Tea and Talmud Pesachim ch 10
1א

Joseph ibn Habiba (Hebrew: יוסף חביבא‎), also known as Joseph Havivah and Nimmukei Yosef, after the title of his book) was a Spanish Talmudist who flourished in the 14th and 15th centuries. He lived in Barcelona.[1]

Nimmukei Yosef[edit]

Like his predecessor, R. Nissim ben Reuben (RaN), Ibn Ḥabib wrote a commentary on the halachot of Isaac Alfasi, entitled Nimmuḳei Yosef, published with the text and the commentary of R. Nissim (Constantinople, 1509).

2ב
אשה אינה צריכה הסיבה ואם אשה חשובה היא צריכה הסיבה בן אצל אביו צריך הסיבה תלמיד אצל רבו מאי ת"ש דאמר אביי כי הוינן כי מר הוה זגינן אבירכי דהדדי כי אתאן לכי רב יוסף אמר לן לא צריכיתו דמורא רבך כמורא שמים איבעיא להו שמש מאי ואסיקנא דצריך הסיבה
3ג

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Alfasi

4ד

Sefer haHalachot[edit]

Sefer ha-Halachot (ספר ההלכות), also known as Hilchot haRif or Hilchot Rav Alfas (Hebrew: הלכות רב אלפס), was Alfasi's main work, written in Fez.[8]It extracts all the pertinent legal decisions from the three Talmudic orders Moed, Nashim and Nezikin as well as the tractates of Berachot and Chulin - 24 tractates in all. Alfasi transcribed the Talmud's halakhic conclusions verbatim, without the surrounding deliberations; he also excludes all Aggadic (non-legal, homiletic) matter as well as discussion of the halakha practicable only in Land of Israel.

Generally the work follows the ordering of the Talmud, but sometimes Talmudic excerpts are moved from place to place, and very rarely non-Talmudic texts are incorporated into the work.[9]

5ה
אשה אינה צריכה הסיבה. לפי שמשמשת לבעלה:
6ו

Nissim ben Reuven (1320 – 9th of Shevat, 1376, Hebrew: נִסִּים בֶּן רְאוּבֵן‎) of Girona, Catalonia was an influential talmudist and authority on Jewish law. He was one of the last of the great Spanish medieval Talmudic scholars. He is also known by his Hebrew acronym, the RaN (ר"ן‎), as well as by the name RaNbaR (רנב"ר‎), the Hebrew acronym of his full name, including his father's name, Reuven (ראובן‎),[1] as also by Nissim Gerondi.

