Tea and Talmud Pesachim ch 10
Joseph ibn Habiba (Hebrew: יוסף חביבא‎), also known as Joseph Havivah and Nimmukei Yosef, after the title of his book) was a Spanish Talmudist who flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries. He lived in Barcelona.[1]
Nimmukei Yosef[edit]
Like his predecessor, R. Nissim ben Reuben (RaN), Ibn Ḥabib wrote a commentary on the halachot of Isaac Alfasi, entitled Nimmuḳei Yosef, published with the text and the commentary of R. Nissim (Constantinople, 1509).
אשה אינה צריכה הסיבה ואם אשה חשובה היא צריכה הסיבה בן אצל אביו צריך הסיבה תלמיד אצל רבו מאי ת"ש דאמר אביי כי הוינן כי מר הוה זגינן אבירכי דהדדי כי אתאן לכי רב יוסף אמר לן לא צריכיתו דמורא רבך כמורא שמים איבעיא להו שמש מאי ואסיקנא דצריך הסיבה
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Alfasi
Sefer haHalachot[edit]
Sefer ha-Halachot (ספר ההלכות), also known as Hilchot haRif or Hilchot Rav Alfas (Hebrew: הלכות רב אלפס), was Alfasi's main work, written in Fez.[8]It extracts all the pertinent legal decisions from the three Talmudic orders Moed, Nashim and Nezikin as well as the tractates of Berachot and Chulin - 24 tractates in all. Alfasi transcribed the Talmud's halakhic conclusions verbatim, without the surrounding deliberations; he also excludes all Aggadic (non-legal, homiletic) matter as well as discussion of the halakha practicable only in Land of Israel.
Generally the work follows the ordering of the Talmud, but sometimes Talmudic excerpts are moved from place to place, and very rarely non-Talmudic texts are incorporated into the work.[9]
אשה אינה צריכה הסיבה. לפי שמשמשת לבעלה:
Nissim ben Reuven (1320 – 9th of Shevat, 1376, Hebrew: נִסִּים בֶּן רְאוּבֵן‎) of Girona, Catalonia was an influential talmudist and authority on Jewish law. He was one of the last of the great Spanish medieval Talmudic scholars. He is also known by his Hebrew acronym, the RaN (ר"ן‎), as well as by the name RaNbaR (רנב"ר‎), the Hebrew acronym of his full name, including his father's name, Reuven (ראובן‎),[1] as also by Nissim Gerondi.
וְאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: נָשִׁים חַיָּיבוֹת בְּאַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ,
And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Women are obligated in these four cups of wine at the Passover seder.
ארבע כוסות - שלשה כנגד ג' כוסות שנאמרו בפסוק זה וכוס פרעה בידי וגומר ורביעי ברכת המזון:
מי שהיה עבד ואשה. משמע כאן דאשה פטורה מהלל דסוכות וכן דעצרת וטעמא משום דמצוה שהזמן גרמא היא אע"ג דבהלל דלילי פסחים משמע בפרק ערבי פסחים (פסחים דף קח.) דמחייבי בד' כוסות ומסתמא לא תיקנו ד' כוסות אלא כדי לומר עליהם הלל ואגדה שאני הלל דפסח דעל הנס בא ואף הן היו באותו הנס אבל כאן לא על הנס אמור:
It seems from here that women are exempt from reciting Hallel on Sukkos and Shavuos because it is a time-bound positive mitzvah. Although the Gemara implies that women are obligated in the four cups of wine on the first nights of Pesach, and the rabbis ostensibly only instituted the four cups to enhance the recitation of Hallel and Maggid, Hallel of Pesach is different because it commemorates the miracle and [women] also were part of the miracle.
שאף הן היו באותו הנס - כדאמרינן (סוטה דף יא:) בשכר נשים צדקניות שבאותו הדור נגאלו וכן גבי מקרא מגילה נמי אמרינן הכי דמשום דע"י אסתר נגאלו וכן גבי נר חנוכה במסכת שבת (ד' כג.):
היו באותו הנס - פי' רשב"ם שעל ידם נגאלו וכן במגילה ע"י אסתר ובחנוכה ע"י יהודית וקשה דאף משמע שאינן עיקר ועוד דבירושלמי גריס שאף הן היו באותו ספק משמע באותה סכנה דלהשמיד להרוג ולאבד והא דאמרינן דפטורות מסוכה אע"ג דאף הן היו באותו הנס כי בסוכות הושבתי התם בעשה דאורייתא אבל בארבעה כוסות דרבנן תיקנו גם לנשים כיון שהיו באותו הנס:
They were in that same miracle: Rashba"m explained that they [the Jews] were redeemed through them [the women]. And similarly, in the Megilla, through Esther, and in Chanuka, through Judith. And it is difficult, since "even" implies that they aren't the main thing. And also, the version in the Jerusalem Talmud is "even they were in that same uncertainty," implying in that danger of "to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish" (Esther 3:13). And this that we say that they [women] are exempt from [the commandment of] sukka, even though that even they were in that same miracle, is [based on] "that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths" (Leviticus 23:43), there, is regarding a positive Torah commandment. However, regarding the four cups, which is rabbinic, they established it also for women, since they were in that same miracle.
שאף הן היו באותו הנס - דאמר במס' סוטה (ד' יא:) בשכר נשים צדקניות שהיו באותו הדור נגאלו וכן גבי מקרא מגילה אמר הכי משום דעל ידי אסתר הוה וכן גבי חנוכה במס' שבת (ד' כג.) לשון מורינו הלוי:
מֵיתִיבִי: אַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּהֶן כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, אֶחָד חַי וְאֶחָד מָזוּג, אֶחָד חָדָשׁ וְאֶחָד יָשָׁן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֵה יַיִן. קָתָנֵי מִיהַת כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, וְאַתְּ אָמְרַתְּ כּוֹס יָפֶה!
The Gemara raises an objection to the above rulings from a baraita: These four cups must contain one quarter-log, whether the wine is undiluted or diluted, whether it is new or aged. Rabbi Yehuda says: It must have the taste and appearance of wine. In any event, this baraita is teaching that each cup must contain at least the amount of one quarter-log, and yet you said that each must contain enough for diluting a significant cup.
אָמְרִי: אִידֵּי וְאִידֵּי חַד שִׁיעוּרָא הוּא, מַאי ״כְּדֵי מְזִיגַת כּוֹס יָפֶה״ דְּקָאָמַר — לְכׇל חַד וְחַד, דְּהָוֵי לְהוּ כּוּלְּהוּ רְבִיעִית.
They say in response that this and that are one and the same measure. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the expression: Enough for diluting a significant cup, which Shmuel said? He meant that there must be enough undiluted wine for each and every one of the cups, i.e., one quarter-log of diluted wine. This amounts to one quarter-log of undiluted wine for all of them combined. A significant cup contains one quarter-log. This quarter-log is comprised of one quarter undiluted wine and three quarters water. Therefore, each cup must contain at least one quarter of one quarter-log of undiluted wine, so that one consumes a full quarter-log of liquid from each cup.
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֶה. אָמַר רָבָא: מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״אַל תֵּרֶא יַיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם״.
The baraita stated that Rabbi Yehuda says the cup from which one drinks must have the taste and appearance of wine. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31). This verse proves that the appearance of wine and not only its taste is important.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַכֹּל חַיָּיבִין בְּאַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד תִּינוֹקוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: וְכִי מָה תּוֹעֶלֶת יֵשׁ לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּיַיִן? אֶלָּא מְחַלְּקִין לָהֶן
The Sages taught in a baraita: All are obligated in these four cups, including men, women, and children. Rabbi Yehuda said: What benefit do children receive from wine? They do not enjoy it. Rather, one distributes to them
קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁהָיָה מְחַלֵּק קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: חוֹטְפִין מַצּוֹת בְּלֵילֵי פְּסָחִים בִּשְׁבִיל תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ.
roasted grains and nuts on Passover eve, so that they will not sleep and also so they will ask the four questions at night. They said about Rabbi Akiva that he would distribute roasted grains and nuts to children on Passover eve, so that they would not sleep and so they would ask. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: One grabs the matzot on the nights of Passover. One should eat them very quickly on account of the children, so that, due to the hasty consumption of the meal, they will not sleep and they will inquire into the meaning of this unusual practice.
וְצָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שִׁנּוּי בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ הַבָּנִים וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת עַד שֶׁיָּשִׁיב לָהֶם וְיֹאמַר לָהֶם כָּךְ וְכָךְ אֵרַע וְכָךְ וְכָךְ הָיָה. וְכֵיצַד מְשַׁנֶּה. מְחַלֵּק לָהֶם קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִים וְעוֹקְרִים הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִלִּפְנֵיהֶם קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּ וְחוֹטְפִין מַצָּה זֶה מִיַּד זֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ. אֵין לוֹ בֵּן אִשְׁתּוֹ שׁוֹאַלְתּוֹ. אֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה שׁוֹאֲלִין זֶה אֶת זֶה מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ כֻּלָּן חֲכָמִים. הָיָה לְבַדּוֹ שׁוֹאֵל לְעַצְמוֹ מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה:
On the first night of Pesaḥ, one should introduce some change at the table, so that the children who will notice it may ask, saying: "Why is this night different from all other nights?" And he in turn will reply: "This is what happened." In what manner, for example, should he introduce a change? He may distribute parched grain or nuts to the children; remove the table from its usual place; snatch the unleavened bread from hand to hand, and so on. If he has no son, his wife should ask the questions; if he has no wife, they should ask one another: "Why is this night different?"—even if they are all scholars. If one is alone, he should ask himself: "Why is this night different?"
מֵיתִיבִי: אַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּהֶן כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, אֶחָד חַי וְאֶחָד מָזוּג, אֶחָד חָדָשׁ וְאֶחָד יָשָׁן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֵה יַיִן. קָתָנֵי מִיהַת כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, וְאַתְּ אָמְרַתְּ כּוֹס יָפֶה!
The Gemara raises an objection to the above rulings from a baraita: These four cups must contain one quarter-log, whether the wine is undiluted or diluted, whether it is new or aged. Rabbi Yehuda says: It must have the taste and appearance of wine. In any event, this baraita is teaching that each cup must contain at least the amount of one quarter-log, and yet you said that each must contain enough for diluting a significant cup.
אָמְרִי: אִידֵּי וְאִידֵּי חַד שִׁיעוּרָא הוּא, מַאי ״כְּדֵי מְזִיגַת כּוֹס יָפֶה״ דְּקָאָמַר — לְכׇל חַד וְחַד, דְּהָוֵי לְהוּ כּוּלְּהוּ רְבִיעִית.
They say in response that this and that are one and the same measure. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the expression: Enough for diluting a significant cup, which Shmuel said? He meant that there must be enough undiluted wine for each and every one of the cups, i.e., one quarter-log of diluted wine. This amounts to one quarter-log of undiluted wine for all of them combined. A significant cup contains one quarter-log. This quarter-log is comprised of one quarter undiluted wine and three quarters water. Therefore, each cup must contain at least one quarter of one quarter-log of undiluted wine, so that one consumes a full quarter-log of liquid from each cup.
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֶה. אָמַר רָבָא: מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״אַל תֵּרֶא יַיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם״.
The baraita stated that Rabbi Yehuda says the cup from which one drinks must have the taste and appearance of wine. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31). This verse proves that the appearance of wine and not only its taste is important.
אַל־תֵּ֥רֶא יַיִן֮ כִּ֤י יִתְאַ֫דָּ֥ם כִּֽי־יִתֵּ֣ן (בכיס) [בַּכּ֣וֹס] עֵינ֑וֹ יִ֝תְהַלֵּ֗ךְ בְּמֵֽישָׁרִֽים׃
Do not ogle that red wine As it lends its color to the cup, As it flows on smoothly;
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַכֹּל חַיָּיבִין בְּאַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד תִּינוֹקוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: וְכִי מָה תּוֹעֶלֶת יֵשׁ לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּיַיִן? אֶלָּא מְחַלְּקִין לָהֶן
The Sages taught in a baraita: All are obligated in these four cups, including men, women, and children. Rabbi Yehuda said: What benefit do children receive from wine? They do not enjoy it. Rather, one distributes to them
קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁהָיָה מְחַלֵּק קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: חוֹטְפִין מַצּוֹת בְּלֵילֵי פְּסָחִים בִּשְׁבִיל תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ.
roasted grains and nuts on Passover eve, so that they will not sleep and also so they will ask the four questions at night. They said about Rabbi Akiva that he would distribute roasted grains and nuts to children on Passover eve, so that they would not sleep and so they would ask. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: One grabs the matzot on the nights of Passover. One should eat them very quickly on account of the children, so that, due to the hasty consumption of the meal, they will not sleep and they will inquire into the meaning of this unusual practice.
תַּנְיָא, אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: מִיָּמָיו לֹא אָמַר הִגִּיעַ עֵת לַעֲמוֹד בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ, חוּץ מֵעַרְבֵי פְסָחִים וְעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח — בִּשְׁבִיל תִּינוֹקוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ. וְעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים — כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּאֲכִילוּ אֶת בְּנֵיהֶם.
It was taught in a baraita: They said about Rabbi Akiva that in all his days he never said to his students that the time had come to arise from their learning in the study hall. Instead, he would continue to teach as long as they were willing to listen. This was true except for the eves of Passover and the eve of Yom Kippur, when he would stop teaching. The Gemara explains the reasons for these exceptions: On the eve of Passover, he would stop on account of the children, so that they would go to sleep during the day, so that they would not be tired and sleep at night. And on the eve of Yom Kippur, he would stop so that his students would remember to feed their children.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: חַיָּיב אָדָם לְשַׂמֵּחַ בָּנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ בָּרֶגֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ״. בַּמֶּה מְשַׂמְּחָם — בְּיַיִן.
The Sages taught: A man is obligated to gladden his children and the members of his household on a Festival, as it is stated: “And you shall rejoice on your Festival, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow that are within your gates” (Deuteronomy 16:14). With what should one make them rejoice? With wine.
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: אֲנָשִׁים בָּרָאוּי לָהֶם, וְנָשִׁים בָּרָאוּי לָהֶן. אֲנָשִׁים בָּרָאוּי לָהֶם — בְּיַיִן. וְנָשִׁים בְּמַאי? תָּנֵי רַב יוֹסֵף: בְּבָבֶל — בְּבִגְדֵי צִבְעוֹנִין, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל — בְּבִגְדֵי פִּשְׁתָּן מְגוֹהָצִין.
Rabbi Yehuda says: One should enable each member of his household to rejoice with an item that pleases them, men with what is fit for them and women with what is fit for them. Rabbi Yehuda elaborates: Men with what is fit for them, i.e., with wine. And as for the women, with what should one cause them to rejoice? Rav Yosef teaches: One should delight them with new clothes, in Babylonia with colored clothes and in Eretz Yisrael with the pressed linen clothes that are manufactured there.
תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר: בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּים אֵין שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא בְּבָשָׂר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ״, וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁאֵין בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּים, אֵין שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא בְּיַיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ״.
It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: When the Temple is standing, rejoicing is only through the eating of sacrificial meat, as it is stated: “And you shall sacrifice peace-offerings and you shall eat there and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 27:7). And now that the Temple is not standing and one cannot eat sacrificial meat, he can fulfill the mitzva of rejoicing on a Festival only by drinking wine, as it is stated: “And wine that gladdens the heart of man” (Psalms 104:15).
וְיַ֤יִן ׀ יְשַׂמַּ֬ח לְֽבַב־אֱנ֗וֹשׁ לְהַצְהִ֣יל פָּנִ֣ים מִשָּׁ֑מֶן וְ֝לֶ֗חֶם לְֽבַב־אֱנ֥וֹשׁ יִסְעָֽד׃
wine that cheers the hearts of men oil that makes the face shine, and bread that sustains man’s life.
מצמיח חציר וגו' ויין אשר ישמח לבב אנוש גם אותו יוציא מן הארץ ושמן. להצהיל בו פנים:
And wine which cheers man’s heart, that too He brings forth from the earth, and oil to cause the face to radiate.
ולחם. אשר לב אנוש יסעד:
and bread which sustains man’s heart.
א"ר יהושע בן לוי מעלין אונקלי בשבת מאי אונקלי אמר רבי אבא איסתומכא דליבא מאי אסותא מייתי כמונא כרוייא וניניא ואגדנא וציתרי ואבדתא
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One may lift the unkali on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the unkali? Rabbi Abba said: It is the edge of the ribs [istumkha] near the heart which sometimes bend inward, in which case they must be lifted and straightened into their proper position. The Gemara asks: What is the cure for one whose unkali has been bent? He should take cumin, caraway, mint [ninya], wormwood, satureja, and hyssop.
לליבא בחמרא וסימנך (תהלים קד, טו) ויין ישמח לבב אנוש לרוחא במיא וסימנך (בראשית א, ב) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים לכודא בשיכרא וסימנך (בראשית כד, טו) וכדה על שכמה
This remedy is beneficial for several ailments, and the Gemara presents each of these in turn: For curing the heart, the above combination should be taken with wine, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: “And wine that makes glad the heart of man” (Psalms 104:15). For curing an ailment that arises due to the wind [ruḥa], one drinks the mixture in water, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: “And the spirit [ruaḥ] of God hovered over the face of the waters” (Genesis 1:2). For childbirth [lekhuda], a woman in labor drinks the mixture with beer [shikhra], and your mnemonic for this is the verse: “With her pitcher [vekhadah] upon her shoulder [shikhmah]” (Genesis 24:15).
אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: קִסְתָּא דְמוּרְיְסָא דַּהֲוָה בְּצִיפּוֹרִי הִיא הֲוָת כְּמִין לוּגָּא דְּמַקְדְּשָׁא, וּבָהּ מְשַׁעֲרִין רְבִיעִית שֶׁל פֶּסַח. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: תְּמָנְיָיתָא קַדְמָיְיתָא דַּהֲוָה בִּטְבֶרְיָא הֲוָת יַתִּירָה עַל דָּא רִיבְעָא, וּבָהּ מְשַׁעֲרִין רְבִיעִית שֶׁל פֶּסַח.
Rabbi Yitzḥak said: The vessel used for measuring brine [moraysa] that was in Tzippori was the same volume as the log in the Temple, and with it the Sages would measure the quarter-log of Passover. They would fill this vessel and then divide the liquid it contained into four equal parts. The result was one quarter-log, which is the minimum measure of wine for the four cups on Passover and for certain other halakhot. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The old eighth measure that was in use in Tiberias was greater than this eighth measure by one quarter-log, and with it we measure the quarter-log of Passover. When the old measure is filled and poured into the newer version, the amount left in the original vessel is one quarter-log.
קסט [שאלע. קרוג] קוסטר דמוריסא בלומא עיין בערך לם (פסחים קט) א"ר יצחק קיסטא דמוריסא דהוות בצפורי היא הוות לוגא דמקדשא (בפסקא דאיכה) הוה אזיל למזבן קיסע דחמר (ב"ר פ' נ) כי ידעתיו א"ל חד קוסט דחמר ביה פולדי (כלים פט"ו) דדרור עגלה וקסטות מלכים פי' הוא לגין ובלשון ישמעאל הוא קסט והוא עשוי מכל דבר בין מחרס בין ממתכת בין מעץ בין מזכוכית:
לוּגָּא, לֻגָּא (or לַגָּא) ch. same, 1) small bottle.—Pl. לֻגֵּי or לַגֵּי. Yoma 83ᵇ [read:] אהדרוהו בל׳ וצעי (v. Rabb. D. S. a. l. note, a. פְּלוּג) they surrounded him with bottles (of cordials) and dishes; (Ms. O. אהד׳ צעי ולגי they placed around him dishes &c.). —2) Log, v. preced. Targ. Lev. XIV, 10; a. fr. (some ed. לוֹגָא).—Pes. 109ᵃ ל׳ דמקדשא the Log measure of the Temple. Y. Sabb. VIII, 11ᵃ bot.; Y. Shek. III, 47ᶜ top ל׳ דאוריתא the Biblical Log, v. תּוּמַנְתָּא; a. fr.—Pl. לוּגִּין. Targ. Y. Ex. XXX, 24.—Y. Ter. X, 47ᵇ top; a. e.
