Blessings and prayers, focusing on Shema and the Amidah.
Crops left in the corner of a field for the poor to take, other agricultural gifts to the poor.
Produce from one who is suspected to have neglected tithing and the requirement to tithe it.
Prohibited mixtures of certain seeds, plants, animals, or materials of clothing.
The seventh year of the agricultural cycle, when working the land is prohibited and debts are forgiven.
Required donations of agricultural produce to priestly households and its sacred status.
Separating tithes for priests, Levites, the poor, and for consumption in Jerusalem.
A tithe eaten in Jerusalem or exchanged for money to be used for purchasing food there.
Dough separated when baking bread and given to priests.
Fruit growing on a tree in its first three years, when benefitting from the fruit is prohibited.
Creative work prohibited on Shabbat and other laws that preserve the sanctity of the day.
Enclosures that legally expand the areas in which one can carry and travel on Shabbat.
Passover: ridding of chametz, the Paschal lamb offering, matzah, maror, and the Seder.
Annual half-shekel donations to the Temple, administration and inventory of the Temple.
Yom Kippur: the High Priest’s preparation, the Temple service, the fast, and repentance.
The structure of and obligation to dwell in the sukkah, the four species, and celebrating the holiday in the Temple.
Holiday laws governing which objects can be used, how food is prepared, and what labor is permitted.
The declaration process for a new month in the Temple period, blowing the shofar, and Rosh Hashanah liturgy.
Praying for rain, fasting in times of drought, and annual fast days marking Jerusalem’s destruction.
Reading the scroll of Esther on Purim, synagogue rituals, and treatment of sacred objects.
Seder Nashim(Family law)
The mandated marriage of a widow to the brother of her childless husband and the alternative rite discharging that obligation.
The marital contract (Ketubah) and obligations between husband and wife.
Vows taken voluntarily, particularly those that forbid specific actions or objects.
The Nazarite, or one who vows abstinence from wine, haircuts, and ritual impurity generated from contact with corpses.
A woman suspected of adultery, the ritual determining her culpability, and other rituals involving recitation.
Laws relating to divorce, focusing on the get (bill of divorce) and its delivery.
Liability and compensation for damages inflicted on people or property.
Disputed property, returning lost objects, guarding, renting, borrowing, and responsibilities of workers and employers.
Relationships between neighbors, land ownership, sales, and inheritance.
The judicial system, forming the court, accepting testimony, and executing capital punishment.
Court-administered lashing, false witnesses, and cities of refuge for inadvertent murderers.
Oaths and the process of atoning for entering the Temple or eating from a sacrifice while impure.
The only tractate without a unified subject, organized as collections of laws on various topics.
Disassociating from idolatry, regulations on business interactions between Jews and idolaters.
Animal and bird sacrifices in the Temple.
Flour offerings, usually mixed with oil, wine libations, and bread loaf offerings in the Temple.
Slaughter of animals and birds for non-consecrated purposes, other aspects of kashrut.
Transfer of first-born kosher animals to a priest, redemption of first-born donkeys and people.
Vowing to donate a person’s prescribed value delineated in the Torah to the Temple, donations of land to the Temple.
The sanctity of animals dedicated for sacrifice and the prohibition of exchanging them for others.
Karet, divinely-issued severance from the Jewish people, and sacrifices for unintentional sin.
Prohibited benefit from Temple property, the sacrifice and restitution offered as atonement.
The daily Temple service, including the burnt-offerings brought every morning and afternoon.
Measurements and descriptions of the Second Temple and the Temple Mount.
Vessels - tools, utensils, appliances, furniture, and clothing - and their statuses in purity laws.
The spread of a corpse’s impurity through contact, carrying, or dwelling under the same roof.
Tzaraat, a discoloration condition on skin, houses, or clothing, purification for the infected.
Burning of a red heifer and mixing of its ashes with spring water to be used for purification.
How food, drinks, objects and people become impure and spread impurity.
Ritual baths and the process of immersing in them to become pure.
The ritual impurity of a woman in her menstrual cycle or experiencing particular discharges.
Water, oil, milk, wine, honey, dew, or blood touching food and rendering it susceptible to impurity.
Abnormal bodily discharges and the impurity they generate.