7ז
וְאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: נָשִׁים חַיָּיבוֹת בְּאַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ,
And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Women are obligated in these four cups of wine at the Passover seder.
8ח
ארבע כוסות - שלשה כנגד ג' כוסות שנאמרו בפסוק זה וכוס פרעה בידי וגומר ורביעי ברכת המזון:
9ט
מי שהיה עבד ואשה. משמע כאן דאשה פטורה מהלל דסוכות וכן דעצרת וטעמא משום דמצוה שהזמן גרמא היא אע"ג דבהלל דלילי פסחים משמע בפרק ערבי פסחים (פסחים דף קח.) דמחייבי בד' כוסות ומסתמא לא תיקנו ד' כוסות אלא כדי לומר עליהם הלל ואגדה שאני הלל דפסח דעל הנס בא ואף הן היו באותו הנס אבל כאן לא על הנס אמור:
It seems from here that women are exempt from reciting Hallel on Sukkos and Shavuos because it is a time-bound positive mitzvah. Although the Gemara implies that women are obligated in the four cups of wine on the first nights of Pesach, and the rabbis ostensibly only instituted the four cups to enhance the recitation of Hallel and Maggid, Hallel of Pesach is different because it commemorates the miracle and [women] also were part of the miracle.
10י
שאף הן היו באותו הנס - כדאמרינן (סוטה דף יא:) בשכר נשים צדקניות שבאותו הדור נגאלו וכן גבי מקרא מגילה נמי אמרינן הכי דמשום דע"י אסתר נגאלו וכן גבי נר חנוכה במסכת שבת (ד' כג.):
11יא
היו באותו הנס - פי' רשב"ם שעל ידם נגאלו וכן במגילה ע"י אסתר ובחנוכה ע"י יהודית וקשה דאף משמע שאינן עיקר ועוד דבירושלמי גריס שאף הן היו באותו ספק משמע באותה סכנה דלהשמיד להרוג ולאבד והא דאמרינן דפטורות מסוכה אע"ג דאף הן היו באותו הנס כי בסוכות הושבתי התם בעשה דאורייתא אבל בארבעה כוסות דרבנן תיקנו גם לנשים כיון שהיו באותו הנס:
They were in that same miracle: Rashba"m explained that they [the Jews] were redeemed through them [the women]. And similarly, in the Megilla, through Esther, and in Chanuka, through Judith. And it is difficult, since "even" implies that they aren't the main thing. And also, the version in the Jerusalem Talmud is "even they were in that same uncertainty," implying in that danger of "to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish" (Esther 3:13). And this that we say that they [women] are exempt from [the commandment of] sukka, even though that even they were in that same miracle, is [based on] "that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths" (Leviticus 23:43), there, is regarding a positive Torah commandment. However, regarding the four cups, which is rabbinic, they established it also for women, since they were in that same miracle.
12יב
שאף הן היו באותו הנס - דאמר במס' סוטה (ד' יא:) בשכר נשים צדקניות שהיו באותו הדור נגאלו וכן גבי מקרא מגילה אמר הכי משום דעל ידי אסתר הוה וכן גבי חנוכה במס' שבת (ד' כג.) לשון מורינו הלוי:
13יג
שתאן חי - שלא מזגו במים:
14יד
מֵיתִיבִי: אַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּהֶן כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, אֶחָד חַי וְאֶחָד מָזוּג, אֶחָד חָדָשׁ וְאֶחָד יָשָׁן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֵה יַיִן. קָתָנֵי מִיהַת כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, וְאַתְּ אָמְרַתְּ כּוֹס יָפֶה!
The Gemara raises an objection to the above rulings from a baraita: These four cups must contain one quarter-log, whether the wine is undiluted or diluted, whether it is new or aged. Rabbi Yehuda says: It must have the taste and appearance of wine. In any event, this baraita is teaching that each cup must contain at least the amount of one quarter-log, and yet you said that each must contain enough for diluting a significant cup.
15טו
אָמְרִי: אִידֵּי וְאִידֵּי חַד שִׁיעוּרָא הוּא, מַאי ״כְּדֵי מְזִיגַת כּוֹס יָפֶה״ דְּקָאָמַר — לְכׇל חַד וְחַד, דְּהָוֵי לְהוּ כּוּלְּהוּ רְבִיעִית.
They say in response that this and that are one and the same measure. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the expression: Enough for diluting a significant cup, which Shmuel said? He meant that there must be enough undiluted wine for each and every one of the cups, i.e., one quarter-log of diluted wine. This amounts to one quarter-log of undiluted wine for all of them combined. A significant cup contains one quarter-log. This quarter-log is comprised of one quarter undiluted wine and three quarters water. Therefore, each cup must contain at least one quarter of one quarter-log of undiluted wine, so that one consumes a full quarter-log of liquid from each cup.
16טז
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֶה. אָמַר רָבָא: מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״אַל תֵּרֶא יַיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם״.
The baraita stated that Rabbi Yehuda says the cup from which one drinks must have the taste and appearance of wine. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31). This verse proves that the appearance of wine and not only its taste is important.
17יז
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַכֹּל חַיָּיבִין בְּאַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד תִּינוֹקוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: וְכִי מָה תּוֹעֶלֶת יֵשׁ לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּיַיִן? אֶלָּא מְחַלְּקִין לָהֶן
The Sages taught in a baraita: All are obligated in these four cups, including men, women, and children. Rabbi Yehuda said: What benefit do children receive from wine? They do not enjoy it. Rather, one distributes to them