מוּרְיִיס , (ch. m. (muries) brine, pickle containing fish-hash and sometimes wine. Ab. Zar. 34ᵇ מ׳ אומן מותר you may use muries prepared by a gentile professional cook (because he puts no wine into it). Ib. ארבא דמורייסא a ship-load of muries. Pes. 109ᵃ קסתא דמ׳ וכ׳ a xestos measure for muries existed in Sepphoris which corresponded to the Log of the Temple; Y. Sabb. VIII, 11ᵃ bot.; Y. Pes. X, 37ᶜ bot. תומנתא עתיקתא דמ׳ וכ׳ an old Tumanta (eighth of a kab) for muries in Sepphoris. Y. Ter. VIII, 45ᵇ bot., v. צִירָא I. Tosef. Ber. IV, 2. Tosef. Dem. I, 24; Ḥull. 6ᵃ; a. fr.
איסתומכא דליבא - דופני בשר שתחת הלב והוא טרפשא. לישנא אחרינא תנוך שכנגד הלב שקורין ניבל"א ופעמים שנכפף לצד פנים ומעכב את הנשימה וזהו עיקר:
אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: רְבִיעִית שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֶצְבָּעַיִם עַל אֶצְבָּעַיִם בְּרוּם אֶצְבָּעַיִם וַחֲצִי אֶצְבַּע וְחוֹמֶשׁ אֶצְבַּע. כִּדְתַנְיָא: ״וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ״ — שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּין בְּשָׂרוֹ לַמַּיִם. ״בַּמַּיִם״ — בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה. ״אֶת כׇּל בְּשָׂרוֹ״ — מַיִם שֶׁכׇּל גּוּפוֹ עוֹלֶה בָּהֶן, וְכַמָּה הֵן?
Rav Ḥisda said: The quarter-log measurement of the Torah is two fingerbreadths by two fingerbreadths in volume, by the height of two fingerbreadths and one half fingerbreadth and one-fifth of a fingerbreadth. This statement is as it was taught in a baraita concerning a ritual bath, about which the verse states: “And he shall bathe all his flesh in the water” (Leviticus 15:16), from which the Sages expounded: This phrase teaches that there should be nothing interposing between one’s flesh and the water. The expression “in the water” indicates that the verse is referring to a specific body of water, i.e., in the water of a ritual bath. The phrase “all his flesh” teaches that one must immerse in water that his whole body can enter at once. And how much is that?
אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה בְּרוּם שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת, וְשִׁיעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים שִׁיעוּר מֵי מִקְוֶה אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה.
A cubit, by a cubit, by a height of three cubits. And the Sages measured the measure of the water necessary for a ritual bath at forty se’a.
אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: אָמַר לִי רָבִין בַּר חִינָּנָא, שׁוּלְחָן שֶׁל מִקְדָּשׁ — שֶׁל פְּרָקִים הֲוָה, דְּאִי סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ הַדּוֹקֵי הֲוָה מִיהַדַּק, אַמְּתָא בְּאַמְּתָא הֵיכִי מַטְבְּלֵיהּ?!
The Gemara cites a discussion related to the topic of measurements. Rav Ashi said: Ravin bar Ḥinnana said to me: The table of the Temple, upon which the shewbread was placed, was comprised of assembled parts. For if it should enter your mind that the table was firmly connected and could not be taken apart, how could the priests immerse a cubit in a cubit? The dimensions of the table were two cubits by one cubit, with a height of one and a half cubits. If the table contracted ritual impurity, it had to be immersed in a ritual bath. If a ritual bath contains an area of one cubit by one cubit, the table can fit inside only if it is dismantled.
מַאי קוּשְׁיָא? דִּילְמָא בְּיָם שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה הֲוָה מַטְבֵּיל לֵיהּ. דְּתָנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּיא: יָם שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה מַחֲזִיק מֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים מִקְוֵה טׇהֳרָה.
The Gemara responds: What is the difficulty? Perhaps the priest would immerse it in the sea that King Solomon built, which was a very wide ritual bath, as it states: “And he made the molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass” (I Kings 7:23). As Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: The sea that Solomon built contained the volume of water of one hundred and fifty ritual purification baths. It was certainly possible to immerse even large vessels in this sea.
וְלֹא יִפְחֲתוּ לוֹ מֵאַרְבָּעָה. הֵיכִי מְתַקְּנִי רַבָּנַן מִידֵּי דְּאָתֵי בֵּהּ לִידֵי סַכָּנָה, וְהָתַנְיָא: לֹא יֹאכַל אָדָם תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יִשְׁתֶּה תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יְקַנַּח תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו תְּרֵי?
We learned in the mishna that even with regard to the poorest of Jews, the charity distributors should not give him less than four cups of wine. The Gemara asks: How could the Sages establish a matter through which one will come to expose himself to danger? But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: A person should not eat pairs, i.e., an even number of food items; and he should not drink pairs of cups; and he should not wipe himself with pairs; and he should not attend to his sexual needs in pairs. The concern was that one who uses pairs exposes himself to sorcery or demons. Why would the Sages require one to drink an even number of cups and thereby place himself in a position of danger?
אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן, אָמַר קְרָא: ״לֵיל שִׁמּוּרִים״ — לַיִל הַמְשׁוּמָּר וּבָא מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין.
Rav Naḥman said that the verse said: “It was a night of watching to the Lord” (Exodus 12:42), which indicates that Passover night is a night that remains guarded from demons and harmful spirits of all kinds. Therefore, there is no cause for concern about this form of danger on this particular night.
(מב) לֵ֣יל שִׁמֻּרִ֥ים הוּא֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לְהוֹצִיאָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם הֽוּא־הַלַּ֤יְלָה הַזֶּה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שִׁמֻּרִ֛ים לְכׇל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְדֹרֹתָֽם׃ {פ}
(42) That was for the LORD a night of vigil to bring them out of the land of Egypt; that same night is the LORD’s, one of vigil for all the children of Israel throughout the ages.
King James Translation of Ex 12:42 -
It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
שמרים לכל בני ישראל לדרתם. מְשֻׁמָּר וּבָא מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית וְגוֹ'" (פסחים ק"ט):
שמרים לכל בני ישראל לדרתם [IT IS A NIGHT] OF PROTECTION FOR ALL THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL THROUGHOUT THEIR GENERATIONS — this night is protected, and comes as such from ages past, against all destructive forces, as it is said, (v. 33) “And He will not permit the destroyer [to enter your houses]” (Pesachim 109b; Rosh Hashanah 11b).
רָבָא אָמַר: כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה מִצְטָרֵף לְטוֹבָה, וְאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לְרָעָה. רָבִינָא אָמַר: אַרְבָּעָה כָּסֵי תַּקִּינוּ רַבָּנַן דֶּרֶךְ חֵירוּת, כׇּל חַד וְחַד
Rava said a different answer: The cup of blessing for Grace after Meals on Passover night is used in the performance of an additional mitzva and is not simply an expression of freedom. Therefore, it combines with the other cups for the good, i.e., to fulfill the mitzva to drink four cups, and it does not combine for the bad. With regard to the danger of drinking pairs of cups, it is as though one drinks only three cups. Ravina said: The Sages instituted four separate cups, each of which is consumed in a manner that demonstrates freedom. Therefore, each and every one
מִצְוָה בְּאַפֵּי נַפְשַׁהּ הוּא.
is a distinct mitzva in its own right. In other words, each cup is treated separately and one is not considered to be drinking in pairs.
רָבָא אָמַר: כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה מִצְטָרֵף לְטוֹבָה, וְאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לְרָעָה. רָבִינָא אָמַר: אַרְבָּעָה כָּסֵי תַּקִּינוּ רַבָּנַן דֶּרֶךְ חֵירוּת, כׇּל חַד וְחַד
Rava said a different answer: The cup of blessing for Grace after Meals on Passover night is used in the performance of an additional mitzva and is not simply an expression of freedom. Therefore, it combines with the other cups for the good, i.e., to fulfill the mitzva to drink four cups, and it does not combine for the bad. With regard to the danger of drinking pairs of cups, it is as though one drinks only three cups. Ravina said: The Sages instituted four separate cups, each of which is consumed in a manner that demonstrates freedom. Therefore, each and every one
״לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו תְּרֵי״, אַמַּאי? נִמְלָךְ הוּא! אָמַר אַבָּיֵי, הָכִי קָאָמַר: לֹא יֹאכַל תְּרֵי וְיִשְׁתֶּה תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו אֲפִילּוּ פַּעַם אַחַת — דִּילְמָא חָלֵישׁ וּמִיתְּרַע.
The baraita taught that one should not attend to his sexual needs in pairs. The Gemara asks: Why should one be concerned for this; he has changed his mind? One does not plan in advance to engage in marital relations twice, and therefore the two acts should not combine to form a dangerous pair. Abaye said: This is what the tanna is saying, i.e., the baraita should be understood in the following manner: One should not eat in pairs nor drink in pairs, and if he does so he should not attend to his sexual needs right afterward even once, lest he is weakened by the act and will be harmed for having eaten or drunk in pairs.
so they're saying that if you eat a pair of candy bars or a pair of cups of wine, and then have sex, then you're extra vulnerable to the demon punishment for eating/drinking because the sex has weakened you!
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שׁוֹתֶה כִּפְלַיִם — דָּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ. אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: אֵימָתַי — בִּזְמַן שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה פְּנֵי הַשּׁוּק, אֲבָל רָאָה פְּנֵי הַשּׁוּק — הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ. אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: חֲזֵינָא לֵיהּ לְרַב חֲנַנְיָא בַּר בִּיבִי, דְּאַכֹּל כָּסָא הֲוָה נָפֵיק וְחָזֵי אַפֵּי שׁוּקָא.
The Sages taught in another baraita: If one drinks in pairs his blood is upon his head, i.e., he bears responsibility for his own demise. Rav Yehuda said: When is that the case? When one did not leave the house and view the marketplace between cups. However, if he saw the marketplace after the first cup, he has permission to drink another cup without concern. Likewise, Rav Ashi said: I saw Rav Ḥananya bar Beivai follow this policy: Upon drinking each cup, he would leave the house and view the marketplace.
Jacob Neusner translation of ראי פני השוק:
Said R. Judah, “Under what circumstances? If he hasn’t gone into fresh air [between drinks], but if he went into fresh air between drinks, it’s perfectly all right to do so.”
D. Said R. Ashi, “I saw R. Hanania bar Bibi would go out for fresh air at each cup.”
TALMUD ENGLISH (NEUSNER) The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary (Talmud-N) by Jacob Neusner Copyright © 2005 Hendrickson Publishers Used by permission. Accordance edition hypertexted and formatted by OakTree Software, Inc. Version 1.5
וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא לָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ, אֲבָל בְּבֵיתוֹ — לָא. אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: וּלְיָשֵׁן — כְּלָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ דָּמֵי. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: וְלָצֵאת לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא — כְּלָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ דָּמֵי. וּבְבֵיתוֹ לָא? וְהָא רָבָא מָנֵי כְּשׁוּרֵי.
And we said that there is concern for the safety of one who drinks in pairs only when he intends to set out on the road after drinking, but if he intends to remain in his home there is no need for concern. Rabbi Zeira said: And one who plans to sleep is comparable to one who is setting out on the road. He should be concerned that he might be harmed. Rav Pappa said: And going to the bathroom is comparable to setting out on the road. The Gemara asks: And if one intends to remain in his home, is there no cause for concern? But Rava would count the beams of the house to keep track of the number of cups he had drunk so as to ensure that he would not consume an even number.
Koren Steinsaltz:
Apparently, Rabbeinu Hananel had a textual variant, which he understood to mean that if one sleeps or
uses the lavatory between cups, they do not combine to form a dangerous pair.
ולא אמרן - דמרעי ליה זוגות אלא לצאת לדרך אחר הזוגות אבל לעמוד בביתו לית לן בה:
מני כשורי - כששותה כוס זה מסתכל בקורה זו וכשהוא שותה שני מסתכל בשאצלה ולפי חשבון הקורות מזדהר בזוגות:
ולא אמרן - דמרעי ליה זוגות אלא לצאת לדרך אבל לעמוד בביתו לית לן בה:
מני כשורי - כששותה כוס זה מסתכל בקורה זו וכששותה שני מסתכל בשאצלה ולפי חשבון הקורות יזהר בזוגות ובכל פעם ופעם עושה כן אע''פ שאינו יוצא לדרך:
וְאַבָּיֵי, כִּי שָׁתֵי חַד כָּסָא, מְנַקֵּיט לֵיהּ אִימֵּיהּ תְּרֵי כָסֵי בִּתְרֵי יְדֵיהּ. וְרַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק, כִּי הֲוָה שָׁתֵי תְּרֵי כָסֵי, מְנַקֵּיט לֵיהּ שַׁמָּעֵיהּ חַד כָּסָא, חַד כָּסָא — מְנַקֵּיט לֵיהּ תְּרֵי כָסֵי בִּתְרֵי יְדֵיהּ! אָדָם חָשׁוּב שָׁאנֵי.
And likewise Abaye, when he would drink one cup, his mother would immediately place two cups in his two hands so that he would not inadvertently drink only one more cup and thereby expose himself to the danger of drinking in pairs. And similarly, when Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak would drink two cups, his attendant would immediately place one more cup in his hand, and if he would drink one cup, the attendant would place two cups in his two hands. These reports indicate that one should be concerned for his safety after drinking an even number of cups, even when he remains at home. The Gemara answers: An important person is different. The demons focus their attention on him, and he must therefore be more careful than the average person.
כי הוה שתי חד כסא מנקטא תרי כסי - דהוו להו תלתא:
אדם חשוב שאני - דמסרי שדים נפשייהו לאזוקי:
אָמַר עוּלָּא: עֲשָׂרָה כּוֹסוֹת אֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. עוּלָּא לְטַעְמֵיהּ, דְּאָמַר עוּלָּא, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ בְּמַתְנִיתָא תָּנָא: עֲשָׂרָה כּוֹסוֹת תִּיקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים בְּבֵית הָאֵבֶל, וְאִי סָלְקָא דַעְתָּךְ עֲשָׂרָה כּוֹסוֹת יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת, הֵיכִי קָיְימִי רַבָּנַן וְתַקִּנוּ מִילְּתָא דְּאָתֵי לִידֵי סַכָּנָה?! אֲבָל תְּמָנְיָא יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Ulla said: Ten cups contain no element of the danger associated with pairs. Ulla rules here in accordance with his reasoning stated elsewhere, as Ulla said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: The Sages instituted that one must drink ten cups of wine in the house of a mourner during the meal of comfort. And if it could enter your mind that ten cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs, how could the Sages arise and institute something that might bring a person to a state of danger? However, eight cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.
עשרה כוסות דבית האבל - מפרש טעמא בכתובות בפ"ק (דף ח:):
עשרה אין בהם משום זוגות - ולית ליה דרבא דאמר לעיל כוס של ברכה אין מצטרף לרעה דבאותן עשרה כוסות איכא ברכת המזון:
עשרה כוסות אין בהן משום זוגות - וכל שכן טפי:
אמר עולא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה כוסות תקנו חכמים בבית האבל שלשה קודם אכילה כדי לפתוח את בני מעיו שלשה בתוך אכילה כדי לשרות אכילה שבמעיו וארבעה לאחר אכילה אחד כנגד הזן ואחד כנגד ברכת הארץ ואחד כנגד בונה ירושלים ואחד כנגד הטוב והמטיב
In connection with comforting mourners, Ulla said, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: The Sages instituted ten cups of wine to be drunk in the house of the mourner: Three cups prior to the meal, in order to open his intestines, i.e., whet his appetite; three during the meal, to soak the food in his intestines in order to facilitate digestion; and four cups after the meal, each corresponding to a blessing in the Grace after Meals. One corresponds to the first blessing: Who feeds all; one corresponds to the second blessing, the blessing of the land; one corresponding to the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem; and one corresponding to the fourth blessing: Who is good and does good.
עשרה כוסות תיקנו בבית האבל - בפרק קמא דכתובות מפרש טעמא:
שלום - תיבה שביעית ל ״ישא ה' פניו אליך וגו' [וישם לך שלום]״:
"Shalom" - The seventh word of [the verse] "May God lift [God's] face to you [and grant you peace]."
רַב חִסְדָּא וְרַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: ״שָׁלוֹם״, לְטוֹבָה — מִצְטָרֵף, לְרָעָה — לֹא מִצְטָרֵף. אֲבָל שִׁיתָּא יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna both say that eight is also safe from the dangers of pairs, as the number seven, represented by the word shalom, combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. The final verse of the priestly benediction reads: “The Lord lift His countenance upon you and give you peace [shalom]” (Numbers 6:26). The word shalom, the seventh Hebrew word in this verse, has a purely positive connotation. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore maintain that the seventh cup combines with the previous six only for good purposes. After the seventh cup, i.e., from the eighth cup and on, the cups constitute pairs for the good but not for the bad. However, six cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.
לטובה מצטרף - אם שתה שִבְעָה וחזר ושתה את הַשְמִינִי אין שמיני מצטרף עמהן:
"Combines for the good" - If one drank seven [cups of wine] and continued [literally: returned] and drank the eighth... the eighth does not combine with them [the other seven]."
שלום - תיבה שביעית היא דכתיב ישא ה' וגו' לטובה מצטרף אם שתה ששה ושתה השביעי מצטרף לבטל הזוגות:
"Shalom" - It is the seventh word as it is written "May God lift etc. [God's face to you and grant you peace]" – it combines for the good. If one drinks six [cups of wine] and [then] drinks the seventh, it combines to nullify the [concern about] pairs.
אבל לא לרעה - שאם ישתה כוס שמיני אחריו אין שמיני מצטרף על השביעי להזיק וסברא הוא כיון שבירכן בשלום שהוא תיבה שביעית אין שום היזק בעולם
"But doesn't [combine] for the bad." For if one drinks an eighth cup after it, the eighth does not combine upon the seventh to attack. And this opinion/explanation is because [they] blessed with "shalom," which is the seventh word, and there's no "attack" at all [literally: in the world] [in this word shalom].
רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא דאמרי תרוייהו [שאמרו שניהם]: שגם בשמונה אין לחשוש כי "שלום", לטובה — מצטרף, לרעה — לא מצטרף. שהמספר שמונה הוא לאחר המספר שבע, שהוא מספר המילים שבפסוק האחרון של ברכת כהנים "ישא ה' פניו אליך וישם לך שלום" (במדבר ו, כו) והמילה "שלום" השביעית בו אפשר לומר שתצטרף לטובה אבל לא לרעה. אבל שיתא [שש] אכן יש בהן משום חשש זוגות.
From The Mercava website: https://www.themercava.com/app/books/metanav/5107
רַבָּה וְרַב יוֹסֵף דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: ״וִיחֻנֶּךָּ״, לְטוֹבָה — מִצְטָרֵף. לְרָעָה — לֹא מִצְטָרֵף. אֲבָל אַרְבָּעָה יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Rabba and Rav Yosef both say that even drinking six cups is not dangerous. The reason is that the fifth cup, represented by the word viḥuneka in the second verse of the priestly benediction: “The Lord make His face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you [viḥuneka]” (Numbers 6:25), combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. However, four cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.
רַבָּה וְרַב יוֹסֵף דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: ״וִיחֻנֶּךָּ״, לְטוֹבָה — מִצְטָרֵף. לְרָעָה — לֹא מִצְטָרֵף. אֲבָל אַרְבָּעָה יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Rabba and Rav Yosef both say that even drinking six cups is not dangerous. The reason is that the fifth cup, represented by the word viḥuneka in the second verse of the priestly benediction: “The Lord make His face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you [viḥuneka]” (Numbers 6:25), combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. However, four cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.
אַבָּיֵי וְרָבָא דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: ״וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ״, לְטוֹבָה — מִצְטָרֵף, לְרָעָה — לֹא מִצְטָרֵף.
Abaye and Rava both say that even the number four is not dangerous, as veyishmerekha, the third word in the first verse of the priestly benediction, reads: “The Lord bless you and keep you [veyishmerekha]” (Numbers 6:24). It combines for the good but does not combine for the bad.
וְאַזְדָּא רָבָא לְטַעְמֵיהּ, דְּרָבָא אַפְּקִינְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן בְּאַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת, אַף עַל גַּב דְּאִיתַּזַּק רָבָא בַּר לֵיוַאי, לָא חַשׁ לַהּ לְמִילְּתָא, דְּאָמַר: הָהוּא מִשּׁוּם דְּאוֹתְבַן בְּפִירְקָא הֲוָה.
