִן הָעִיר שִׁמְעוּ שִׁמְעוּ אִמְרוּ נָא אֶל-יוֹאָב קְרַב עַד הֵנָּה וַאֲדַבְּרָה אֵלֶיךָ. (יז) וַיִּקְרַב אֵלֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַאַתָּה יוֹאָב וַיֹּאמֶר אָנִי וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁמַע דִּבְרֵי אֲמָתֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר שֹׁמֵעַ אָנֹכִי. (יח) וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאמֹר דַּבֵּר יְדַבְּרוּ בָרִאשֹׁנָה לֵאמֹר שָׁאוֹל יְשָׁאֲלוּ בְּאָבֵל וְכֵן הֵתַמּוּ. (יט) אָנֹכִי שְׁלֻמֵי אֱמוּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהָמִית עִיר וְאֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לָמָּה תְבַלַּע נַחֲלַת ה'. (כ) וַיַּעַן יוֹאָב וַיֹּאמַר חָלִילָה חָלִילָה לִי אִם אֲבַלַּע וְאִם אַשְׁחִית. (כא) לֹא כֵן הַדָּבָר כִּי אִישׁ מֵהַר אֶפְרַיִם שֶׁבַע בֶּן-בִּכְרִי שְׁמוֹ נָשָׂא יָדוֹ בַּמֶּלֶךְ בְּדָוִד תְּנוּ אֹתוֹ לְבַדּו וְאֵלְכָה מֵעַל הָעִיר וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל-יוֹאָב הִנֵּה רֹאשׁוֹ מֻשְׁלָךְ אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַד הַחוֹמָה. (כב) וַתָּבוֹא הָאִשָּׁה אֶל כָּל הָעָם בְּחָכְמָתָהּ וַיִּכְרְתוּ אֶת רֹאשׁ שֶׁבַע בֶּן בִּכְרִי וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶל יוֹאָב וַיִּתְקַע בַּשֹּׁפָר וַיָּפֻצוּ מֵעַל הָעִיר אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וְיוֹאָב שָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל הַמֶּלֶך
Then cried a wise woman out of the city, Hear, hear; say, I pray you, to Yo᾽av, Come near here; that I may speak with thee. And when he was come near to her, the woman said, Art thou Yo᾽av? And he answered, I am he. Then she said to him, Hear the words of thy handmaid. And he answered, I do hear. Then she spoke saying, Surely in early times they would have spoken saying, Let them ask Avel to yield, and so they would have ended the matter. I am of the peaceable and faithful in Yisra᾽el: thou seekest to destroy a city and a mother in Yisra᾽el: why wilt thou swallow up the inheritance of the Lord? And Yo᾽av answered and said, Far be it, far be it from me, that I should swallow up or destroy. The matter is not so: but a man of mount Efrayim, Sheva the son of Bikhri by name, has lifted up his hand against the king, against David: deliver him only, and I will depart from the city. And the woman said to Yo᾽av, Behold, his head shall be thrown to thee over the wall. Then the woman went to all the people in her wisdom. And they cut off the head of Sheva the son of Bikhri, and cast it out to Yo᾽av. And he blew on the shofar, and they retired from the city, every man to his tent. And Yo᾽av returned to Yerushalayim to the king.
15טו
דיון
  • מהן נקודות הדמיון בין שני הסיפורים ובין המשא ומתן של שתי הנשים עם אנשי הצבא? במה מתבטאת חוכמת שתי הנשים?
16טז
דיון
"יפת תואר"- כיצד חיברו חז"ל בין חוכמתה ליפי תארה:
חז"ל לא התעלמו מיופייה של אביגיל המתוארת במפורש "יפת תואר".

במסכת מגילה היא מוכרזת כיפהפייה:
17יז
תנו רבנן: ארבע נשים יפיפיות היו בעולם שרה (ואביגיל רחב) ואסתר [...]