18יח
קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁהָיָה מְחַלֵּק קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: חוֹטְפִין מַצּוֹת בְּלֵילֵי פְּסָחִים בִּשְׁבִיל תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ.
roasted grains and nuts on Passover eve, so that they will not sleep and also so they will ask the four questions at night. They said about Rabbi Akiva that he would distribute roasted grains and nuts to children on Passover eve, so that they would not sleep and so they would ask. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: One grabs the matzot on the nights of Passover. One should eat them very quickly on account of the children, so that, due to the hasty consumption of the meal, they will not sleep and they will inquire into the meaning of this unusual practice.
19יט
קליות - קלי מחטים ישנים:
20כ
וְצָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שִׁנּוּי בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ הַבָּנִים וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת עַד שֶׁיָּשִׁיב לָהֶם וְיֹאמַר לָהֶם כָּךְ וְכָךְ אֵרַע וְכָךְ וְכָךְ הָיָה. וְכֵיצַד מְשַׁנֶּה. מְחַלֵּק לָהֶם קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִים וְעוֹקְרִים הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִלִּפְנֵיהֶם קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּ וְחוֹטְפִין מַצָּה זֶה מִיַּד זֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ. אֵין לוֹ בֵּן אִשְׁתּוֹ שׁוֹאַלְתּוֹ. אֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה שׁוֹאֲלִין זֶה אֶת זֶה מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ כֻּלָּן חֲכָמִים. הָיָה לְבַדּוֹ שׁוֹאֵל לְעַצְמוֹ מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה:
On the first night of Pesaḥ, one should introduce some change at the table, so that the children who will notice it may ask, saying: "Why is this night different from all other nights?" And he in turn will reply: "This is what happened." In what manner, for example, should he introduce a change? He may distribute parched grain or nuts to the children; remove the table from its usual place; snatch the unleavened bread from hand to hand, and so on. If he has no son, his wife should ask the questions; if he has no wife, they should ask one another: "Why is this night different?"—even if they are all scholars. If one is alone, he should ask himself: "Why is this night different?"
21כא
מֵיתִיבִי: אַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּהֶן כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, אֶחָד חַי וְאֶחָד מָזוּג, אֶחָד חָדָשׁ וְאֶחָד יָשָׁן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֵה יַיִן. קָתָנֵי מִיהַת כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית, וְאַתְּ אָמְרַתְּ כּוֹס יָפֶה!
The Gemara raises an objection to the above rulings from a baraita: These four cups must contain one quarter-log, whether the wine is undiluted or diluted, whether it is new or aged. Rabbi Yehuda says: It must have the taste and appearance of wine. In any event, this baraita is teaching that each cup must contain at least the amount of one quarter-log, and yet you said that each must contain enough for diluting a significant cup.
22כב
אָמְרִי: אִידֵּי וְאִידֵּי חַד שִׁיעוּרָא הוּא, מַאי ״כְּדֵי מְזִיגַת כּוֹס יָפֶה״ דְּקָאָמַר — לְכׇל חַד וְחַד, דְּהָוֵי לְהוּ כּוּלְּהוּ רְבִיעִית.
They say in response that this and that are one and the same measure. The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the expression: Enough for diluting a significant cup, which Shmuel said? He meant that there must be enough undiluted wine for each and every one of the cups, i.e., one quarter-log of diluted wine. This amounts to one quarter-log of undiluted wine for all of them combined. A significant cup contains one quarter-log. This quarter-log is comprised of one quarter undiluted wine and three quarters water. Therefore, each cup must contain at least one quarter of one quarter-log of undiluted wine, so that one consumes a full quarter-log of liquid from each cup.
23כג
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ טַעַם וּמַרְאֶה. אָמַר רָבָא: מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״אַל תֵּרֶא יַיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם״.
The baraita stated that Rabbi Yehuda says the cup from which one drinks must have the taste and appearance of wine. Rava said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “Look not upon wine when it is red” (Proverbs 23:31). This verse proves that the appearance of wine and not only its taste is important.
24כד
אַל־תֵּ֥רֶא יַיִן֮ כִּ֤י יִתְאַ֫דָּ֥ם כִּֽי־יִתֵּ֣ן (בכיס) [בַּכּ֣וֹס] עֵינ֑וֹ יִ֝תְהַלֵּ֗ךְ בְּמֵֽישָׁרִֽים׃
Do not ogle that red wine As it lends its color to the cup, As it flows on smoothly;
25כה
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הַכֹּל חַיָּיבִין בְּאַרְבָּעָה כּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד תִּינוֹקוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: וְכִי מָה תּוֹעֶלֶת יֵשׁ לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּיַיִן? אֶלָּא מְחַלְּקִין לָהֶן