And Rava follows his standard line of reasoning in this regard, as Rava allowed the Sages to leave after having drunk four cups and was not concerned for their safety. Although Rava bar Livai was injured on one such occasion, Rava was not concerned that the matter had been caused by his consumption of an even number of cups, as he said: That injury occurred because Rava bar Livai challenged me during the public lecture. It is improper for a student to raise difficulties against his rabbi during a public lecture, lest the rabbi be embarrassed by his inability to answer.
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף, אָמַר לִי יוֹסֵף שֵׁידָא: אַשְׁמְדַאי מַלְכָּא דְשֵׁידֵי — מְמוּנֶּה הוּא אַכּוּלְּהוּ זוּגֵי, וּמַלְכָּא לָא אִיקְּרִי מַזִּיק. אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי לַהּ לְהַאי גִּיסָא: אַדְּרַבָּה, מַלְכָּא [רַתְחָנָא הוּא], מַאי דְּבָעֵי עָבֵיד, שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ פּוֹרֵץ גָּדֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ דֶּרֶךְ וְאֵין מוֹחִין בְּיָדוֹ.
Rav Yosef said: Yosef the Demon said to me: Ashmedai, the king of the demons, is appointed over all who perform actions in pairs, and a king is not called a harmful spirit. A king would not cause harm. Consequently, there is no reason to fear the harm of demons for having performed an action in pairs. Some say this statement in this manner: On the contrary, he is an angry king who does what he wants, as the halakha is that a king may breach the fence of an individual in order to form a path for himself, and none may protest his action. Similarly, the king of demons has full license to harm people who perform actions in pairs.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא, אָמַר לִי יוֹסֵף שֵׁידָא: בִּתְרֵי קָטְלִינַן, בְּאַרְבְּעָה לָא קָטְלִינַן, בְּאַרְבְּעָה מַזְּקִינַן. בִּתְרֵי, בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד. בְּאַרְבְּעָה, בְּמֵזִיד — אִין, בְּשׁוֹגֵג — לָא.
Rav Pappa said: Yosef the Demon said to me: If one drinks two cups, we demons kill him; if he drinks four, we do not kill him. But this person who drank four, we harm him. There is another difference between two and four: With regard to one who drinks two, whether he did so unwittingly or intentionally, we harm him. With regard to one who drinks four, if he does so intentionally, yes, he is harmed; if he does so unwittingly, no, he will not be harmed.
וְאִי אִישְׁתְּלִי וְאִיקְּרִי וּנְפַק, מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? לִינְקוֹט זַקְפָּא דִידֵיהּ דְּיַמִּינֵיהּ בִּידָא דִשְׂמָאלֵיהּ וְזַקְפָּא דִשְׂמָאלֵיהּ בִּידָא דְיַמִּינֵיהּ, וְנֵימָא הָכִי: ״אַתּוּן וַאֲנָא — הָא תְּלָתָא״. וְאִי שְׁמִיעַ לֵיהּ דְּאָמַר: ״אַתּוּן וַאֲנָא — הָא אַרְבְּעָה״, נֵימָא לֵיהּ: ״אַתּוּן וַאֲנָא — הָא חַמְשָׁה״. וְאִי שְׁמִיעַ לֵיהּ דְּאָמַר: ״אַתּוּן וַאֲנָא — הָא שִׁיתָּא״, נֵימָא לֵיהּ: ״אַתּוּן וַאֲנָא — הָא שִׁבְעָה״. הֲוָה עוֹבָדָא עַד מְאָה וְחַד, וּפְקַע שֵׁידָא.
The Gemara asks: And if one forgets and it happens that he goes outside after having drunk an even number of cups, what is his solution? The Gemara answers: He should take his right thumb in his left hand, and his left thumb in his right hand, and say as follows: You, my thumbs, and I are three, which is not a pair. And if he hears a voice that says: You and I are four, which makes a pair, he should say to it: You and I are five. And if he hears it say: You and I are six, he should say to it: You and I are seven. The Gemara relates that there was an incident in which someone kept counting after the demon until he reached a hundred and one, and the demon burst in anger.
אָמַר אַמֵּימָר: אֲמַרָה לִי רֵישָׁתִינְהִי דְּנָשִׁים כַּשְׁפָנִיּוֹת: הַאי מַאן דְּפָגַע בְּהוּ בְּנָשִׁים כַּשְׁפָנִיּוֹת, נֵימָא הָכִי: ״חָרֵי חַמִּימֵי בְּדִיקּוּלָא בַּזְיָיא לְפוּמַּיְיכוּ נְשֵׁי דְּחָרָשַׁיָּיא, קָרַח קָרְחַיְיכִי, פָּרַח פָּרְחַיְיכִי,
Ameimar said: The chief of witches said to me: One who encounters witches should say this incantation: Hot feces in torn date baskets in your mouth, witches; may your hairs fall out because you use them for witchcraft; your crumbs, which you use for witchcraft, should scatter in the wind;
רישתינהי דנשים כשפניות - השולטות עליהם אמרה לי דבר זה:
חרי חמימי בדיקולי בזייא - צואה חמה בסלים נקובים וקרועים לפומייכו:
קרח קרחייכי - יהי רצון שימרטו אותן שערות שלכם שאתן מכשפות בהן:
פרח פרחייכי - ישא הרוח אותן פירורי לחם שאתן מכשפות בהן:
אִיבַּדּוּר תַּבְלוּנַיְיכִי, פָּרְחָא זִיקָא לְמוֹרִיקָא חַדְתָּא דְּנָקְטִיתוּ נָשִׁים כַּשְׁפָנִיּוֹת, אַדְּחַנַּנִּי וְחַנַּנְכִי לָא אֲתֵיתִי לְגוֹ, הַשְׁתָּא דַּאֲתֵיתִי לְגוֹ — קַרְחַנְנִי וַחֲנַנְכִי״.
your spices, which you use for your witchcraft, should scatter; the wind should carry away the fresh saffron that you witches hold to perform your witchcraft. As long as I was shown favor from Heaven and you showed me favor, I did not come here. Now that I have come here, your favor toward me has cooled and you should find favor.
The above explanation is from the Korean Steinsaltz Talmud
בְּמַעְרְבָא לָא קָפְדִי אַזּוּגֵי. רַב דִּימִי מִנְּהַרְדְּעָא קָפֵיד אֲפִילּוּ אַרוּשְׁמָא דְחָבִיתָא. הֲוָה עוֹבָדָא וּפְקַע חָבִיתָא. כְּלָלָא דְמִילְּתָא, כׇּל דְּקָפֵיד — קָפְדִי בַּהֲדֵיהּ, וּדְלָא קָפֵיד — לָא קָפְדִי בַּהֲדֵיהּ, וּמִיהוּ לְמֵיחַשׁ מִיבְּעֵי.
The Gemara relates that in the West, Eretz Yisrael, they were not particular with regard to pairs. Rav Dimi from Neharde’a was particular about pairs even with regard to the signs on a barrel; he would not write pairs of symbols on a barrel. There was an incident in which there were pairs of symbols on a barrel and the barrel burst. The Gemara concludes: The rule of the matter is that all who are particular about pairs, the demons are particular with him; and if one is not particular, they are not particular with him. However, one is required to be concerned about the harm that might result from purposely performing actions in pairs.
בְּמַעְרְבָא לָא קָפְדִי אַזּוּגֵי. רַב דִּימִי מִנְּהַרְדְּעָא קָפֵיד אֲפִילּוּ אַרוּשְׁמָא דְחָבִיתָא. הֲוָה עוֹבָדָא וּפְקַע חָבִיתָא. כְּלָלָא דְמִילְּתָא, כׇּל דְּקָפֵיד — קָפְדִי בַּהֲדֵיהּ, וּדְלָא קָפֵיד — לָא קָפְדִי בַּהֲדֵיהּ, וּמִיהוּ לְמֵיחַשׁ מִיבְּעֵי.
The Gemara relates that in the West, Eretz Yisrael, they were not particular with regard to pairs. Rav Dimi from Neharde’a was particular about pairs even with regard to the signs on a barrel; he would not write pairs of symbols on a barrel. There was an incident in which there were pairs of symbols on a barrel and the barrel burst. The Gemara concludes: The rule of the matter is that all who are particular about pairs, the demons are particular with him; and if one is not particular, they are not particular with him. However, one is required to be concerned about the harm that might result from purposely performing actions in pairs.
כִּי אֲתָא רַב דִּימִי, אָמַר: שְׁתֵּי בֵיצִים, וּשְׁתֵּי אֱגוֹזִין, שְׁתֵּי קִישּׁוּאִין, וְדָבָר אַחֵר — הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. וּמִסְתַּפְּקָא לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן מַאי נִיהוּ דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּגְזוּר רַבָּנַן בְּכוּלְּהוּ זוּגֵי מִשּׁוּם דָּבָר אַחֵר.
When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: With regard to two eggs, two nuts, two cucumbers, and another matter, there is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai that they are dangerous in pairs. But the Sages are uncertain about what the other matter is, and therefore the Sages decreed that all pairs are prohibited due to that other matter.
וְהָא דַּאֲמַרַן עֲשָׂרָה, תְּמָנְיָא, שִׁיתָּא, אַרְבְּעָה אֵין בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגֵי, לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן מַזִּיקִין. אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן כְּשָׁפִים — אֲפִילּוּ טוּבָא נָמֵי חָיְישִׁינַן.
And the Gemara notes that that which we said above, that the numbers ten, eight, six, and four do not cause the danger associated with pairs, we said only with regard to harmful spirits. However, with regard to witchcraft, we are concerned even with regard to one who performed an activity a greater number of times.
כִּי הָא דְּהָהוּא גַּבְרָא דְּגָרְשַׁהּ לִדְבֵיתְהוּ. (אֲזִיל) אִינַּסְבָה לְחַנְוָאָה. כׇּל יוֹמָא הֲוָה אָזֵיל וְשָׁתֵי חַמְרָא. הֲוָה קָא עָבְדָא לֵיהּ כְּשָׁפִים וְלָא קָא מַהְנְיָא לַהּ בֵּיהּ, מִשּׁוּם דַּהֲוָה מִזְדְּהַר בְּנַפְשֵׁיהּ בְּזוּגָא.
This is like that incident involving a certain man who divorced his wife. She went and married a shopkeeper who sold wine in his store. Every day, the first husband would go and drink wine in that shop. His ex-wife would perform witchcraft upon him, and it would not be effective for her in her attempts to harm him because he was careful with regard to pairs.
יוֹמָא חַד אִשְׁתִּי טוּבָא, וְלָא הֲוָה יָדַע כַּמָּה שָׁתֵי. עַד שִׁיתְּסַר הֲוָה צְיִיל וְאִיזְדְּהַר בְּנַפְשֵׁיהּ, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ לָא הֲוָה צְיִיל וְלָא אִיזְדְּהַר בְּנַפְשֵׁיהּ, אַפֵּיקְתֵּיהּ בְּזוּגָא. כִּי הֲוָה אָזֵיל, גָּס בֵּיהּ הָהוּא טַיָּיעָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ: גַּבְרָא קְטִילָא הוּא דְּאָזֵיל הָכָא. אָזֵיל חַבְּקֵיהּ לְדִיקְלָא, צְוַוח דִּיקְלָא וּפְקַע הוּא.
One day he drank a lot, and he did not know how much he drank. Until he drank sixteen cups, he was lucid and was careful with regard to himself, to keep track of how many cups he had drunk. From here onward he was not lucid and was not careful to watch himself, and she caused him to leave after having consumed a pair, i.e., an even number of cups. As he walked, a certain Arab met him and, noticing that he was bewitched, said to him: It is a dead man who walks here. He went and hugged a palm tree for support; the palm tree dried out due to the witchcraft, and he burst.
אָמַר רַב עַוִּירָא: קְעָרוֹת וְכִכָּרוֹת אֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. כְּלָלָא דְּמִילְּתָא: כׇּל שֶׁגְּמָרוֹ בִּידֵי אָדָם — אֵין בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. גְּמָרוֹ בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם — בְּמִילֵּי מִינֵי דְמֵיכַל חָיְישִׁינַן.
Rav Avira said: Plates and loaves do not contain the element of danger associated with pairs. The Gemara elaborates upon this point: The rule of the matter is that anything whose production was completed by people, whether a vessel or food, they do not contain the element of danger associated with pairs. Conversely, if the object was completed by Heaven, e.g., with regard to types of food, we are concerned.
חֲנוּת — אֵין בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. נִמְלָךְ — אֵין בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. אוֹרֵחַ — אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. אִשָּׁה — אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. וְאִי אִשָּׁה חֲשׁוּבָה, חָיְישִׁינַן.
Furthermore, a store does not contain the element of danger associated with pairs. If one eats there, there is no danger, as this is not his regular place. If one changed one’s mind after drinking an odd number of cups and added one more, his drinking does not contain the element of danger associated with pairs, as he did not initially intend to drink an even number. The behavior of a guest who eats or drinks in someone else’s house does not contain the element of danger associated with pairs, as his host determines how much he will eat and drink. The behavior of a woman does not contain the element of danger associated with pairs, as demons are not particular with regard to how much a woman eats or drinks. But if she is an important woman, we are concerned.
אָמַר רַב חִינָּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: אִיסְפָּרָגוֹס — מִצְטָרֵף לְטוֹבָה, וְאֵין מִצְטָרֵף לְרָעָה.
Rav Ḥinnana, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: Isparegus, a wine-based drink with added spices that people would regularly consume in the morning, combines with the number of cups of wine one has already consumed for the good, to raise the total to an odd number, and does not combine for the bad, to bring the sum to an even number.
אִיסְפַּרְגּוֹס, אִסְפַּ׳ m. (ἀσπάραγος) 2) asparagus, a beverage of wine or beer with asparagus. Ber. 51ᵃ. Pes. 110ᵇ. Kidd. 70ᵃ אי׳ דקריוה וכ׳ aspar. as the educated call (the morning drink). [Yalk. Gen. 34 איספרגוס read אִיסְפַרְגִּיס (σφραγίς) seal, v. סְפַרְגִּיס.]
אָמַר רָבִינָא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרָבָא: זוּגֵי — לְחוּמְרָא. וְאָמְרִי לֵיהּ: זוּגֵי — לְקוּלָּא. אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: תְּרֵי דְחַמְרָא וְחַד דְּשִׁיכְרָא — לָא מִצְטָרֵף, תְּרֵי דְשִׁיכְרָא וְחַד דְּחַמְרָא — מִצְטָרֵף.
Ravina said in the name of Rava: If one is in doubt as to whether he has drunk in pairs, he should be stringent and drink another cup. And some say that one who is uncertain with regard to pairs should be lenient and not drink an additional cup, lest the additional cup be the even number. Rav Yosef said: Two cups of wine and one cup of beer do not combine; two cups of beer and one cup of wine do combine.
זוגי לחומרא - אם אינו יודע אם שתה זוגות אם לאו ישתה דאם שתה זוגות הואיל ודעתו לצרפן מצטרפין לטובה ואם לא שתה זוגות נמלך הוא ואין מצטרפות לרעה:
אמר רבינא משמיה [משמו] של רבא: זוגי — לחומרא [להחמיר], כלומר, אם ספק בידו אם גמר בזוגות ישתה כוס נוספת. ואמרי ליה [ויש אומרים]: זוגי [זוגות] — לקולא [להקל], שלא יוסיף עוד, שמא על ידי כך ימצא שותה בזוגות. אמר רב יוסף: תרי דחמרא וחד דשיכרא [שתי כוסות של יין וכוס אחת של שיכר]לא מצטרף, תרי דשיכרא וחד דחמרא [שתי כוסות של שיכר ואחת של יין]מצטרף.
וְסִימָנָיךְ, זֶה הַכְּלָל: כׇּל הַמְחוּבָּר לוֹ מִן הֶחָמוּר מִמֶּנּוּ — טָמֵא, מִן הַקַּל מִמֶּנּוּ — טָהוֹר.
And this is your mnemonic by which to remember this rule is a mishna concerning the halakhot of ritual purity. This is the rule: With regard to anything attached to an object, if the smaller piece is more stringent than the larger one, the combined object is ritually impure; if the attached substance is more lenient than it, the combined object is ritually pure. In other words, if a small piece of a type of fabric that contracts ritual impurity when it is relatively small, which is a stringency, is attached to a larger object comprised of a less valuable fabric that contracts ritual impurity only when it is bigger, the two materials combine to form a unified fabric that contracts ritual impurity if together they amount to the larger requisite size. However, if there is more of the stringent material, the two substances do not combine halakhically to form the amount of the smaller requisite size. Similarly, in the case of pairs, the wine is more significant than the beer. Therefore, the wine combines with the beer but not vice versa.
אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָמַר רַב: תְּרֵי קַמֵּי תַּכָּא וְחַד אַתַּכָּא — מִצְטָרְפִי. חַד מִקַּמֵּי תַּכָּא וּתְרֵי אַתַּכָּא — לֹא מִצְטָרְפִין.
Rav Naḥman said that Rav said: If one drinks two cups before the table is brought and the meal begins and one cup over the table they combine, the person is not considered to have drunk a pair of cups. However, if one drinks one cup before the table is brought and two cups over the table they do not combine; the two cups he drank during the meal are considered a pair.
ה"ג אמר רב נחמן תרי מקמי תכא וחדא אתכא מצטרפי חד מקמי תכא ותרתי אתכא לא מצטרפי - הואיל ושתי אתכא זוגות לא מהני ליה צירוף:
מַתְקֵיף לַהּ רַב מְשַׁרְשְׁיָא: אַטּוּ אֲנַן לְתַקּוֹנֵי תַּכָּא קָא בָּעֵינַן? לְתַקּוֹנֵי גַּבְרָא בָּעֵינַן, וְגַבְרָא קָא מִיתְּקַן וְקָאֵי.
Rav Mesharshiya strongly objects to this ruling: Is that to say that we need to resolve the problem of pairs with regard to the table? Is the presence of the table the decisive factor here? We need to resolve the problem with regard to the person, and with regard to the person it is considered resolved. He began drinking before the table was brought, and he has consumed an odd number of cups.
מַתְקֵיף לַהּ רַב מְשַׁרְשְׁיָא: אַטּוּ אֲנַן לְתַקּוֹנֵי תַּכָּא קָא בָּעֵינַן? לְתַקּוֹנֵי גַּבְרָא בָּעֵינַן, וְגַבְרָא קָא מִיתְּקַן וְקָאֵי.
Rav Mesharshiya strongly objects to this ruling: Is that to say that we need to resolve the problem of pairs with regard to the table? Is the presence of the table the decisive factor here? We need to resolve the problem with regard to the person, and with regard to the person it is considered resolved. He began drinking before the table was brought, and he has consumed an odd number of cups.
(אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב מְשַׁרְשְׁיָא): דְּכוּלֵּי עָלְמָא תְּרֵי אַתַּכָּא וְחַד לְבָתַר תַּכָּא — לָא מִצְטָרְפִי. כִּי הַהִיא מַעֲשֶׂה דְּרַבָּה בַּר נַחְמָנִי.
Rather, Rav Mesharshiya said: Everyone agrees that if one drank two cups over the table during the meal and one after the table has been removed, they do not combine. This is like that incident involving Rabba bar Naḥmani, in which someone drank in pairs and was harmed. Rabba instructed them to return the table so that the man could drink an additional cup over the table. This shows that the additional cup counts only if the drinker returns to the table.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: כׇּל הַמָּזוּג — מִצְטָרֵף,
Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: Any type of drink that is diluted combines to form an even or odd number,
חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם. וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ מַיִם. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: לָא אֲמַרַן, אֶלָּא חַמִּימֵי לְגוֹ קָרִירֵי, וְקָרִירֵי לְגוֹ חַמִּימֵי. אֲבָל חַמִּימֵי לְגוֹ חַמִּימֵי, וְקָרִירֵי לְגוֹ קָרִירֵי — לָא.
except for water. If one mixes water with other water, it is not considered diluted and does not count toward the number of cups. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even water joins the number of cups. Rav Pappa said: We said this statement only about hot water poured into cold water, and cold water poured into hot water. Rabbi Yoḥanan maintains that these cups are considered diluted. However, everyone agrees that hot water poured into hot water or cold water poured into cold water, no, they are not considered diluted.
אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ: אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים הָעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן דָּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וּמִתְחַיֵּיב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ. אֵלּוּ הֵן: הַנִּפְנֶה בֵּין דֶּקֶל לְכוֹתֶל, וְהָעוֹבֵר בֵּין שְׁנֵי דְקָלִים, וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַיִם שְׁאוּלִין, וְהָעוֹבֵר עַל מַיִם שְׁפוּכִין, וַאֲפִילּוּ שְׁפָכַתּוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּפָנָיו.
The Gemara cites more statements concerning superstitions and witchcraft. Reish Lakish said: There are four matters. The one who performs them, his blood is upon his own head, and he is held liable for his own life, due to the evil spirit that rests upon him: One who relieves himself in a spot between a palm tree and a wall, one who passes between two palm trees, one who drinks borrowed water, and one who passes over spilled water, even if his wife poured it out in front of him.
אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ: אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים הָעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן דָּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וּמִתְחַיֵּיב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ. אֵלּוּ הֵן: הַנִּפְנֶה בֵּין דֶּקֶל לְכוֹתֶל, וְהָעוֹבֵר בֵּין שְׁנֵי דְקָלִים, וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַיִם שְׁאוּלִין, וְהָעוֹבֵר עַל מַיִם שְׁפוּכִין, וַאֲפִילּוּ שְׁפָכַתּוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּפָנָיו.
The Gemara cites more statements concerning superstitions and witchcraft. Reish Lakish said: There are four matters. The one who performs them, his blood is upon his own head, and he is held liable for his own life, due to the evil spirit that rests upon him: One who relieves himself in a spot between a palm tree and a wall, one who passes between two palm trees, one who drinks borrowed water, and one who passes over spilled water, even if his wife poured it out in front of him.
הַנִּפְנֶה בֵּין דֶּקֶל לְכוֹתֶל — לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלֵית לֵיהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, אֲבָל אִית לֵיהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת — לֵית לַן בַּהּ. וְכִי לֵית לֵיהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלֵיכָּא דִּירְכָּא אַחֲרִינָא, אֲבָל אִיכָּא דִּירְכָּא אַחֲרִינָא — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
The Gemara elaborates: With regard to one who relieves himself between a palm tree and a wall, we said that he places himself in danger only when there are not four cubits of space between the two objects. However, if there are four cubits, we have no problem with it. The demons have enough room to pass, and he will not obstruct them. And furthermore, even when there are not four cubits, we said there is a problem only when the demons have no other route besides that one. However, if they have another route, we have no problem with it.
אלא דליכא דירכא אחרינא - שתהא שידא יכולה להלך בו דעכשיו זה בא בגבולה והפסיד דרכה ואהכי מזקא ליה:
אבל פסקתינהו - דשכיחי רבים לית ליה רשות להזיק שאין לו לגזול את הרבים:
וַאֲפִילּוּ שַׁיְילִינְהוּ קָטָן נָמֵי — לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בַּשָּׂדֶה, דְּלָא שְׁכִיחִי, אֲבָל בָּעִיר, דִּשְׁכִיחִי — לֵית לַן בָּהּ. וַאֲפִילּוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה נָמֵי — לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא מַיָּא, אֲבָל חַמְרָא וְשִׁיכְרָא — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
And even if a minor borrowed it, we said this poses a danger only if it occurred in a field, where water is not found. However, in a city, where water can be found, we have no problem with it. And even in a field, we said there is cause for concern only in a case of borrowed water; however, with regard to wine and beer, we have no problem with it.
וְהָעוֹבֵר עַל מַיִם שְׁפוּכִין — לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא אַפְסְקִינְהוּ בְּעַפְרָא וְלָא תַּף בְּהוּ רוּקָּא, אֲבָל אַפְסְקִינְהוּ אוֹ תַּף בְּהוּ רוּקָּא — לֵית לַן בַּהּ. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא עֲבַר עֲלַיְיהוּ שִׁימְשָׁא וְלָא עֲבַר עֲלַיְיהוּ שִׁיתִּין נִיגְרֵי, אֲבָל עֲבַר עֲלַיְיהוּ שִׁימְשָׁא וַעֲבַר עֲלַיְיהוּ שִׁיתִּין נִיגְרֵי — לֵית לַן בַּהּ. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא רְכִיב חֲמָרָא וְלָא סָיֵים מְסָנֵי, אֲבָל רְכִיב חֲמָרָא וְסָיֵים מְסָנֵי — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
And with regard to one who passes over spilled water, we said he places himself in danger only if no one sprinkled dirt over it and no one spat in it. However, if someone sprinkled dirt over it or spat in it, we have no problem with it. And we said this is a concern only if the sun did not pass over it, i.e., it occurred at night, and sixty steps of people walking in the area have not passed over it. However, if the sun passed over it and sixty steps passed over it, we have no problem with it. And we said this concern only if he was not riding a donkey and not wearing shoes; however, if he was riding a donkey and wearing shoes, we have no problem with it.
וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי הֵיכָא דְּלֵיכָּא לְמֵיחַשׁ לִכְשָׁפִים, אֲבָל הֵיכָא דְּאִיכָּא לְמֵיחַשׁ לִכְשָׁפִים, אַף עַל גַּב דְּאִיכָּא כׇּל הָנֵי — חָיְישִׁינַן. (וְהָהוּא) גַּבְרָא דִּרְכִיב חֲמָרָא וְסָיֵים מְסָנֵי, וּגְמוּד מְסָאנֵיהּ וּצְווֹ כַּרְעֵיהּ.
The Gemara comments: And all this applies only where there is no reason for concern for witchcraft, as no one is interested in harming him. However, where there is reason for concern for witchcraft, even if all of these limiting conditions are in place, we are nevertheless concerned. And this is similar to what happened to a certain man who was riding a donkey and wearing shoes. Nevertheless, he passed over water and his shoes shrank and his feet shriveled up.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵין מְמַצְּעִין וְלֹא מִתְמַצְּעִין. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: הַכֶּלֶב וְהַדֶּקֶל וְהָאִשָּׁה. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: אַף הַחֲזִיר, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים: אַף הַנָּחָשׁ.
The Gemara continues to discuss this issue. The Sages taught: Three objects should not be allowed to pass between two people walking along a road, and people should not walk between two of them: A dog, a palm tree, and a woman. And some say: Also a pig. And some say: Also a snake. All of these were associated with witchcraft.
ואין מתמצעין - לא יעבור איש אחד בין ב' כלבים בין שתי נשים בין שתי דקלים:
וְאִי מְמַצְּעִין מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: נִפְתַּח בְּ״אֵל״ וְנַפְסֵיק בְּ״אֵל״.
The Gemara asks: And if they pass between them, what is the remedy to prevent one from harm? Rav Pappa said: He should begin reciting a verse that starts with the word God and conclude with a verse that ends with the word God. In other words, he should recite the passage: “God Who brought them out of Egypt is for them like the lofty horns of the wild ox. For there is no enchantment with Jacob, nor is there any divination with Israel; now is it said of Jacob and of Israel: What has been performed by God” (Numbers 23:22–23). This verse indicates that spells do not affect the Jewish people.
אֵ֖ל מוֹצִיאָ֣ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם כְּתוֹעֲפֹ֥ת רְאֵ֖ם לֽוֹ׃
God who freed them from EgyptIs for them like the horns of the wild ox.
כִּ֤י לֹא־נַ֙חַשׁ֙ בְּיַעֲקֹ֔ב וְלֹא־קֶ֖סֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כָּעֵ֗ת יֵאָמֵ֤ר לְיַעֲקֹב֙ וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מַה־פָּ֖עַל אֵֽל׃
Lo, there is no augury in Jacob,No divining in Israel:Jacob is told at once,Yea Israel, what God has planned.
Everett Fox Translation (Schocken Books):
22 The God who brought them out of Egypt
like the horns of the wild-ox for him.
23 For there is no divination in Yaakov,
and no augury in Israel;
at once it is declared to Yaakov,
to Israel, what God intends.
RASHI (Translation by Michael Carasik from The Commentators' Bible):
God who freed them from Egypt. You said, “There is a people that came out of Egypt” (22:5). But they did not come out on their own; God brought them out.
Is for them like the horns of the wild ox. He is as tall, high, and strong as the wild ox. The Hebrew does not use the usual word for “horns,” but one that implies they are “lofty” (see OJPS). I think it is related to the root that gives us “birds that fly” (Gen. 1:20)—as if the horns are “flying high.” Another reading: “He has the strength of oxen.” But our Sages explain the “flying horns” as the angels and the “oxen” as the demons, reading the phrase to say that God “has” them both.
There is no augury in Jacob. That is why they deserve blessing: There are no augurers or diviners among them.
Jacob is told at once … what God has planned. Rather, “Jacob will be told.” There is a time to come when God’s love for them will be revealed before all—when they sit before Him and learn Torah from His mouth, closer to Him even than the ministering angels. Unlike Jacob, the ministering angels will have to ask them “what God has planned.” The prophecy “but your eyes will see your Teacher” (Isa. 30:20) refers to this future situation. Another reading is that of NJPS, taking the verb not as future, but as present tense. Whenever Jacob and Israel need to know what the Holy One has planned, there is no augury or divining among them; instead, they are told by prophets what God has decreed, or the Urim and Thummim tell them. (Onkelos, however, understands the verse differently.)F
IBN EZRA (Also Carasik)
God who freed them from Egypt. Rather, “the Power who freed them from Egypt,” that is, the Lord, who was “with them” (v. 21), who is mighty and who showed His signs in Egypt.
The horns of the wild ox. The unusual Hebrew word used for “horns” here denotes “might.” It occurs again in “the peaks of the mountains are His” (Ps. 95:4). It seems to refer to mighty mountain peaks as well in “Shaddai be your treasure and mountains of silver for you” (Job 22:25). In any case, the point of the expression here is that God has given might to Israel.
Lo, there is no augury in Jacob. God has given them strength because they cleave to the Lord and ask for nothing but from Him; they have no need for augury and divination.
Jacob is told at once. “At once” is correct; the Hebrew phrase is literally “as of the time”—this time. God tells them what He is going to do without their needing to know anything about augury.
Yea Israel. “Jacob” is repeated here with a different name, as is common in prophetic poetry. Compare “From the peak of Senir and Hermon” (Song 4:8).K
What God has planned. Rather, “what God is going to do.” The past tense verb (see “What hath God wrought!” of OJPS) is used because even things that will occur in the future have already been decreed. But God tells these things to Israel by means of prophecy, which does indeed convey the truth.
נפתח באל ונסיים באל - אל מוציאם ממצרים (במדבר כ״ג:כ״ב) כי לא נחש ביעקב וגו' עד מה פעל אל:
אִי נָמֵי, נִפְתַּח בְּ״לֹא״ וְנַפְסֵיק בְּ״לֹא״.
Alternatively, he should open with a verse that begins with the word lo, no, and should conclude with the same verse that ends with lo: “No [lo] man is God that he should lie; neither the son of man that he should repent. When He has said will He not do it, or when He has spoken will He not [lo] make it good?” (Numbers 23:19).
לֹ֣א אִ֥ישׁ אֵל֙ וִֽיכַזֵּ֔ב וּבֶן־אָדָ֖ם וְיִתְנֶחָ֑ם הַה֤וּא אָמַר֙ וְלֹ֣א יַעֲשֶׂ֔ה וְדִבֶּ֖ר וְלֹ֥א יְקִימֶֽנָּה׃
God is not man to be capricious,Or mortal to change His mind.Would He speak and not act,Promise and not fulfill?
הָנֵי בֵּי תְרֵי דְּמַצַּעָא לְהוּ אִשָּׁה נִדָּה, אִם תְּחִלַּת נִדָּתָהּ הִיא — הוֹרֶגֶת אֶחָד מֵהֶן, אִם סוֹף נִדָּתָהּ הִיא — מְרִיבָה עוֹשָׂה בֵּינֵיהֶן. מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? נִפְתַּח בְּ״אֵל״ וְנַפְסֵיק בְּ״אֵל״.
Similarly, these two men, between whom a menstruating woman passes, if she is at the beginning of her menstruation she kills one of them, i.e., she causes the death of one of the two men. If she is at the end of her menstruation she does not kill, but she causes a fight between them. What is his remedy? He should open with a verse that begins with the word God and he should conclude with a verse that ends with the word God, as explained above.
הָנֵי תְּרֵי נְשֵׁי דְּיָתְבָן בְּפָרָשַׁת דְּרָכִים, חֲדָא בְּהַאי גִּיסָא דִּשְׁבִילָא, וַחֲדָא בְּאִידַּךְ גִּיסָא, וּמְכַוְּונָן אַפַּיְיהוּ לַהֲדָדֵי — וַדַּאי בִּכְשָׁפִים עֲסִיקָן. מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? אִי אִיכָּא דִּירְכָּא אַחֲרִינָא — לֵיזִיל בַּהּ. וְאִי לֵיכָּא דִּירְכָּא אַחֲרִינָא, אִי אִיכָּא אִינִישׁ אַחֲרִינָא בַּהֲדֵיהּ — נִינְקְטוֹ לִידַיְיהוּ בַּהֲדֵי הֲדָדֵי וְנִיחַלְּפוּ. וְאִי לֵיכָּא אִינִישׁ אַחֲרִינָא, נֵימָא הָכִי: ״אָגְרַת אָזְלַת אָסְיָא בְּלוּסְיָא, מִתְקַטְלָא בְּחֵיק קָבָל״.
The Gemara further states: These two women, who are sitting at a crossroads, one on this side of the road and the other on the other side, and they are facing each other, they are certainly engaging in witchcraft. What is the remedy for one who walks by? If there is another route, he should go by it. And if there is no other route, if there is another person with him, they should hold hands and switch places. And if there is no other person with him, he should say as follows: Iggeret, Azlat, Asiya, Belusiya are killed by arrows. These are names of demons invoked by witches.
הַאי מַאן דְּפָגַע בְּאִיתְּתָא בְּעִידָּנָא דְּסָלְקָא מִטְּבִילַת מִצְוָה, אִי אִיהוּ קָדֵים וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ — אָחֲדָא לֵיהּ לְדִידֵיהּ רוּחַ זְנוּנִים. אִי אִיהִי קָדְמָה וּמְשַׁמְּשָׁה — אָחֲדָא לַהּ לְדִידַהּ רוּחַ זְנוּנִים. מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? לֵימָא הָכִי: ״שׁוֹפֵךְ בּוּז עַל נְדִיבִים וַיַּתְעֵם בְּתוֹהוּ לֹא דָרֶךְ״.
The Gemara cites a related statement: One who meets a woman when she is ascending from the ritual immersion of a mitzva, after her menstruation, if he has intercourse with any woman first, a spirit of immorality overtakes him; if she has intercourse first, a spirit of immorality overtakes her. What is his remedy? He should say this: “He pours contempt upon princes, and causes them to wander in the waste, where there is no way” (Psalms 107:40).
אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק, מַאי דִּכְתִיב: ״גַּם כִּי אֵלֵךְ בְּגֵיא צַלְמָוֶת לֹא אִירָא רָע כִּי אַתָּה עִמָּדִי״ — זֶה הַיָּשֵׁן בְּצֵל דֶּקֶל יְחִידִי, וּבְצֵל לְבָנָה. וּבְצֵל דֶּקֶל יְחִידִי — לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא נָפֵיל טוּלָּא דְחַבְרֵיהּ עִילָּוֵיהּ, אֲבָל נָפֵל טוּלָּא דְחַבְרֵיהּ עִילָּוֵיהּ — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
Rav Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me” (Psalms 23:4)? This is a person who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree, and in the shadow of the moon. Despite his dangerous position, he trusts God and is not afraid. The Gemara qualifies the previous statement: And with regard to one who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree, we said he is in danger only if the shadow of another palm tree does not fall upon him. However, if the shadow of another palm tree falls upon him, we have no problem with it.
אֶלָּא הָא דְּתַנְיָא: הַיָּשֵׁן בְּצֵל דֶּקֶל יְחִידִי בֶּחָצֵר, וְהַיָּשֵׁן בְּצֵל לְבָנָה — דָּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ, הֵיכִי דָמֵי? אִי לֵימָא דְּלָא נָפֵל טוּלָּא דְּחַבְרֵיהּ עִילָּוֵיהּ, אֲפִילּוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה נָמֵי! אֶלָּא לָאו שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ: בְּחָצֵר אַף עַל גַּב דְּנָפֵיל טוּלָּא דְּחַבְרֵיהּ עִילָּוֵיהּ. שְׁמַע מִינַּהּ.
The Gemara asks: But what about that which was taught in a baraita: With regard to one who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree in a courtyard and one who sleeps in the shadow of the moon, his blood is upon his own head. What are the circumstances? If we say that the shadow of another palm tree does not fall on him, he would also be harmed if he were in a field. Rather, must one not conclude from this baraita that if one is in a courtyard, even if the shadow of another tree fell on him, it remains dangerous? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is so.
וּבְצִילָּהּ שֶׁל לְבָנָה — לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בְּמַעְרְבָה, אֲבָל בְּמַדִּינְחֲתָא — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
The Gemara adds: And with regard to the shadow of the moon, we said it is dangerous to sleep there only at the end of the month when the moon shines in the east, and therefore its shadow is in the west. However, at the start of the month, when the moon shines in the west and its shadow is in the east, we have no problem with it.
בצלה של לבנה - אי נמי ההולך בלילה כשהלבנה זורחת והוא הולך בצל הכתלים שדרך השדים להלוך בלילה ובזמן שהלבנה זורחת מתייראין לילך במקום האור והולכין במקום הצל:
הַאי מַאן דְּמִפְּנֵי אַגִּירְדָּא דְּדִיקְלָא — אָחֲדָא לֵיהּ לְדִידֵיהּ רוּחַ פַּלְגָא. וְהַאי מַאן דְּמַצְלֵי רֵישֵׁיהּ אַגִּירְדָּא דְּדִיקְלָא — אָחֲדָא לֵיהּ רוּחַ צְרָדָא. הַאי מַאן דְּפָסְעִי אַדִּיקְלָא, אִי מִיקְּטַל — קְטִיל, אִי אִיעֲקַר — מִיעֲקַר וּמָיֵית. הָנֵי מִילֵּי דְּלָא מַנַּח כַּרְעֵיהּ עִילָּוֵיהּ, אֲבָל מַנַּח כַּרְעֵיהּ — עִילָּוֵיהּ לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
The Gemara continues to discuss harmful spirits. One who relieves himself on the stump of a palm tree will be seized by a spirit of sickness, and one who places his head on the stump of a palm tree will be seized by a spirit of a headache of half his head, i.e., a migraine. One who walks over a palm tree, if the tree is cut down, he too will be killed. If that tree is uprooted, he will also be uprooted and will die. The Gemara comments: This statement applies only if he does not place his legs upon it; however, if he places his legs upon it, we have no problem with it.
חֲמִשָּׁה טוּלֵּי הָוֵי: טוּלָּא דְּדִיקְלָא יְחִידָא, טוּלָּא דְכִנָּדָא, טוּלָּא דְפִרְחָא, טוּלָּא דְזַרְדְּתָא. אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי: אַף טוּלָּא דְאַרְבָּא, וְטוּלָּא דַעֲרַבְתָּא. כְּלָלָא דְּמִילְּתָא: כֹּל דִּנְפִישׁ עַנְפֵיהּ — קְשֵׁי טוּלֵּיהּ,
The Gemara cites another statement with regard to shadows. There are five types of dangerous shadows: The shadow of a single palm tree, the shadow of a tree called kanda, the shadow of a caper-bush, and the shadow of the sorb tree. Some say: Also the shadow of a ship and the shadow of a willow. The general rule of the matter is: Whatever has many branches, its shadow is dangerous.
וְכֹל דִּקְשֵׁי סִילְוֵיהּ — קְשֵׁי טוּלֵּיהּ, לְבַר מִכְּרוּ מְשָׁא, אַף עַל גַּב דִּקְשֵׁי סִילְוֵיהּ — לָא קְשֵׁי טוּלֵּיהּ, דַּאֲמַרָה לֵהּ שֵׁידָא לִבְרַהּ: פִּירְחִי נַפְשָׁיךְ מִכְּרוּ מְשָׁא, דְּאִיהוּ הוּא דְּקָטֵיל לַאֲבוּךְ, וְקָטֵיל לְדִידֵיהּ. אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: חֲזֵינָא לְרַב כָּהֲנָא דְּפָרֵישׁ מִכּוּלְּהוּ טוּלֵּי.