To complete the discussion about the prophetesses, the Gemara cites a baraita in which the Sages taught: There were four women of extraordinary beauty in the world: Sarah, and Abigail, Rahab, and Esther. And according to the one who said that Esther was greenish in color, lacking natural beauty, only that a cord of divine grace was strung around her, remove Esther from the list and insert Vashti in her place, for she was indeed beautiful.
18יח
דיון
  • מדוע לדעתכם טרח הכתוב לציין את עובדת היותה יפה? האם יופי זה קשור בצורה כלשהי להמשך הסיפור?
  • מה המכנה המשותף לארבע היפהפיות שמזכירה הגמרא? באיזה הקשר הוזכר יופיין של שרה (בראשית, יב, י) ואסתר (אסתר, פרק ב), ומדוע הניחו חז"ל שגם רחב (יהושע, פרק ב) הייתה יפהפייה, למרות שהכתוב אינו מציין זאת?
המדרשים הבאים מסתייגים מבקשתה של אביגיל לדוד "וזכרת את אמתך", גם אם בתחילתם הם שיבחו את חוכמתה ותושייתה: רש"י מפרש בתלמוד הבבל, מסעת בבא קמא:
19יט
פירוש רש"י על תלמוד בבלי, מסכת בבא קמא, דף צב, עמוד ב
והטיב ה' לאדני וזכרת [את] אמתך כאשר ייטב וגו' - באביגיל כתיב שהיתה מתנבאה שימות נבל בעלה ובתוך דבריה מרמזת לדוד שיזכיר את יפיה.
20כ
דיון
  • כיצד מקשר רש"י בין יופייה של אביגיל לדבריה לדוד? האם מדבריו משתמעת בהכרח תכונה שלילית?
21כא
וזכרת את אמתך מלמד שפקרה עצמה [=הפקירה עצמה לדוד] וכיון שפקרה עצמה פגמהּ הכתוב. בכל קרייא את קרי אביגיל, בר מהדין פסוקא [= בכל פסוק קוראים 'אביגיל' מלבד אותו פסוק:] 'ויאמר דוד לאביגל' [בהשמטת האות יו"ד] ברוך השם וגו'.
22כב
מדרש שמואל, פרשה כג, סימן טז; כב
ותפגוש אותם - הוקרו כולן [=שפכו את זרעם (מרוב התרגשות על יופייה)]
וזכרת את אמתך - [...] לפי שהתנה עינה בו כשהייתה אשת איש לפיכך פגמה הכתוב.
23כג
דיון
  • כיצד מוצגת אביגיל במדרשים אלו?
  • האם גם לדעתכם ישנו טעם לפגם בבקשתה של אביגיל מדוד "וזכרת את אמתך"?
24כד
וזכרת את אמתך: אמרה לו, אל תשכחני אהיה כנגד פניך כשיבוא הדין הזה לפניך, וכשאתה דן אותו הוי אומר זכורה אותה לטובה שעשת לי שלא באתי בדמים. שאם הייתי עושה אותו מעשה, לא הייתי יכול לכפרו. אמר לה: אין זה ממך, אל תתייהרי בעצמך! הקב"ה שלח אותך אצלי שנאמר: "ברוך ה' אלוהי ישראל אשר שלחך אצלי" ואף את צריכה להתברך שנ' "ברוך טעמך וברוכה את".
25כה
דיון
  • כיצד מוצגת אביגיל במדרש זה? מדוע לדעתכם הקפיד בעל המדרש עם אביגיל וראה בבקשתה מדוד סימן ליהירות, אך לא הקפיד עם האשה החכמה מאבל בית מעכה שהעידה על עצמה כי היא "שלומי אמוני ישראל"?
27 כז
28כח
דף הנחיות למנחה:
אביגיל.rtf
29כט
דף מספר 2 בסדרה 'פיה פתחה בחכמה': על נשים חכמות בעולם גברי, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
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