The status of a person in the time between their immersion in a mikvah and sunset of that day.
Rishonim on Mishnah
Commentators who lived in the 11th through 16th centuries.
11th-century commentary on Pirkei Avot attributed to Rav Shlomo Yitzchaki, acclaimed commentator on Tanakh and Talmud.
16th-century commentary printed in most editions of the Mishnah, including summaries of talmudic discussions and legal conclusions.
15th-century commentary on Pirkei Avot by the Tashbetz, part of his four-part philosophical work by the same name.
R' Shemaiah on Mishnah Middot
12th-century commentary by Rabbi Shemaiah of Soissons, a student of Rashi, included in printed editions of the Talmud.
Raavad on Mishnah Eduyot
12th-century commentary by Rabbi Abraham ben David, known for his critical comments of Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah.
13th-century commentary on Pirkei Avot by the author of Shaarei Teshuvah.
Acharonim on Mishnah
Commentators who lived in the 16th through 19th centuries.
First part of an 18th-century commentary by Rabbi Yisrael Lipschitz called Tiferet Yisrael, containing brief explanations of the Mishnah’s simple meaning.
Second part of an 18th-century commentary by Rabbi Yisrael Lipschitz called Tiferet Yisrael, with lengthy analysis of the Mishnah’s topics.
16th-century commentary on Pirkei Avot by the Maharal of Prague with original interpretations.
18th-century commentary on Pirkei Avot by the Vilna Gaon, noting biblical verses that correspond to each Mishnah.
18th-century kabbalistic commentary interspersed with poems, composed in Tzfat by Rabbi Immanuel Chai Ricchi.
Ikar Tosafot Yom Tov
18th-century abridged version of Rabbi Yom Tov Lippmann Heller’s Tosafot Yom Tov commentary, often printed alongside the Mishnah.
18th-century commentary by Rabbi Yaakov Emden, meant to serve as a supplement to the Tosafot Yom Tov.
19th-century commentary by the Chida based largely on letter schemes and kabbalistic teachings.
16th-century commentary by Rav Shlomo Adani with a focus on establishing the correct text of the Mishnah and explaining its literal meaning.
Midrash Shmuel on Avot
16th-century anthology of commentaries on Pirkei Avot compiled by Rabbi Shmuel Di Uzeda, a student of the Arizal.
19th-century commentary on tractate Kinnim by Rabbi Yitzchak Aizik Safrin of Komarna.
Nachalat Avot on Avot
15th-century commentary on Pirkei Avot by the Abarbanel, structured as questions on each Mishnah followed by resolutions.
18th-century Mishnah and Talmud commentary by the Chida, Rabbi Chaim Yosef David Azulai.
19th-century annotations based on classes that the author, Rabbi Shmuel Strashun, delivered in a synagogue in Lithuania.
Tosafot Rabbi Akiva Eiger
19th-century analytic work mostly discussing the commentary of Bartenura and Tosafot Yom Tov.
Tosafot Yom Tov
Classic 17th-century commentary of Rabbi Yom Tov Lippmann Heller meant to serve as a supplement to the commentary of Bartenura.
Yein Levanon on Avot
18th-century commentary on Pirkei Avot by Naphtali Herz Wessley with a focus on linguistic aspects of the Mishnah.
Yesh Seder LaMishnah
18th-century commentary by Rabbi Yeshaya Berlin based on the commentaries of Bartenura and Tosafot Yom Tov, noting textual variants.
Modern Commentary on Mishnah
A New Israeli Commentary on Pirkei Avot
21st-century commentary including clear explanations of the text and highlighting connections to contemporary Israeli life and culture.
English Explanation of Mishnah
21st-century commentary by Dr. Joshua Kulp, rosh yeshiva of the Conservative Yeshiva in Jerusalem, with clear and user-friendly explanations.
About MishnahThe Mishnah is the first major work of rabbinic literature, consisting of teachings transmitted over hundreds of years and compiled around 200 CE. It covers agricultural, ritual, civil, criminal, and Temple-related laws, presenting a multiplicity of legal opinions and incorporating occasional stories. It is a foundation of the Jewish oral tradition, which continues with the Talmud, a work that is structured as commentary on the Mishnah.
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