And any tree whose wood is hard, its shadow is dangerous, except for the tree called kero masa. Although its wood is hard, its shadow is not dangerous, as the demon said to her son: Leave the kero masa tree alone, as it was that tree that killed your father. And the tree later killed the son too. The kero masa tree is harmful to demons. Rav Ashi said: I saw that Rav Kahana avoided all types of shadows.
בֵּי פִרְחֵי — רוּחֵי. דְּבֵי זַרְדְּתָא — שֵׁידָא. דְּבֵי אִיגָּרֵי — רִישְׁפֵּי. לְמַאי נָפְקָא מִינַּהּ? לִקְמִיעָא.
The Gemara comments: The demons near the caper-bush are called ruḥei. A demon found near the sorb trees is called shida. The demons found on roofs are called rishfei. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference of these definitions? It makes a difference for writing an amulet on behalf of one who has been harmed. It is necessary to know the name of the demon who caused the damage.
דְּבֵי פִרְחֵי — בְּרִיָּה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ עֵינַיִם. לְמַאי נָפְקָא מִינַּהּ — לְגַזּוֹזֵי לַהּ. זִימְנָא חֲדָא הֲוָה אָזֵיל צוּרְבָּא מֵרַבָּנַן לְאִפְּנוֹיֵי לְבֵי פִרְחֵי, שְׁמַע דְּקָא אָתָא עִילָּוֵיהּ, וְגַזִּי לַהּ. כִּי אָזְלָא, חַבְּקַיהּ לְדִיקְלָא — צְוַוח דִּיקְלָא וּפְקַעָה הִיא.
The Gemara further comments: The demon found near the caper-bush is a creature with no eyes. What is the practical halakhic difference of this observation? It is relevant with regard to fleeing from it. The Gemara relates: Once a Torah scholar went to relieve himself near a caper-bush. He heard the demon coming and fled from it. When this evil spirit went, it grabbed a palm tree and got stuck there. The palm tree dried out and the demon burst.
פִּרְחָא דְּבֵי זַרְדְּתָא — שֵׁידֵי. הָא זַרְדְּתָא דִּסְמִיכָה לְמָתָא — לָא פָּחֲתָא מִשִּׁיתִּין שֵׁידֵי. לְמַאי נָפְקָא מִינַּהּ? לְמִיכְתַּב לַהּ קְמִיעָא.
It was stated above that the demons found near the sorb tree are called sheidei. The Gemara comments: This sorb tree that is close to the city contains no less than sixty demons. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference of this statement? The Gemara answers: It is relevant for writing an amulet for this number.
הָהוּא בַּר קַשָּׁא דְּמָתָא דְּאָזֵיל וְקָאֵי גַּבֵּי זַרְדְּתָא, דַּהֲוָה סְמִיךְ לְמָתָא, עַלּוּ בֵּיהּ שִׁיתִּין שֵׁידֵי וְאִיסְתַּכַּן. אֲתָא לְהָהוּא מֵרַבָּנַן דְּלָא יְדַע דְּזַרְדְּתָא דְּשִׁיתִּין שֵׁידֵי הִיא, כְּתַב לַהּ קְמִיעַ לַחֲדָא שֵׁידָא. שְׁמַע דְּתָלוּ חִינְגָּא בְּגַוֵּויהּ, וְקָא מְשָׁרוּ הָכִי: סוּדָרֵיהּ דְּמָר כִּי צוּרְבָּא מֵרַבָּנַן, בָּדֵיקְנָא בֵּיהּ בְּמָר דְּלָא יָדַע ״בָּרוּךְ״. אֲתָא הָהוּא מֵרַבָּנַן דִּידַע דְּזַרְדְּתָא שִׁיתִּין שֵׁידֵי הֲוָה, כְּתַב לַהּ קְמִיעָא דְּשִׁיתִּין שֵׁידֵי, שְׁמַע דְּקָא אָמְרוּ: פַּנּוּ מָנַיְיכוּ מֵהָכָא.
The Gemara relates: A certain ruler of a city walked and stood by a sorb tree that was near a city. Sixty sheidei demons came upon him and he was in danger. One of the Sages who did not know that it was a sorb tree of sixty sheidei came and wrote him an amulet for one shida demon. That man heard that there was a celebration inside the tree, and the demons were singing: The scarf of the Master is like that of a Torah scholar, but we checked the Master and he does not know how to say barukh, the blessing when donning a scarf. The demons were mocking him and saying that he did not know how to write an amulet. Another one of the Sages, who knew that it was a sorb tree of sixty sheidei, came and wrote an amulet against sixty demons. He heard them saying: Clear your items away from here.
בדקנוה למר לא ידע ליה למימר ברוך - שאינו יודע לברך על הסודר ברוך עוטר ישראל:
קֶטֶב מְרִירִי — תְּרֵי קִטְבֵי הָווּ. חַד מִקַּמֵּי טִיהֲרָא, וְחַד מִבָּתַר טִיהֲרָא. דְּמִקַּמֵּי טִיהֲרָא — ״קֶטֶב מְרִירִי״ שְׁמוֹ, וּמִיחֲזֵי בֵּי כַדָּא דְּכַמְכָּא וְהָדַר בֵּיהּ בַּחְשָׁא. דְּבָתַר טִיהֲרָא — ״קֶטֶב יָשׁוּד צׇהֳרָיִם״ שְׁמוֹ, וּמִיחֲזֵי בֵּי קַרְנָא דְּעִיזָּא, וְהָדַר בֵּיהּ כְּנָפְיָא.
The Gemara discusses the ketev meriri, a demon mentioned in the Torah (Deuteronomy 32:24). There are two types of ketev demons, one that comes before noon in the morning and the other one comes in the afternoon. The one that comes before noon is called ketev meriri, and it appears in a jug of kutaḥ, a Babylonian spice, and continuously revolves around inside it. The ketev in the afternoon is called ketev yashud tzaharayim (Psalms 91:6), and it appears inside the horn of a goat and revolves around inside it like a sifter.
מְזֵ֥י רָעָ֛ב וּלְחֻ֥מֵי רֶ֖שֶׁף וְקֶ֣טֶב מְרִירִ֑י {ס} וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמֹת֙ אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּ֔ם עִם־חֲמַ֖ת זֹחֲלֵ֥י עָפָֽר׃ {ס}
Wasting famine, ravaging plague,Deadly pestilence, and fanged beastsWill I let loose against them,With venomous creepers in dust.
וקטב מרירי. וּכְרִיתוּת שֵׁד שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ מְרִירִי, קטב כְּרִיתָה, כְּמוֹ "אֱהִי קָטָבְךָ שְׁאוֹל" (הושע י"ג):
וקטב מרירי means and the destruction caused by a demon whose name is מרירי. The word קטב denotes “cutting off”, “destruction”, as in (Hosea 13:14) “I will be thy destruction (קטבך) O grave”.
AND …DESTRUCTION. Ketev means destruction.
מרירי. מרירות באויר כמו כמרירי יום וכן כתוב מקטב ישוד צהרים כמו הדבר. ולחומי רשף כמו אכולי וכן רבים:
BITTER. Meriri (bitter) refers to bitterness in the air. Compare, ke-meriri yom (like the bitterness of the day) (Job 3:5). Scripture similarly writes, Nor of the destruction (ketev) that wasteth at noonday (Ps. 91:6). The latter refers to the plague. The word u-lechume in u-lechume reshef (and the devouring of the fiery bolt) means devoured by. There are many such instances.
אַבָּיֵי הֲוָה שָׁקֵיל וְאָזֵיל, וְאָזֵיל רַב פָּפָּא מִיַּמִּינֵיהּ וְרַב הוּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִשְּׂמָאלֵיהּ. חַזְיֵיהּ לְהָהוּא קֶטֶב מְרִירִי דְּקָא אָתֵי לְאַפֵּיהּ דִּשְׂמָאלֵיהּ. אַהְדְּרֵא לְרַב פָּפָּא לִשְׂמָאלֵיהּ, וּלְרַב הוּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְיַמִּינֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב פָּפָּא: אֲנָא מַאי שְׁנָא דְּלָא חָשֵׁשׁ לִי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אַתְּ שַׁעְתָּא קָיְימָא לָךְ.
The Gemara relates: Abaye was coming and walking along the street. And Rav Pappa was walking on his right and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, was on his left. Abaye saw a certain ketev meriri coming on his left side and he switched Rav Pappa to his left and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, to his right. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: And I, what is different that you were not concerned about any possible harm to me? Abaye said to him: The time is in your favor. You are wealthy and fortunate, and therefore I believe that you will most likely not be harmed by the demon.
מֵחַד בְּתַמּוּז עַד שִׁיתְּסַר בֵּיהּ — וַדַּאי שְׁכִיחִי. מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ — סָפֵק שְׁכִיחִי, סָפֵק לָא שְׁכִיחִי. וּמִשְׁתַּכְחִי בְּטוּלֵּי דְּחַצְבָּא דְּלָא חֲצַב גַּרְמִידָא, וּבְטוּלֵּי דְּצַפְרָא וּפַנְיָא דְּלָא הָוֵי גַּרְמִידָא, וְעִיקָּר בְּטוּלֵּי דְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא.
The Gemara comments: From the first of Tammuz to the sixteenth of that month, these demons are certainly found. From here onward it is uncertain whether they are found or whether they are not found. And they can be found in the shadow of a sea squill that has not grown a cubit, and in the shadow of objects in the morning and evening when their length is less than a cubit. And they are mostly found in the shadow of a privy.
Wikipedia:
Drimia maritima (syn. Urginea maritima) is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae (formerly the family Hyacinthaceae).[2] This species is known by several common names, including squill, sea squill, sea onion,[3] and maritime squill.[4] It may also be called red squill, particularly a form which produces red-tinged flowers instead of white.[4] It is native to southern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa.[3]
Contents
Description[edit]
This plant grows from a large bulb which can be up to 20 cm (7.9 in) wide and weigh 1 kg (2.2 lb). Several bulbs may grow in a clump and are usually just beneath the surface of the soil. In the spring, each bulb produces a rosette of about ten leaves each up to a meter long. They are dark green in color and leathery in texture. They die away by fall, when the bulb produces a tall, narrow raceme of flowers. This inflorescence can reach 1.5–2 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) in height.[4][5] The flower is about 1.5 cm (0.59 in) wide and has six tepals each with a dark stripe down the middle. The tepals are white, with the exception of those on the red-flowered form. The fruit is a capsule up to 1.2 cm (0.47 in) long.[4]
Ecology[edit]
This plant often grows in rocky coastal habitat, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where it is common.[4] It occurs in many other types of habitat, except for the driest deserts.[5] It can grow in open and also in very shady areas.[6] Its habit of producing leaves in the spring and flowers in the fall is an adaptation to the Mediterranean climate of its native range, where the summers are hot and dry.[7]
This species has two different pollination syndromes, entomophily and anemophily; it is pollinated by insects and wind. Insect pollinators include the western honey bee (Apis mellifera), the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis), and the paper wasp species Polistes gallicus.[5]
Uses[edit]
The plant has been used as a poison and as a medicinal remedy. The main active compounds are cardiac glycosides, including unique bufadienolides such as glucoscillaren A, proscillaridine A, scillaren A, scilliglaucoside and scilliphaeoside. The plant can have a cardiac glycoside content of up to 3%. Scilliroside, the most important of the toxic compounds, is present in all parts of the plant.
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: הָנֵי תְּלָת מִילֵּי יָהֵיב אַרְבּוֹנָא לִנְהוֹרָא: מַן דְּסָרֵיק רֵישֵׁיהּ יַבִּשׁ, וּמַן דְּשָׁתֵי טִיף טִיף, וּמַן דְּסָיֵים מְסָנֵי אַדְּמִייתִנְיָה כַּרְעָא.
Rav Yosef said: These three matters cause blindness to the light of one’s eyes: One who combs his hair when it is dry, one who drinks wine that is dripping from the barrel, and one who puts on shoes when his feet are wet after being washed.
אדמתנא כרעיה - בעוד שרגליו לחים ממי הרחיצה:
אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: הָנֵי תְּלָת מִילֵּי יָהֵיב אַרְבּוֹנָא לִנְהוֹרָא: מַן דְּסָרֵיק רֵישֵׁיהּ יַבִּשׁ, וּמַן דְּשָׁתֵי טִיף טִיף, וּמַן דְּסָיֵים מְסָנֵי אַדְּמִייתִנְיָה כַּרְעָא.
Rav Yosef said: These three matters cause blindness to the light of one’s eyes: One who combs his hair when it is dry, one who drinks wine that is dripping from the barrel, and one who puts on shoes when his feet are wet after being washed.
תְּלַאי בְּבֵיתָא קְשֵׁי לְעַנְיוּתָא. כִּדְאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי: תְּלָא סִילְתָּא — תְּלָא מְזוֹנֵיהּ. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא רִיפְתָּא, אֲבָל בִּישְׂרָא וְכַוְורֵי — לֵית לַן בַּהּ, אוֹרְחֵיהּ הִיא. פָּארֵי בְּבֵיתָא — קְשֵׁי לְעַנְיוּתָא. נִשְׁוָרָא בְּבֵיתָא — קְשֵׁי לְעַנְיוּתָא. בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וּבְלֵילֵי רְבִיעִית — שָׁרוּ מַזִּיקִין עִילָּוֵיהּ.
If a food is hanging in one’s house, it causes poverty. This is as people say in a popular proverb: He who hangs the basket hangs his sustenance, i.e., he loses it. And we said this only about hanging bread; however, if one hangs meat and fish, we have no problem with it. The reason is that it is the common practice to hang meat and fish. Bran [parei] in the house causes poverty. Bread crumbs in the house cause poverty. If these crumbs are spread throughout the house on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights, or on Tuesday nights, when demons are present, harmful spirits rest on them.
אִיסָּרָא דִמְזוֹנֵי ״נְקִיד״ שְׁמֵיהּ. אִיסָּרָא דְעַנְיוּתָא ״נָבָל״ שְׁמֵיהּ. צָעָא אַפּוּמָּא דְחַצְבָּא — קְשֵׁי לְעַנְיוּתָא. מַאן דְּשָׁתֵי מַיָּא בְּצָעֵי — קְשֵׁי לִבְרוּקְתִּי. דְּאָכֵיל תַּחְלֵי וְלָא מָשֵׁי יְדֵיהּ — מְפַחֵיד תְּלָתִין יוֹמִין.
The administering angel appointed over food is called Nakid, i.e., he is clean [naki] and particular about cleanliness. The administering angel appointed over poverty is called Naval. The angel appointed over food will not stay in a dirty place, while the angel appointed over poverty will thrive there. A plate placed on a jug causes poverty. One who drinks water from a plate causes eye pain. One who eats cress without washing his hands will be afraid for thirty days.
איסרא דמזוני - מלאך הממונה לזמן מזונות:
איסרא דמזוני נקיד שמיה [השר הממונה על המזונות נקיד שמו], כלומר נקי ומקפיד על נקיות. איסרא דעניותא נבל שמיה [שר הממונה על העניות נבל שמו] ולכן במקום שיש לכלוך השר הממונה על המזונות אינו מצוי ואילו שר העניות נהנה להיות בו. צעא אפומא דחצבא [צלחת שמניחים על פי הכד] — קשי לעניותא [קשה ועלולה להביא עניות]. מאן דשתי מיא בצעי [מי ששותה מים בצלחת] — קשי לברוקתי [קשה לכאב העינים]. דאכיל תחלי ולא משי ידיה [מי שאוכל שחליים ואינו נוטל ידיו] — מפחיד תלתין יומין [מפחד שלושים ימים].
דִּמְסוֹכַר וְלָא מָשֵׁי יְדֵיהּ — מְפַחֵיד שִׁבְעָה יוֹמֵי. דְּשָׁקֵיל מַזְיֵיהּ וְלָא מָשֵׁי יְדֵיהּ — מְפַחֵיד תְּלָתָא יוֹמֵי. דְּשָׁקֵיל טוּפְרֵיהּ וְלָא מָשֵׁי יְדֵיהּ — מְפַחֵיד חַד יוֹמָא, וְלָא יָדַע מַאי קָא מְפַחֵיד. יְדָא אַאוּסְיָא — דַּרְגָּא לְפַחְדָּא. יְדָא אַפּוּתָא — דַּרְגָּא לְשִׁינְתָּא.
One who lets blood and does not wash his hands will be afraid for seven days. One who cuts his hair and does not wash his hands will be afraid for three days. One who cuts his nails and does not wash his hands will be afraid for one day, and he will not know what is frightening him. Placing one’s hand on his nostrils is a way to become afraid. Placing one’s hand on his forehead is a way to fall asleep.
דמסוכר ולא משי ידיה [מי שמקיז דם ואינו נוטל ידיו] — מפחיד שבעה יומי [מפחד שבעה ימים]. מי דשקיל מזייה ולא משי ידיה [שנוטל גוזז את שערותיו ואינו נוטל ידיו]מפחיד תלתא יומי [מפחד שלושה ימים]. מי דשקיל טופריה ולא משי ידיה [שנוטל צפרניו ואינו רוחץ את ידיו] — מפחיד חד יומא [מפחד יום אחד] ולא ידע מאי קא מפחיד [ואינו יודע מפני מה מפחד]. ידא אאוסיא [יד על הנחיריים] — הרי היא דרגא (דרך) היא לפחדא הגיע לידי פחד]. ידא אפותא [יד על המצח] — דרגא (דרך) היא לשינתא הגיע לידי שינה, להרדם].
דמסוכר - מקיז דם מן הכתפיים לשון סיכורי:
ידא אאוסיא - שרגיל להניח ידו אצל נחיריו על שפתיו:
דרגא לפחדא - דרך הוא להביא לו פחד רוח רעה:
תָּנָא: אוֹכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין תַּחַת הַמִּטָּה, אֲפִילּוּ מְחוּפִּין בִּכְלִי בַּרְזֶל — רוּחַ רָעָה שׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶן. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה אָדָם מַיִם לֹא בְּלֵילֵי רְבִיעִיּוֹת וְלֹא בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת, וְאִם שָׁתָה — דָּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ מִפְּנֵי סַכָּנָה. מַאי סַכָּנָה? רוּחַ רָעָה.
A Sage taught: If food and drink are under one’s bed, even if they are covered with iron vessels, an evil spirit rests upon them. The Sages taught: A person should not drink water on Tuesday nights or on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights. And if he drinks water, his blood is upon his own head, due to the danger. The Gemara asks: What is this danger? The Gemara answers: The danger of the evil spirit that rules on these days.
א תנא [שנה החכם]: היו אוכלין ומשקין תחת המטה, אפילו היו מחופין [מכוסים] בכלי ברזל — רוח רעה שורה עליהן. תנו רבנן [שנו חכמים]: לא ישתה אדם מים לא בלילי רביעיות ולא בלילי שבתות, ואם שתה — דמו בראשו מפני הסכנה. ומסבירים: מאי [מה היא] הסכנה? ומשיבים: רוח רעה השולטת בימים אלה.
וְאִם צָחֵי מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? (נֵימָא) שִׁבְעָה קוֹלוֹת שֶׁאָמַר דָּוִד עַל הַמַּיִם, וַהֲדַר נִישְׁתֵּי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״קוֹל ה׳ עַל הַמָּיִם אֵל הַכָּבוֹד הִרְעִים ה׳ עַל מַיִם רַבִּים קוֹל ה׳ בַּכֹּחַ קוֹל ה׳ בֶּהָדָר קוֹל ה׳ שׁוֹבֵר אֲרָזִים וַיְשַׁבֵּר ה׳ אֶת אַרְזֵי הַלְּבָנוֹן קוֹל ה׳ חוֹצֵב לַהֲבוֹת אֵשׁ קוֹל ה׳ יָחִיל מִדְבָּר יָחִיל ה׳ מִדְבַּר קָדֵשׁ קוֹל ה׳ יְחוֹלֵל אַיָּלוֹת וַיֶּחֱשׂוֹף יְעָרוֹת וּבְהֵיכָלוֹ כּוּלּוֹ אוֹמֵר כָּבוֹד״.
The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? What should he drink? The Gemara answers: He should say the seven voices that David said over the water, and afterward he may drink. As it is stated: “The voice of the Lord is upon the waters; God of glory thunders, even the Lord upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaks the cedars; the Lord breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. He makes them also skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild ox. The voice of the Lord hews out flames of fire. The voice of the Lord shakes the wilderness; the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. The voice of the Lord makes the hinds to calve, and strips the forests bare; and in His temple all say: Glory” (Psalms 29:3–9).
וְאִי לָא, (נֵימָא) הָכִי: ״לוּל שָׁפָן אֲנִיגְרוֹן אֲנִירָדְפִין בֵּין כּוֹכְבֵי יָתֵיבְנָא, בֵּין בְּלִיעִי שַׁמִּינֵי אָזֵילְנָא״. וְאִי לָא, אִי אִיכָּא אִינִישׁ בַּהֲדֵיהּ — נַיתְעֲרֵיהּ וְלֵימָא לֵיהּ: ״פְּלָנְיָא בַּר פְּלָנִתָא צָחֵינָא מַיָּא״, וַהֲדַר נִישְׁתֵּי. וְאִי לָא — מְקַרְקֵשׁ נִכְתְּמָא אַחַצְבָּא וַהֲדַר נִישְׁתֵּי. וְאִי לָא — נִישְׁדֵּי בַּהּ מִידֵּי, וַהֲדַר נִישְׁתֵּי.
And if he does not remember that verse, he should say as follows: Lul, Shafan, Anigron, Anirdafin, which are names of demons, I sit between the stars, I walk between thin and fat people, take any of them if you wish but leave me alone. And if he does not recall this incantation, if there is another person with him, he should wake him and say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water; and then he may drink. And if there is no other person with him, he should knock the cover on the cup and then drink. And if he is not able to do this, he should throw some object in it and then drink.
ואי לא [ואם אינו זוכר] לימא הכי [שיאמר כך]: "לול שפן אניגרון אנירדפין (שהם שמות מזיקים) בין כוכבי יתיבנא, בין בליעי שמיני אזילנא [בין הכוכבים אני יושב, בין אנשים בלועים, כחושים ושמנים אני הולך] בחרו מהם לכם את שתרצו והניחוני לנפשי ". ואי לא [ואם אינו] זוכר סגולה זו, אי איכא איניש בהדיה [אם יש אדם עמו] — ניתעריה [יעירנו] ולימא ליה [ויאמר לו]: "פלניא בר פלנתא צחינא מייא [פלוני בן פלונית צמא אני למים] "והדר נישתי [ואחר כך ישתה]. ואי לא כלומר אם אין אדם עמו — מקרקש נכתמא אחצבא והדר נישתי [שיקיש במכסה על הכוס ואחר כך ישתה]. ואי לא [ואם לא] יכול — נישדי בה מידי, והדר נישתי [שיזרוק בו ביד דבר מה ואחר כך ישתה].
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה אָדָם מַיִם לֹא מִן הַנְּהָרוֹת וְלֹא מִן הָאֲגַמִּים בַּלַּיְלָה, וְאִם שָׁתָה — דָּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ, מִפְּנֵי הַסַּכָּנָה. מַאי סַכָּנָה? סַכָּנַת שַׁבְרִירֵי. וְאִי צַחֵי מַאי תַּקַּנְתֵּיהּ? אִי אִיכָּא אִינִישׁ בַּהֲדֵיהּ — לֵימָא לֵיהּ: ״פְּלָנְיָא בַּר פְּלָנִתָא, צָחֵינָא מַיָּא״. וְאִי לָא, (נֵימָא) אִיהוּ לְנַפְשֵׁיהּ: ״פְּלָנְיָא, אֲמַרָה לִי אִימִּי אִיזְדְּהַר מִשַּׁבְרִירֵי שַׁבְרִירֵי בְּרִירֵי רִירֵי יְרֵי רֵי — צָחֵינָא מַיָּא בְּכָסֵי חִיוָּרֵי״.
The Sages taught: A person should not drink water from rivers or from ponds at night. And if he drank, his blood is upon his own head due to the danger. The Gemara explains: What is this danger? The danger of blindness. The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? If there is another person with him, he should say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water. And if there is no one else with him, he should say to himself: So-and-so, my mother said to me to beware of shavrirei, the demon of blindness. He should continue to say the following incantation, in the first part of which the demon’s name gradually disappears: Shavrirei berirei rirei yiri ri; I thirst for water in white earthenware cups. This is an incantation against those demons.
וַאֲפִילּוּ מִן הַתַּמְחוּי וְכוּ׳. פְּשִׁיטָא!
The Gemara returns to the statement of the mishna that on Passover one must drink no less than four cups of wine: And this halakha applies even if the poor person accepts funds from the charity plate. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this is the case. If there is a mitzva to drink these four cups, they must be provided for him.
ב שוב חוזרים אנו למשנה שנאמר בה כי בפסח אין פוחתים מארבע כוסות ואפילו כשצריכים לתת לעני מן התמחוי. ושואלים: פשיטא [פשוט] מובן הוא, שאם מצות הפסח בכך יש לתת לו לפי הדין!
לֹא נִצְרְכָא אֶלָּא אֲפִילּוּ לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, דְּאָמַר: עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חוֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת — הָכָא מִשּׁוּם פַּרְסוֹמֵי נִיסָּא (מוֹדֵי).
The Gemara answers: The mishna is necessary only to teach that this halakha applies even according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: Make your Shabbat like an ordinary weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. If one is unable to honor Shabbat without financial help from others, it is better for him to save money and eat his Shabbat meals as he would on a weekday rather than rely on other people. Here, in the case of the four cups, Rabbi Akiva concedes that it is appropriate for a poor person to request assistance from the community, due to the obligation to publicize the miracle.
גמרא עשה שבתך חול וא"ת לבריות. עיין לקמן קיג תד"ה עשה:
ומשיבים: לא נצרכא משנה זו אלא אפילו לשיטת ר' עקיבא, שאמר: עשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות כלומר שאם אין אדם יכול לכבד את השבת אם לא יזדקק לעזרה מן הבריות, מוטב שיעשה שבתו כחול ולא יצטרך לבריות — הכא משום פרסומי ניסא מודי [כאן משום פרסום הנס מודה] הוא שראוי לו לבקש עזרה מן הבריות ועליהם לתת לו את הדרוש לו.
לְעוֹלָם יִדְחֹק אָדָם עַצְמוֹ וְיִתְגַּלְגֵּל בְּצַעַר וְאַל יִצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת וְאַל יַשְׁלִיךְ עַצְמוֹ עַל הַצִּבּוּר. וְכֵן צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים וְאָמְרוּ עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה חָכָם וּמְכֻבָּד וְהֶעֱנִי יַעֲסֹק בְּאֻמְּנוּת וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּאֻמְּנוּת מְנֻוֶּלֶת וְלֹא יִצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. מוּטָב לִפְשֹׁט עוֹר בְּהֵמוֹת נְבֵלוֹת וְלֹא יֹאמַר לָעָם חָכָם גָּדוֹל אֲנִי כֹּהֵן אֲנִי פַּרְנְסוּנִי. וּבְכָךְ צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים. גְּדוֹלֵי הַחֲכָמִים הָיוּ מֵהֶם חוֹטְבֵי עֵצִים וְנוֹשְׂאֵי הַקּוֹרוֹת וְשׁוֹאֲבֵי מַיִם לַגִּנּוֹת וְעוֹשֵׂי הַבַּרְזֶל וְהַפֶּחָמִים וְלֹא שָׁאֲלוּ מִן הַצִּבּוּר וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם כְּשֶׁנָּתְנוּ לָהֶם:
One should always strain oneself and endure hardship and not come to depend on others rather than cast oneself onto the community. Thus the sages commanded, "Make your Sabbaths into weekdays rather than come to depend on others." Even if one is wise and revered and becomes poor, he should engage in some kind of craft, even a menial one, rather than come to depend on others. Better to stretch leather from carrion than to say, "I am a great sage," [or] "I am a priest: Feed me." Thus have the sages commanded. Great sages were splitters of wood, raisers of beams, drawers of water for gardens, ironworkers, and blacksmiths rather than ask [for their living] from the community or accept anything when they gave to them.
תָּנָא דְּבֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: עֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חוֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת, אֲבָל עוֹשֶׂה הוּא דָּבָר מוּעָט בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. מַאי נִינְהוּ? אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: כָּסָא דְהַרְסָנָא. כְּדִתְנַן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן תֵּימָא אוֹמֵר: הֱוֵי עַז כַּנָּמֵר וְקַל כַּנֶּשֶׁר, רָץ כַּצְּבִי וְגִבּוֹר כָּאֲרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת רְצוֹן אָבִיךָ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם.
With regard to this issue, the school of Eliyahu taught that although Rabbi Akiva said: Make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings; however, one should nevertheless perform some small alteration in his house to distinguish Shabbat from a weekday. The Gemara asks: What is this alteration? Rav Pappa said: For example, one should serve small, fried fish. As we learned in a mishna: Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima says: Be bold like a leopard, light like an eagle, run like a deer, and be strong like a lion to perform the will of your Father in Heaven. This statement teaches that one should exert every effort to perform a mitzva.
הוי עז - התחזק במצוה יותר משיכולת בידך:
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן, שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים צִוָּה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּנוֹ: בְּנִי, אַל תֵּשֵׁב בְּגוֹבְהָהּ שֶׁל עִיר וְתִשְׁנֶה, וְאַל תָּדוּר בְּעִיר שֶׁרָאשֶׁיהָ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים.
The Gemara cites the full source of Rabbi’s Akiva statement with regard to Shabbat preparations. The Sages taught: Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Yehoshua, his son, about seven matters: My son, do not sit at the high point of a city, where many people pass, and study there, as the passersby will interrupt you. And do not live in a city whose leaders are Torah scholars, as they are too busy studying to govern properly.
ואל תדור בעיר שראשיה תלמידי חכמים - דטרוד בגרסיה ולא במילי דציבורא:
וְאַל תִּכָּנֵס לְבֵיתְךָ פִּתְאוֹם, כׇּל שֶׁכֵּן לְבֵית חֲבֵירְךָ. וְאַל תִּמְנַע מִנְעָלִים מֵרַגְלֶיךָ. הַשְׁכֵּם וֶאֱכוֹל, בַּקַּיִץ מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה, וּבַחוֹרֶף מִפְּנֵי הַצִּינָּה. וַעֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חוֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. וֶהֱוֵי מִשְׁתַּדֵּל עִם אָדָם שֶׁהַשָּׁעָה מְשַׂחֶקֶת לוֹ.
Rabbi Akiva continued: And do not enter your house suddenly, without knocking first; all the more so do not enter the house of another, as he might not be ready to receive you. And do not withhold shoes from your feet, as it is disgraceful to go barefoot. Wake up and eat, in the summer due to the heat, as it is best to eat before it grows hot, and in the winter due to the strength you will need to tolerate the cold. And make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. And exert yourself to join together with a person upon whom the hour smiles, i.e., a successful person.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: לָא לְמִיזְבַּן מִינֵּיהּ וְלָא לְזַבּוֹנֵי לֵיהּ, אֶלָּא לְמֶעְבַּד שׁוּתָּפוּת בַּהֲדֵיהּ. וְהַשְׁתָּא דְּאָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יִצְחָק: מַאי דִּכְתִיב ״מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ״ — כׇּל הַנּוֹטֵל פְּרוּטָה מֵאִיּוֹב מִתְבָּרֵךְ, אֲפִילּוּ לְמִיזְבַּן מִינֵּיהּ וּלְזַבּוֹנֵי לֵיהּ שַׁפִּיר דָּמֵי.
Rav Pappa said in explanation of this last statement: Do not buy from him and do not sell to him. If he is the beneficiary of good fortune, he will profit from any business transaction and you will suffer from it. Rather, form a partnership with him. And now we have heard that Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You have blessed the work of his hands” (Job 1:10)? This means that anyone who took a peruta from Job would be blessed, even if he received it via a business transaction. This shows that one should engage in business with a person who is blessed, for even if he wishes to buy from him or to sell to him it is well, i.e., he will share in the good fortune of the other.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: לָא לְמִיזְבַּן מִינֵּיהּ וְלָא לְזַבּוֹנֵי לֵיהּ, אֶלָּא לְמֶעְבַּד שׁוּתָּפוּת בַּהֲדֵיהּ. וְהַשְׁתָּא דְּאָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יִצְחָק: מַאי דִּכְתִיב ״מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ״ — כׇּל הַנּוֹטֵל פְּרוּטָה מֵאִיּוֹב מִתְבָּרֵךְ, אֲפִילּוּ לְמִיזְבַּן מִינֵּיהּ וּלְזַבּוֹנֵי לֵיהּ שַׁפִּיר דָּמֵי.
Rav Pappa said in explanation of this last statement: Do not buy from him and do not sell to him. If he is the beneficiary of good fortune, he will profit from any business transaction and you will suffer from it. Rather, form a partnership with him. And now we have heard that Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You have blessed the work of his hands” (Job 1:10)? This means that anyone who took a peruta from Job would be blessed, even if he received it via a business transaction. This shows that one should engage in business with a person who is blessed, for even if he wishes to buy from him or to sell to him it is well, i.e., he will share in the good fortune of the other.
אמר רב פפא בפירוש דבר זה: לא למיזבן מיניה ולא לזבוני ליה [לא לקנות ממנו ולא למכור לו], שהרי אם השעה משחקת לו אם עושים עימו עסק, בין שמוכרים לו או בין שקונים ממנו הרי הוא שירויח והסוחר עמו יפסיד, אלא למעבד שותפות בהדיה [לעשות שותפות עמו]. והשתא [ועכשיו] ששמענו כבר מה שאמר רב שמואל בר יצחק: מאי דכתיב [מהו שנאמר]: "מעשה ידיו ברכת" (איוב א, י) ופירש שכל הנוטל פרוטה מאיוב מתברך, אפילו נטל אותה בדרך מסחר, אם כן הרי שהעוסק עם מי שיש אצלו ברכה אפילו רוצה למיזבן מיניה ולזבוני ליה שפיר דמי [לקנות ממנו ולמכור לו יפה הדבר ומועיל].
חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים צִוָּה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אֶת רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי כְּשֶׁהָיָה חָבוּשׁ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִין. אָמַר לוֹ: רַבִּי, לַמְּדֵנִי תּוֹרָה, אָמַר: אֵינִי מְלַמְּדֶךָ. אָמַר לוֹ: אִם אֵין אַתָּה מְלַמְּדֵנִי אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לְיוֹחַי אַבָּא וּמוֹסֶרְךָ לַמַּלְכוּת. אָמַר לוֹ: בְּנִי, יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהָעֵגֶל רוֹצֶה לִינַק פָּרָה רוֹצֶה לְהָנִיק. אָמַר לוֹ: וּמִי בְּסַכָּנָה? וַהֲלֹא עֵגֶל בְּסַכָּנָה.
The Gemara continues to cite similar advice dispensed by Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai to do five matters when Rabbi Akiva was imprisoned. Beforehand, Rabbi Shimon said to him: Rabbi, teach me Torah. Rabbi Akiva said to him: I will not teach you, as it is dangerous to do so at the present time. Rabbi Shimon said to him in jest: If you will not teach me, I will tell Yoḥai my father, and he will turn you over to the government. In other words, I have no means of persuading you; you are already in prison. Rabbi Akiva said: My son, know that more than the calf wishes to suck, the cow wants to suckle, but I am afraid of the danger. Rabbi Shimon said to him: And who is in danger? Isn’t the calf in danger, as you are in jail and I am the one at risk?
אָמַר לוֹ: אִם בִּקַּשְׁתָּ לֵיחָנֵק — הִיתָּלֵה בְּאִילָן גָּדוֹל. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה מְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּנְךָ — לַמְּדֵהוּ בְּסֵפֶר מוּגָּהּ. מַאי הִיא? אָמַר רָבָא, וְאִיתֵּימָא רַב מְשַׁרְשְׁיָא: בְּחַדְתָּא, שַׁבֶּשְׁתָּא כֵּיוָן דְּעָל — עָל.
Rabbi Akiva said to him: If so, I will tell you a few matters. First of all, if you wish to strangle yourself, hang yourself on a tall tree. This proverb means that if one wants others to accept what he has to say, he should attribute his statement to a great man. And when you teach your son, teach him from a corrected text. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? Rava said, and some say Rav Mesharshiya said: Rabbi Akiva was referring to learning a new topic, for once a mistake enters one’s mind, it has entered there and is difficult to put right.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן, שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים צִוָּה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּנוֹ: בְּנִי, אַל תֵּשֵׁב בְּגוֹבְהָהּ שֶׁל עִיר וְתִשְׁנֶה, וְאַל תָּדוּר בְּעִיר שֶׁרָאשֶׁיהָ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים.
The Gemara cites the full source of Rabbi’s Akiva statement with regard to Shabbat preparations. The Sages taught: Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Yehoshua, his son, about seven matters: My son, do not sit at the high point of a city, where many people pass, and study there, as the passersby will interrupt you. And do not live in a city whose leaders are Torah scholars, as they are too busy studying to govern properly.
וְאַל תִּכָּנֵס לְבֵיתְךָ פִּתְאוֹם, כׇּל שֶׁכֵּן לְבֵית חֲבֵירְךָ. וְאַל תִּמְנַע מִנְעָלִים מֵרַגְלֶיךָ. הַשְׁכֵּם וֶאֱכוֹל, בַּקַּיִץ מִפְּנֵי הַחַמָּה, וּבַחוֹרֶף מִפְּנֵי הַצִּינָּה. וַעֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חוֹל וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. וֶהֱוֵי מִשְׁתַּדֵּל עִם אָדָם שֶׁהַשָּׁעָה מְשַׂחֶקֶת לוֹ.
Rabbi Akiva continued: And do not enter your house suddenly, without knocking first; all the more so do not enter the house of another, as he might not be ready to receive you. And do not withhold shoes from your feet, as it is disgraceful to go barefoot. Wake up and eat, in the summer due to the heat, as it is best to eat before it grows hot, and in the winter due to the strength you will need to tolerate the cold. And make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. And exert yourself to join together with a person upon whom the hour smiles, i.e., a successful person.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: לָא לְמִיזְבַּן מִינֵּיהּ וְלָא לְזַבּוֹנֵי לֵיהּ, אֶלָּא לְמֶעְבַּד שׁוּתָּפוּת בַּהֲדֵיהּ. וְהַשְׁתָּא דְּאָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יִצְחָק: מַאי דִּכְתִיב ״מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ״ — כׇּל הַנּוֹטֵל פְּרוּטָה מֵאִיּוֹב מִתְבָּרֵךְ, אֲפִילּוּ לְמִיזְבַּן מִינֵּיהּ וּלְזַבּוֹנֵי לֵיהּ שַׁפִּיר דָּמֵי.
Rav Pappa said in explanation of this last statement: Do not buy from him and do not sell to him. If he is the beneficiary of good fortune, he will profit from any business transaction and you will suffer from it. Rather, form a partnership with him. And now we have heard that Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “You have blessed the work of his hands” (Job 1:10)? This means that anyone who took a peruta from Job would be blessed, even if he received it via a business transaction. This shows that one should engage in business with a person who is blessed, for even if he wishes to buy from him or to sell to him it is well, i.e., he will share in the good fortune of the other.
חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים צִוָּה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אֶת רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַי כְּשֶׁהָיָה חָבוּשׁ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִין. אָמַר לוֹ: רַבִּי, לַמְּדֵנִי תּוֹרָה, אָמַר: אֵינִי מְלַמְּדֶךָ. אָמַר לוֹ: אִם אֵין אַתָּה מְלַמְּדֵנִי אֲנִי אוֹמֵר לְיוֹחַי אַבָּא וּמוֹסֶרְךָ לַמַּלְכוּת. אָמַר לוֹ: בְּנִי, יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהָעֵגֶל רוֹצֶה לִינַק פָּרָה רוֹצֶה לְהָנִיק. אָמַר לוֹ: וּמִי בְּסַכָּנָה? וַהֲלֹא עֵגֶל בְּסַכָּנָה.
The Gemara continues to cite similar advice dispensed by Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai to do five matters when Rabbi Akiva was imprisoned. Beforehand, Rabbi Shimon said to him: Rabbi, teach me Torah. Rabbi Akiva said to him: I will not teach you, as it is dangerous to do so at the present time. Rabbi Shimon said to him in jest: If you will not teach me, I will tell Yoḥai my father, and he will turn you over to the government. In other words, I have no means of persuading you; you are already in prison. Rabbi Akiva said: My son, know that more than the calf wishes to suck, the cow wants to suckle, but I am afraid of the danger. Rabbi Shimon said to him: And who is in danger? Isn’t the calf in danger, as you are in jail and I am the one at risk?
אמר ליה ר"ש בן יוחי ומי בסכנה - והלא העגל בסכנה ומה לך בכך:
כשהיה חבוש בבית האסורין - כדאיתא בברכות (דף סא:):
איני מלמדך - שלפי שהיה עסוק בתורה נתפש כדאמרינן בברכות (שם):
אָמַר לוֹ: אִם בִּקַּשְׁתָּ לֵיחָנֵק — הִיתָּלֵה בְּאִילָן גָּדוֹל. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה מְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּנְךָ — לַמְּדֵהוּ בְּסֵפֶר מוּגָּהּ. מַאי הִיא? אָמַר רָבָא, וְאִיתֵּימָא רַב מְשַׁרְשְׁיָא: בְּחַדְתָּא, שַׁבֶּשְׁתָּא כֵּיוָן דְּעָל — עָל.
Rabbi Akiva said to him: If so, I will tell you a few matters. First of all, if you wish to strangle yourself, hang yourself on a tall tree. This proverb means that if one wants others to accept what he has to say, he should attribute his statement to a great man. And when you teach your son, teach him from a corrected text. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? Rava said, and some say Rav Mesharshiya said: Rabbi Akiva was referring to learning a new topic, for once a mistake enters one’s mind, it has entered there and is difficult to put right.
״וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ״. תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: אִם נֶאֱמַר ״בְּכָל נַפְשְׁךָ״, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר ״בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ״?, וְאִם נֶאֱמַר ״בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ״, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר ״בְּכָל נַפְשְׁךָ״? אֶלָּא אִם יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁגּוּפוֹ חָבִיב עָלָיו מִמָּמוֹנוֹ — לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר ״בְּכָל נַפְשְׁךָ״. וְאִם יֵשׁ לָךְ אָדָם שֶׁמָּמוֹנוֹ חָבִיב עָלָיו מִגּוּפוֹ — לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר ״בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ״. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: ״בְּכָל נַפְשְׁךָ״ אֲפִילּוּ נוֹטֵל אֶת נַפְשְׁךָ.
We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”? Conversely, if it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather, this means that if one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”; one must give his soul in sanctification of God. And if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”; with all your assets. Rabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul” means: Even if God takes your soul.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: פַּעַם אַחַת גָּזְרָה מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה שֶׁלֹּא יַעַסְקוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּתּוֹרָה. בָּא פַּפּוּס בֶּן יְהוּדָה וּמְצָאוֹ לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁהָיָה מַקְהִיל קְהִלּוֹת בָּרַבִּים וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה. אָמַר לוֹ: עֲקִיבָא אִי אַתָּה מִתְיָרֵא מִפְּנֵי מַלְכוּת?
The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. The Sages taught: One time, after the bar Kokheva rebellion, the evil empire of Rome decreed that Israel may not engage in the study and practice of Torah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torah study. Pappos said to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire?
אָמַר לוֹ: אֶמְשׁוֹל לְךָ מָשָׁל, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה — לְשׁוּעָל שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ עַל גַּב הַנָּהָר, וְרָאָה דָּגִים שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְקַבְּצִים מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם. אָמַר לָהֶם: מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתֶּם בּוֹרְחִים? אָמְרוּ לוֹ: מִפְּנֵי רְשָׁתוֹת שֶׁמְּבִיאִין עָלֵינוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם. אָמַר לָהֶם: רְצוֹנְכֶם שֶׁתַּעֲלוּ לַיַּבָּשָׁה, וְנָדוּר אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁדָּרוּ אֲבוֹתַי עִם אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם? אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אַתָּה הוּא שֶׁאוֹמְרִים עָלֶיךָ פִּקֵּחַ שֶׁבַּחַיּוֹת?! לֹא פִּקֵּחַ אַתָּה, אֶלָּא טִפֵּשׁ אַתָּה! וּמָה בִּמְקוֹם חִיּוּתֵנוּ, אָנוּ מִתְיָרְאִין, בִּמְקוֹם מִיתָתֵנוּ — עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אַף אֲנַחְנוּ עַכְשָׁיו שֶׁאָנוּ יוֹשְׁבִים וְעוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ: ״כִּי הוּא חַיֶּיךָ וְאֹרֶךְ יָמֶיךָ״, כָּךְ, אִם אָנוּ הוֹלְכִים וּמְבַטְּלִים מִמֶּנָּה — עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה!
Rabbi Akiva answered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared? It is like a fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gathering and fleeing from place to place. The fox said to them: From what are you fleeing? They said to him: We are fleeing from the nets that people cast upon us. He said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? The fish said to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid in the water, our natural habitat which gives us life, then in a habitat that causes our death, all the more so. The moral is: So too, we Jews, now that we sit and engage in Torah study, about which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days” (Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire to this extent; if we proceed to sit idle from its study, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, all the more so will we fear the empire.
אָמְרוּ: לֹא הָיוּ יָמִים מוּעָטִים, עַד שֶׁתְּפָסוּהוּ לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲבָשׁוּהוּ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְתָפְסוּ לְפַפּוּס בֶּן יְהוּדָה וַחֲבָשׁוּהוּ אֶצְלוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ: פַּפּוּס, מִי הֲבִיאֲךָ לְכָאן? אָמַר לוֹ: אַשְׁרֶיךָ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁנִּתְפַּסְתָּ עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה. אוֹי לוֹ לְפַפּוּס שֶׁנִּתְפַּס עַל דְּבָרִים בְּטֵלִים.
The Sages said: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him. Rabbi Akiva said to him: Pappos, who brought you here? Pappos replied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested on the charge of engaging in Torah study. Woe unto Pappos who was seized on the charge of engaging in idle matters.
בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא לַהֲרִיגָה זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע הָיָה, וְהָיוּ סוֹרְקִים אֶת בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַסְרְקוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל, וְהָיָה מְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עוֹל מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו: רַבֵּינוּ, עַד כָּאן?! אָמַר לָהֶם: כׇּל יָמַי הָיִיתִי מִצְטַעֵר עַל פָּסוּק זֶה ״בְּכָל נַפְשְׁךָ״ אֲפִילּוּ נוֹטֵל אֶת נִשְׁמָתְךָ. אָמַרְתִּי: מָתַי יָבֹא לְיָדִי וַאֲקַיְּימֶנּוּ, וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁבָּא לְיָדִי, לֹא אֲקַיְּימֶנּוּ? הָיָה מַאֲרִיךְ בְּ״אֶחָד״, עַד שֶׁיָּצְתָה נִשְׁמָתוֹ בְּ״אֶחָד״. יָצְתָה בַּת קוֹל וְאָמְרָה: ״אַשְׁרֶיךָ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁיָּצְאָה נִשְׁמָתְךָ בְּאֶחָד״.
The Gemara relates: When they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of Shema. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he was reciting Shema, thereby accepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now, as you suffer, you recite Shema? He said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul, meaning: Even if God takes your soul. I said to myself: When will the opportunity be afforded me to fulfill this verse? Now that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolonged his uttering of the word: One, until his soul left his body as he uttered his final word: One. A voice descended from heaven and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul left your body as you uttered: One.
לֹא תְּבַשֵּׁל בִּקְדֵירָה שֶׁבִּישֵּׁל בָּהּ חֲבֵירֶךָ. מַאי נִיהוּ — גְּרוּשָׁה בְּחַיֵּי בַּעְלָהּ, דְּאָמַר מָר גָּרוּשׁ שֶׁנָּשָׂא גְּרוּשָׁהּ — אַרְבַּע דֵּעוֹת בַּמִּטָּה. וְאִי בָּעֵית אֵימָא: אֲפִילּוּ בְּאַלְמָנָה, לְפִי
Rabbi Akiva further told Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Do not cook in a pot in which your colleague cooked his food. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of this statement? The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva is referring to marrying a divorced woman in the lifetime of her former husband. As the Master said: If a divorced man marries a divorced woman, there are four minds in the bed during intimacy. Each person thinks about his current and former spouse, which verges on illegitimacy. And if you wish, say instead that this advice holds true even with regard to marrying a widow, as
שֶׁאֵין כׇּל אֶצְבָּעוֹת שָׁווֹת.
not all fingers are equal. It is possible that intimate relations with her second husband might not be as pleasing as with the first, leading her to disparage and even hate him.
מִצְוָה וְגוּף גָּדוֹל — אוֹכֵל פֵּירוֹת וְלֹא שָׂכָר. מִצְוָה וְגוּף טָהוֹר — נוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה וְלוֹ בָּנִים.
Rabbi Akiva continued to offer instruction: It is a mitzva and a great material benefit to one’s body to eat fruits without payment. That is, when one lends money and takes land as collateral, deducting from the loan the value of the fruit he eats, both the borrower and the lender benefit from this practice. One who both performs a mitzva and retains a pure body is one who marries a woman, as his thoughts will remain pure and he will merit to have children.
אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים צִוָּה רַבֵּינוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ אֶת בָּנָיו: אַל תָּדוּר בְּשַׁכְנְצִיב מִשּׁוּם דְּלֵיצָנֵי הָווּ, וּמָשְׁכוּ לָךְ בְּלֵיצָנוּתָא.
The Gemara cites more instructions issued by a Sage to his heirs. Our holy rabbi, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, commanded his sons to do four matters: Do not live in Shekhantziv in Babylonia, because they are mockers. And they will draw you in to their mockery and lead you to abandon your Torah studies.
וְאַל תֵּשֵׁב עַל מִטַּת אֲרַמִּית. אִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: דְּלָא תִּיגְנֵי בְּלָא קְרִיַּת שְׁמַע. וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: דְּלָא תִּינְסַב גִּיּוֹרְתָּא.
Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi further commanded his sons: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman. This advice is explained in different ways. Some say it means that you should not go to sleep without reciting Shema, as a Jew who does this acts like a gentile. And some say it means that you should not marry a convert, i.e., a Jewish woman who was once an Aramean.
וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: אֲרַמָּאִית מַמָּשׁ, וּמִשּׁוּם מַעֲשֶׂה דְרַב פָּפָּא.
And some say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi meant the actual bed of an Aramean woman, and this is due to the concern for a similar outcome to the later incident involving Rav Pappa. The incident in question was as follows: Rav Pappa entered the house of a gentile woman to collect a debt. The woman asked him to sit on her bed until she brought the money. As it turned out, she had placed her dead baby under the bed. Rav Pappa was subsequently accused of killing the baby and was forced to flee the district.
וְאֶל תַּבְרִיחַ עַצְמְךָ מִן הַמֶּכֶס, דִּילְמָא מַשְׁכְּחוּ לָךְ וְשָׁקְלִי מִנָּךְ כׇּל דְּאִית לָךְ. וְאַל תַּעֲמוֹד בִּפְנֵי הַשּׁוֹר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעוֹלֶה מִן הָאֲגַם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַשָּׂטָן מְרַקֵּד בֵּין קַרְנָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל: בְּשׁוֹר שָׁחוֹר, וּבְיוֹמֵי נִיסָן.
Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi continued: And do not avoid paying taxes, lest they find you and confiscate everything you own. And do not stand before an ox when it emerges from the marsh because Satan dances between its horns, i.e., an ox is particularly menacing at that time. Rabbi Shmuel said: This is referring to a black ox, and specifically during the days of Nisan, when the ox is most dangerous.
תָּנֵי רַב אוֹשַׁעְיָא: מַרְחִיקִין מִשּׁוֹר תָּם — חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה, מִשּׁוֹר מוּעָד — כִּמְלֹא עֵינָיו.
Rav Oshaya teaches with regard to the same issue: One distances himself fifty cubits from an innocuous ox [shor tam], an ox with no consistent history of causing damage with the intent to injure. From a forewarned ox [shor muad], an ox whose owner was forewarned because his ox already gored a person three times, one distances himself until it is beyond eyeshot.
תָּנָא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר: רֵישׁ תּוֹרָא בְּדִיקּוּלָא — סַק לְאִיגָּרָא וּשְׁדִי דַּרְגָּא מִתּוּתָךְ. אָמַר רַב: נִיזְהָא דְתוֹרָא — ״הֵן הֵן״. נִיזְהָא דְאַרְיָה — ״זֶה זֶה״. נִיזְהָא דְגַמְלָא — ״דָּא דָּא״. נִיזְהָא דְאַרְבָּא — ״הֵילֵנִי הַיָּיא הִילָא וְהִילּוּק הוּלְיָא״.
A Sage taught citing the name of Rabbi Meir, in an exaggerated vein: Even if the head of the ox is in its food basket, go up to the roof and kick the ladder out from underneath you to escape from it. Rav said: The cry that one says to lead an ox is hen hen. The cry to lead a lion is zeh zeh. The cry to lead a camel is da da. The cry to laborers using ropes to pull a ship along a river is heleni, hayya, hela, vehilook, hulya.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: עוֹר, דָּג, וְכוֹס, חַמִּין, וּבֵיצִים, וְכִנִּים לְבָנִים — כּוּלָּן קָשִׁין לְדָבָר אַחֵר. עוֹר — מַאן דְּגָנֵי אַמַּשְׁכָּא דְצַלָּא. דָּג — שִׁיבּוּטָא בְּיוֹמֵי נִיסָן. כּוֹס — שִׁיּוּרֵי כָּסָא דְהַרְסָנָא. חַמִּין — חַמִּימֵי דְחַמִּימֵי מְשַׁדְּרוּ עִילָּוֵיהּ. בֵּיצִים — מַאן דִּמְדָרֵךְ אַקְּלִיפִּים. כִּינִּים לְבָנִים — מַאן דִּמְחַוַּור לְבוּשֵׁיהּ וְלָא נָטֵיר לֵיהּ תְּמָנְיָא יוֹמֵי וַהֲדַר לָבֵישׁ לֵהּ — בָּרְיָין הָנָךְ כִּינִּים, וְקַשְׁיָן לְדָבָר אַחֵר.
Abaye said: Hide, fish, and a cup, hot water, and eggs, and white lice all cause the other matter, i.e., leprosy. The Gemara elaborates: Hide is referring to one who sleeps on a tanner’s hide before it has been tanned. Fish is referring to the shibuta fish in the days of Nisan. The cup is referring to one who eats the leftovers of small fried fish. Hot water is referring to very hot water that one pours on himself. Eggs means one who steps on eggshells. White lice is referring to one who washes his garment but does not keep it for eight days before wearing it again, a habit which creates these lice. And all of these practices cause the other matter, leprosy.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: בֵּיתָא דְּאִית בֵּיהּ שׁוּנָּרָא לָא נֵיעוּל בַּהּ אִינִישׁ בְּלָא מְסָנֵי. מַאי טַעְמָא — מִשּׁוּם דְּשׁוּנָּרָא קָטֵיל לְחִיוְיָא וְאָכֵיל לֵיהּ, וְאִית בֵּיהּ בְּחִיוְיָא גַּרְמֵי קַטִּינֵי, וְאִי יָתֵיב לֵהּ גַּרְמָא דְחִיוְיָא אַכַּרְעֵיהּ — לָא נָפֵיק וְאִסְתַּכַּן לֵיהּ. אִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: בֵּיתָא דְּלֵית בֵּיהּ שׁוּנָּרָא — לָא נֵיעוּל בֵּיהּ אִינִישׁ בְּהַכְרָא, מַאי טַעְמָא — דִילְמָא מִיכְּרִיךְ בֵּיהּ חִוְיָא וְלָא יָדַע וּמִסְתַּכַּן.
Rav Pappa said: With regard to a house in which there is a cat, a person should not enter there barefoot. What is the reason? Because the cat might kill a snake and eat it, and the snake has small bones, and if a small bone gets into one’s foot it cannot be removed, and he will be in danger. Some say that Rav Pappa said: With regard to a house in which there is no cat, a person should not enter there in the dark. What is the reason? Since there is no cat to hunt snakes, perhaps a snake will wrap itself around him without him knowing and he will be in danger.
שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים צִוָּה רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אֶת רַבִּי: (מק״ש סִימָן) אַל תַּעַשׂ מוּם בְּעַצְמְךָ. מַאי הִיא? לָא תֶּיהְוֵי לָךְ דִּינָא בַּהֲדֵי תְּלָתָא, דְּחַד הָוֵי בַּעַל דִּינָךְ וּתְרֵי סָהֲדֵי. וְאַל תַּעֲמוֹד עַל הַמִּקָּח בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּמִים.
Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to three matters. Parenthetically, the Gemara states that mem, kuf, shin is a mnemonic for the three statements, as it stands for mum, blemish, mekaḥ, a purchase, and ishtekha, your wife. The first matter is: Do not inflict a blemish upon yourself. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? The Gemara explains: Do not have a court case against three people, as one will be your opponent and two will act as witnesses and testify against you whatever they wish. And do not stand over and display interest in a purchase when you do not have enough money even for the price you are offering, as this constitutes fraud.
אִשְׁתְּךָ טָבְלָה — אַל תִּזָּקֵק לָהּ לַיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. אָמַר רַב: וּבְנִדָּה דְאוֹרָיְיתָא, הוֹאִיל וְהוּחְזַק מַעְיָן פָּתוּחַ, דִּילְמָא מָשְׁכָה זִיבָה.
The Gemara cites the third instruction that Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. After your wife has immersed, do not engage in intimacy with her on the first night. Rather, wait an additional night. Rav said: And this is referring to a menstruating woman whose status applies by Torah law. According to Torah law, even if a woman experiences a continuous emission of blood for seven days, if the flow stops on the seventh day, she may immerse that night and engage in relations with her husband without delay. However, Rav maintains that one must act stringently in this case. His reasoning is: Since there is a presumption that the flow of blood is open, perhaps her zava blood will continue afterward, i.e., she will see more blood after engaging in intimacy.
שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים צִוָּה רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אֶת רַבִּי: אַל תֵּצֵא יְחִידִי בַּלַּיְלָה, וְאַל תַּעֲמוֹד בִּפְנֵי הַנֵּר עָרוֹם, וְאַל תִּכָּנֵס לְמֶרְחָץ חָדָשׁ, שֶׁמָּא תִּפָּחֵת. עַד כַּמָּה? אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: עַד שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וְאַל תַּעֲמוֹד בִּפְנֵי הַנֵּר עָרוֹם, דְּתַנְיָא: הָעוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי הַנֵּר עָרוֹם — הָוֵי נִכְפֶּה. וְהַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ לְאוֹר הַנֵּר — הָוַיִין לוֹ בָּנִים נִכְפִּין.
The Gemara continues: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to three matters: Do not go out alone at night; do not stand naked before a candle; and do not enter a new bathhouse, lest it collapse when they light the fire beneath it. The Gemara asks: Until when is a bathhouse considered new? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Until twelve months have passed. With regard to the statement: And do not stand naked before a candle, the Gemara comments that this is as it was taught in a baraita: One who stands naked before a candle will become epileptic, and one who engages in intimacy by candlelight will have epileptic children.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ עַל מִטָּה שֶׁתִּינוֹק יָשֵׁן עָלֶיהָ — אוֹתוֹ תִּינוֹק נִכְפֶּה. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא הָוֵי בַּר שַׁתָּא, אֲבָל הָוֵי בַּר שַׁתָּא — לֵית לַן בַּהּ. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּגָנֵי לַהֲדֵי כַּרְעֵיהּ, אֲבָל גָּנֵי לַהֲדֵי רֵישֵׁיהּ — לֵית לַן בַּהּ. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא דְּלָא מַנַּח יְדֵיהּ עִילָּוֵיהּ, אֲבָל מַנַּח יְדֵיהּ עִילָּוֵיהּ — לֵית לַן בַּהּ.
Likewise, the Sages taught: One who engages in intimacy in a bed upon which a baby is sleeping, that child becomes epileptic. And we said that this will occur only if the child is not yet one year old; however, if he is one year old we have no problem with it, as he is old enough not to be affected. And furthermore, we said this only concerning a baby that is sleeping near the father’s feet; but if the baby is sleeping near his head he is sufficiently far away so that we have no problem with it. And we said this only if he does not place his hand on the baby at the time, but if he places his hands on the baby to serve as a barrier between them, we have no problem with it.
אֵל תֵּצֵא יְחִידִי בַּלַּיְלָה, דְּתַנְיָא: לֹא יֵצֵא יְחִידִי בַּלַּיְלָה, לֹא בְּלֵילֵי רְבִיעִיּוֹת וְלֹא בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָגְרַת בַּת מָחֲלַת, הִיא וּשְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה רִבּוֹא שֶׁל מַלְאֲכֵי חַבָּלָה יוֹצְאִין, וְכׇל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד יֵשׁ לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְחַבֵּל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.
With regard to the instruction: Do not go out alone at night, the Gemara states that this is as it was taught in a baraita: One should not go out alone at night, neither on Tuesday nights nor on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights, because the demon Agrat, daughter of Maḥalat, she and 180,000 angels of destruction go out at these times. And as each and every one of them has permission to destroy by itself, they are all the more dangerous when they go forth together.
מֵעִיקָּרָא הֲווֹ שְׁכִיחִי כּוּלֵּי יוֹמָא. זִמְנָא חֲדָא פְּגַעָה בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן דּוֹסָא, אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ: אִי לָאו דְּמַכְרְזִן עֲלָךְ בְּרָקִיעַ: ״הִזָּהֲרוּ בַּחֲנִינָא וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ״ — סַכַּנְתָּיךְ. אֲמַר לַהּ: אִי חֲשִׁיבְנָא בְּרָקִיעַ, גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ שֶׁלֹּא תַּעֲבוֹרִי בַּיִּישּׁוּב לְעוֹלָם. אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ: בְּמָטוּתָא מִינָּךְ, שְׁבֹק לִי רַוְוחָא פּוּרְתָּא. שְׁבַק לַהּ לֵילֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְלֵילֵי רְבִיעִיּוֹת.
The Gemara states: Initially, these demons were present every day. Once Agrat, daughter of Maḥalat, met Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa and said to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of Ḥanina and his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I am considered important in Heaven, I decree upon you that you should never travel through inhabited places. She said to him: I beg you, leave me a little space. He left for her Shabbat nights and Tuesday nights.
וְתוּ: חֲדָא זִמְנָא פְּגַעָה בֵּיהּ בְּאַבָּיֵי, אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ: אִי לָאו דְּמַכְרְזִי עֲלָךְ בְּרָקִיעַ: ״הִזָּהֲרוּ בְּנַחְמָנִי וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ״ — הֲוָה סַכַּנְתָּיךְ. אֲמַר לַהּ: אִי חֲשִׁיבְנָא בְּרָקִיעַ, גּוֹזְרַנִי עֲלַיְיכִי שֶׁלֹּא תַּעֲבוּרִי בַּיִּישּׁוּב לְעוֹלָם. הָא קָא חָזֵינַן דְּעָבְרָה?! אָמְרִי: הָנֵי
And furthermore, once Agrat, daughter of Maḥalat met Abaye and said to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of Naḥmani, Abaye, and his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I am considered important in Heaven, I decree upon you that you should never pass through inhabited places. The Gemara asks: But we see that, notwithstanding these anecdotes, demons do pass through inhabited areas. The Sages say in explanation: These demons
(וַאֲמַר לֵיהּ) רַב לְרַב אַסִּי: לָא תְּדוּר בְּמָתָא דְּלָא צָנֵיף בַּהּ סוּסְיָא וְלָא נָבַח בַּהּ כַּלְבָּא. וְאַל תָּדוּר בְּעִיר דְּרֵישׁ מָתָא אָסְיָא, וְלָא תִּנְסֵיב תַּרְתֵּי. אִי נָסְבַתְּ תַּרְתֵּי — נְסֵיב תְּלָת.
And Rav said to Rav Asi: Do not live in a city where horses do not neigh and where dogs do not bark, as these animals provide security and protection. And do not live in a city where the mayor is a doctor, as he will be too busy working to govern properly. And do not marry two women, as they will likely join forces against you. And if you do marry two, marry a third as well. If two of your wives plot against you, the third will inform you of their plans.
(וַאֲמַר לֵיהּ) רַב לְרַב אַסִּי: לָא תְּדוּר בְּמָתָא דְּלָא צָנֵיף בַּהּ סוּסְיָא וְלָא נָבַח בַּהּ כַּלְבָּא. וְאַל תָּדוּר בְּעִיר דְּרֵישׁ מָתָא אָסְיָא, וְלָא תִּנְסֵיב תַּרְתֵּי. אִי נָסְבַתְּ תַּרְתֵּי — נְסֵיב תְּלָת.
And Rav said to Rav Asi: Do not live in a city where horses do not neigh and where dogs do not bark, as these animals provide security and protection. And do not live in a city where the mayor is a doctor, as he will be too busy working to govern properly. And do not marry two women, as they will likely join forces against you. And if you do marry two, marry a third as well. If two of your wives plot against you, the third will inform you of their plans.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב לְרַב כָּהֲנָא: הֲפוֹךְ בִּנְבֵילְתָּא וְלָא תֵּיפוֹךְ בְּמִילֵּי. פְּשׁוֹט נְבֵילְתָּא בְּשׁוּקָא וּשְׁקֵיל אַגְרָא, וְלָא תֵּימָא ״כָּהֲנָא אֲנָא, וְגַבְרָא רַבָּא אֲנָא, וְסַנְיָא בִּי מִלְּתָא״. סָלְקַתְּ לְאִיגָּרָא — שֵׁירוּתָךְ בַּהֲדָךְ. מְאָה קָרֵי בְּמָתָא בְּזוּזָא — תּוּתֵי כַּנְפָיךְ נִיהְווֹ.
Rav said to Rav Kahana: It is better for one to turn over a carcass than to turn over his word, i.e., to break his promise. Rav further said: Skin a carcass in the market and take payment, but do not say: I am a priest, or: I am a great man, and this matter disgusts me. It is preferable for one to work, even in menial labor, than to be dependent on others. Rav also advised Rav Kahana: If you ascend to the roof, carry your food with you. One should always carry his sustenance with him, even if he goes only on a short trip. If one hundred pumpkins in the city cost a zuz, place them carefully under the corners of your clothes. Treat food respectfully even if it is inexpensive.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב לְחִיָּיא בְּרֵיהּ: לָא תִּשְׁתֵּי סַמָּא, וְלָא תְּשַׁוַּור נִיגְרָא, וְלָא תִּעְקַר כַּכָּא, וְלָא תְּקַנֵּא בְּחִיוְיָא, וְלָא תְּקַנֵּא בְּאַרְמָאָה.
Rav said to Ḥiyya, his son: Do not get into the habit of drinking medications, lest you develop an addiction. And do not leap over a ditch, as you might hurt yourself in the process. And do not pull out a tooth, but try to heal it if possible. And do not provoke a snake in your house to try to kill it or chase it away. And do not provoke a gentile, as this too is dangerous.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵין מִתְקַנְּאִין בָּהֶן, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: גּוֹי קָטָן, וְנָחָשׁ קָטָן, וְתַלְמִיד קָטָן. מַאי טַעְמָא — דְּמַלְכוּתַיְיהוּ אֲחוֹרֵי אוּדְנַיְיהוּ קָאֵי.
Similarly, the Sages taught: There are three beings one should not provoke: A small gentile, and a small snake, and a small Torah scholar. What is the reason? Because their authority stands behind their ears. They will eventually grow up, assume power, each in his own way, and avenge those who have harassed them.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב לְאַיְבוּ בְּרֵיהּ: טְרַחִי בָּךְ בִּשְׁמַעְתָּא וְלָא מִסְתַּיַּיע מִילְּתָא. תָּא אַגְמְרָךְ מִילֵּי דְעָלְמָא. אַדְּחָלָא אַכַּרְעָיךָ — זְבִינָךְ זַבֵּין. כֹּל מִילֵּי זַבֵּין וְתִחָרַט — בַּר מֵחַמְרָא, דְּזַבֵּין וְלָא תִּחָרַט.
Rav said to Ayvu, his son: I struggled to teach you halakha but my efforts did not succeed, as you did not become a great scholar. Come and I will teach you about mundane matters: Sell your merchandise while the dust from the road is still on your feet. As soon you return from your travels, sell your wares, lest the prices fall in the meantime. Furthermore, it is possible that anything you sell might later cause you to regret the sale, except for wine, which you can sell without regret. Since wine might go bad and be entirely lost, its sale is always advisable.
שְׁרֵי כִּיסָיךְ, פְּתַח שַׂקָּיךָ. קַבָּא מֵאַרְעָא, וְלָא כּוֹרָא מֵאִיגָּרָא.
Rav further advised his son: Open your purse to accept payment, and only then open your sack to deliver the goods, to ensure you will receive payment for your merchandise. It is better to earn a kav from the ground than a kor from the roof. A kor is one hundred and eighty times larger than a kav. This proverb means that it is preferable to earn a small amount from a local, safe transaction than to attempt to earn more through a distant, risky venture.
תַּמְרֵי בַּחֲלוּזָךְ — לְבֵית סוּדָנָא רְהוֹט. וְעַד כַּמָּה? אָמַר רָבָא: עַד תְּלָת סְאָה. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: אִי לָא דִּרְמַאי שִׁכְרָא לָא אִיעַתַּרִי. אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי, אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: אִי לָא דִּרְמַאי שִׁכְרָא לָא אִיעַתַּרִי: מַאי ״סוּדָנָא״? אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: סוֹד נָאֶה, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים.
Rav continued: If there are dates in your storeroom, run to the brewery to sell them. If you wait, there is a good chance the dates will go bad. The Gemara asks: And how many dates should one keep for himself? Rava said: Up to three se’a. Rav Pappa said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. Some say that it was Rav Ḥisda who said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the word sudana, the Aramaic term for a brewer? Rav Ḥisda said: A pleasant secret [sod na’e] and acts of loving kindness, as brewing is a good way to make money and also enables one to perform good deeds.
אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: כׇּל אַגַּב — גְּבִיָּא בָּעֵי. כֹּל אַשְׁרַאי — סָפֵק אָתֵי סָפֵק לָא אָתֵי. וּדְאָתֵי — מָעוֹת רָעוֹת נִינְהוּ.
The Gemara continues to offer advice about mundane matters. Rav Pappa said: Anything you acquire with a document by means of which ownership is transferred, i.e., a bill of acquisition or obligation, requires collection, despite the fact that you are the legal owner. Any sale on credit is uncertain whether or not it will come to fruition. And even if it does come to fruition, the money is bad. These funds are difficult to collect, and they are generally not paid on time.
שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מִשּׁוּם אַנְשֵׁי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם: כְּשֶׁאַתָּה יוֹצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה — אַל תֵּצֵא בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, אֶלָּא תֵּצֵא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה. וַעֲשֵׂה שַׁבַּתְּךָ חוֹל, וְאַל תִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. וֶהֱוֵי מִשְׁתַּדֵּל עִם מִי שֶׁהַשָּׁעָה מְשַׂחֶקֶת לוֹ.
Rabbi Yoḥanan said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: When you go to war do not go out first, but go out last. The reason is so that if your side is defeated and you need to flee for your life, you will enter the refuge of the city first. And it is better to make your Shabbat like an ordinary weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. And exert yourself to join together with one upon whom the hour smiles.
שְׁלֹשָׁה דְּבָרִים אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי מִשּׁוּם אַנְשֵׁי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם: אַל תַּרְבֶּה בִּגְנוּת, מִשּׁוּם מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָיָה. בִּתְּךָ בָּגְרָה — שַׁחְרֵר עַבְדְּךָ וְתֵן לָהּ. וֶהֱוֵי זָהִיר בְּאִשְׁתְּךָ מֵחֲתָנָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן. מַאי טַעְמָא? רַב חִסְדָּא אָמַר: מִשּׁוּם עֶרְוָה, רַב כָּהֲנָא אָמַר: מִשּׁוּם מָמוֹן. הָא וְהָא אִיתַנְהוּ.
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: Do not indulge in a shameful act in public, because of the incident that occurred involving David and Bathsheba (see II Samuel 11–12). If your daughter has grown up, it is better to free your Canaanite slave and give him to her than to leave her to find a husband on her own. And be careful with your wife with regard to her first son-in-law, as she is especially fond of him. What is the reason for this warning? Rav Ḥisda said: Due to the possibility of licentiousness. Rav Kahana said: Due to the fact that she might give him all your money and leave you impoverished. The Gemara comments: Since either of these could happen, it is best to be prudent.
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: שְׁלֹשָׁה מִנּוֹחֲלֵי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. אֵלּוּ הֵן: הַדָּר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהַמְגַדֵּל בָּנָיו לְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה, וְהַמַּבְדִּיל עַל הַיַּיִן בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת. מַאי הִיא? דִּמְשַׁיַּיר מִקִּידּוּשָׁא לְאַבְדָּלְתָּא.
Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Three people are among those who inherit the World-to-Come: One who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who raises his sons to engage in Torah study; and one who recites havdala over wine at the conclusion of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the special importance of that mitzva, to recite havdala over wine? The Gemara answers: This is referring to an individual with only a small amount of wine, who nevertheless leaves some of his kiddush wine for havdala.
סדר הבדלה יין בשמים נר הבדלה יברך בפה"ג על כוס של יין שלם שלא יהיה פגום ואם אין לו יין איתא בפירקי ר"א א"ר מונא כיצד אדם חייב להבדיל מקרב ידו לאור הנר ואומר בורא מאורי האש וכיון שמרחיק ידו מן האש אומר בא"י אמ"ה המבדיל בין קודש לחול ואם אין לו יין ואין לו שמן לנר פושט ידו לאור האש ומסתכל בצפרנים שהן לבנות מן הגוף ומברך בורא מאורי האש ואם היה בדרך פושט את ידו לאור הכוכבים שהן מן האש ומברך בורא מאורי האש ואם נתקדרו שמים בעבים תולש אבן מן האדמה ואומר המבדיל בין קודש לחול וכתב ר"ע ואנן לא ס"ל הכי אלא אין מבדילין אלא על היין ואפי' על הפת אין מבדילין וכן פירשו התוספות שאין מבדילין על הפת אבל מבדילין על השכר אם הוא חמר מדינה והגאונים כתבו אע"פ שאין מבדילין על הפת אם חל י"ט במ"ש מבדילין עליו כיון שמקדשין עליו הקידוש עיקר ואגב הקידוש מבדילין ג"כ עליו וא"א ז"ל כתב שיותר טוב לעשות ההבדלה והקידוש שניהם על השכר ומי שאין לו יין ומצפה שיהיה לו למחר לא יאכל עד למחר שיבדיל ואם אין לו אלא כוס אחד ואינו מצפה שיהיה לו למחר יותר טוב שיאכל קודם שיבדיל ויברך עליו ברכת המזון ואח"כ יבדיל עליו כסדר ההבדלה ממה שיבדיל ויברך בהמ"ז בלא כוס שבהמ"ז טעונה כוס ר' צדוק אומר כל מי שאינו מבדיל על היין במוצ"ש או שאינו שומע מאחרים שמבדילין אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם אבל המבדיל על היין או שומע מאחרים שמבדילין הקב"ה קוראו קדוש ועושהו סגולה שנאמר והייתם לי סגולה מכל העמים ואומר ואבדיל אתכם מן העמים וא"ר יוחנן ג' מנוחלי העוה"ב הדר בא"י והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והמבדיל על היין במ"ש והוא דשייר מקידושא לאבדלתא הלכך מאן דאית ליה חד כסא ולית ביה שיעור קידושא ואבדלתא שבק ליה לאבדלתא וקידושא מקדש אריפתא דכי תקינו רבנן אבדלתא אחמרא תקינו ונר חנוכה ויין להבדלה נר חנוכה קודם דאפשר לאבדולי בתפלה:
אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, שְׁלֹשָׁה מַכְרִיז עֲלֵיהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּכׇל יוֹם: עַל רַוּוֹק הַדָּר בִּכְרַךְ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹטֵא, וְעַל עָנִי הַמַּחֲזִיר אֲבֵידָה לִבְעָלֶיהָ, וְעַל עָשִׁיר הַמְעַשֵּׂר פֵּירוֹתָיו בְּצִינְעָה. רַב סָפְרָא רַוּוֹק הַדָּר בִּכְרַךְ הֲוָה,
Rabbi Yoḥanan further said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, proclaims about the goodness of three kinds of people every day, as exceptional and noteworthy individuals: About a bachelor who lives in a city and does not sin with women; about a poor person who returns a lost object to its owners despite his poverty; and about a wealthy person who tithes his produce in private, without publicizing his behavior. The Gemara reports: Rav Safra was a bachelor living in a city.
תָּנֵי תַּנָּא קַמֵּיהּ דְּרָבָא וְרַב סָפְרָא, צָהֲבוּ פָּנָיו דְּרַב סָפְרָא. אָמַר לוֹ רָבָא: לָאו כְּגוֹן מָר, אֶלָּא כְּגוֹן רַב חֲנִינָא וְרַב אוֹשַׁעְיָא דַּהֲווֹ אוּשְׁכָּפֵי בְּאַרְעָא דְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וַהֲווֹ יָתְבִי בְּשׁוּקָא דְזוֹנוֹת, וְעָבְדִי לְהוּ מְסָאנֵי לְזוֹנוֹת, וְעָיְילִי לְהוּ. אִינְהוּ מִסְתַּכְּלִי בְּהוּ, וְאִינְהוּ לָא מַדְלָן עֵינַיְיהוּ לְאִיסְתַּכּוֹלֵי בְּהוּ. וּמוֹמָתַיְיהוּ הָכִי: בְּחַיֵּיהֶן רַבָּנַן קַדִּישֵׁי דִּבְאַרְעָא דְיִשְׂרָאֵל.
When the tanna taught this baraita before Rava and Rav Safra, Rav Safra’s face lit up with joy, as he was listed among those praised by God. Rava said to him: This does not refer to someone like the Master. Rather, the statement applies to people like Rav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya, who were cobblers in Eretz Yisrael, and they would sit in the marketplace of prostitutes and fashion shoes for prostitutes. And the prostitutes would enter their shops and look at them. However, due to their piety, these Sages did not raise their eyes to look at the women. And those prostitutes were so impressed with this behavior that when they swore, they would say as follows: By the lives of the holy Sages of Eretz Yisrael. It is this type of bachelor who is praised by Heaven.
שְׁלֹשָׁה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹהֲבָן: מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כּוֹעֵס, וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּכֵּר, וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַעֲמִיד עַל מִדּוֹתָיו. שְׁלֹשָׁה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׂוֹנְאָן: הַמְדַבֵּר אֶחָד בַּפֶּה וְאֶחָד בַּלֵּב, וְהַיּוֹדֵעַ עֵדוּת בַּחֲבֵירוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מֵעִיד לוֹ, וְהָרוֹאֶה דְּבַר עֶרְוָה בַּחֲבֵירוֹ וּמֵעִיד בּוֹ יְחִידִי.
The Gemara cites a similar statement. The Holy One, Blessed be He, loves three people: One who does not get angry; one who does not get drunk; and one who is forgiving. The Holy One, Blessed be He, hates three people: One who says one statement with his mouth and means another in his heart, i.e., a hypocrite; one who knows testimony about another person and does not testify on his behalf; and one who observes a licentious matter performed by another person and testifies against him alone. His testimony is meaningless, as he is the only witness; consequently, he merely gives the individual a bad reputation.
כִּי הָא דְּטוֹבִיָּה חָטָא, וַאֲתָא זִיגּוּד לְחוּדֵיהּ וְאַסְהֵיד בֵּיהּ קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב פָּפָּא. נַגְּדֵיהּ לְזִיגּוּד. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: טוֹבִיָּה חֲטָא וְזִיגּוּד מִינַּגַּד?! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אִין, דִּכְתִיב: ״לֹא יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ״, וְאַתְּ לְחוֹדָךְ אַסְהֵדְתְּ בֵּיהּ, שֵׁם רַע בְּעָלְמָא קָא מַפְּקַתְּ בֵּיהּ.
The Gemara comments: This is like that incident where Tuveya sinned with immorality, and Zigud came alone to testify about him before Rav Pappa. Rav Pappa instructed that Zigud be lashed. Zigud said to him: Tuveya sinned and Zigud is lashed, an objection that became a popular saying. He said to him: Yes, as it is written: “One witness shall not rise up against a man” (Deuteronomy 19:15), and you testified against him alone. You have merely given him a bad reputation.