The Sages taught in a baraita: All are obligated in these four cups, including men, women, and children. Rabbi Yehuda said: What benefit do children receive from wine? They do not enjoy it. Rather, one distributes to them
26כו
קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שֶׁהָיָה מְחַלֵּק קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין לְתִינוֹקוֹת בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ, וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ. תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: חוֹטְפִין מַצּוֹת בְּלֵילֵי פְּסָחִים בִּשְׁבִיל תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ.
roasted grains and nuts on Passover eve, so that they will not sleep and also so they will ask the four questions at night. They said about Rabbi Akiva that he would distribute roasted grains and nuts to children on Passover eve, so that they would not sleep and so they would ask. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: One grabs the matzot on the nights of Passover. One should eat them very quickly on account of the children, so that, due to the hasty consumption of the meal, they will not sleep and they will inquire into the meaning of this unusual practice.
27כז
תַּנְיָא, אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: מִיָּמָיו לֹא אָמַר הִגִּיעַ עֵת לַעֲמוֹד בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ, חוּץ מֵעַרְבֵי פְסָחִים וְעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח — בִּשְׁבִיל תִּינוֹקוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁנוּ. וְעֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים — כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּאֲכִילוּ אֶת בְּנֵיהֶם.
It was taught in a baraita: They said about Rabbi Akiva that in all his days he never said to his students that the time had come to arise from their learning in the study hall. Instead, he would continue to teach as long as they were willing to listen. This was true except for the eves of Passover and the eve of Yom Kippur, when he would stop teaching. The Gemara explains the reasons for these exceptions: On the eve of Passover, he would stop on account of the children, so that they would go to sleep during the day, so that they would not be tired and sleep at night. And on the eve of Yom Kippur, he would stop so that his students would remember to feed their children.
28כח
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: חַיָּיב אָדָם לְשַׂמֵּחַ בָּנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ בָּרֶגֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ״. בַּמֶּה מְשַׂמְּחָם — בְּיַיִן.
The Sages taught: A man is obligated to gladden his children and the members of his household on a Festival, as it is stated: “And you shall rejoice on your Festival, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow that are within your gates” (Deuteronomy 16:14). With what should one make them rejoice? With wine.
29כט
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: אֲנָשִׁים בָּרָאוּי לָהֶם, וְנָשִׁים בָּרָאוּי לָהֶן. אֲנָשִׁים בָּרָאוּי לָהֶם — בְּיַיִן. וְנָשִׁים בְּמַאי? תָּנֵי רַב יוֹסֵף: בְּבָבֶל — בְּבִגְדֵי צִבְעוֹנִין, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל — בְּבִגְדֵי פִּשְׁתָּן מְגוֹהָצִין.
Rabbi Yehuda says: One should enable each member of his household to rejoice with an item that pleases them, men with what is fit for them and women with what is fit for them. Rabbi Yehuda elaborates: Men with what is fit for them, i.e., with wine. And as for the women, with what should one cause them to rejoice? Rav Yosef teaches: One should delight them with new clothes, in Babylonia with colored clothes and in Eretz Yisrael with the pressed linen clothes that are manufactured there.
30ל
תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר: בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּים אֵין שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא בְּבָשָׂר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה׳ אֱלֹהֶיךָ״, וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁאֵין בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּים, אֵין שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא בְּיַיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב אֱנוֹשׁ״.
It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: When the Temple is standing, rejoicing is only through the eating of sacrificial meat, as it is stated: “And you shall sacrifice peace-offerings and you shall eat there and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 27:7). And now that the Temple is not standing and one cannot eat sacrificial meat, he can fulfill the mitzva of rejoicing on a Festival only by drinking wine, as it is stated: “And wine that gladdens the heart of man” (Psalms 104:15).
31לא
וְיַ֤יִן ׀ יְשַׂמַּ֬ח לְֽבַב־אֱנ֗וֹשׁ לְהַצְהִ֣יל פָּנִ֣ים מִשָּׁ֑מֶן וְ֝לֶ֗חֶם לְֽבַב־אֱנ֥וֹשׁ יִסְעָֽד׃
wine that cheers the hearts of men oil that makes the face shine, and bread that sustains man’s life.
32לב
מצמיח חציר וגו' ויין אשר ישמח לבב אנוש גם אותו יוציא מן הארץ ושמן. להצהיל בו פנים:
And wine which cheers man’s heart, that too He brings forth from the earth, and oil to cause the face to radiate.
33לג
ולחם. אשר לב אנוש יסעד:
and bread which sustains man’s heart.
34לד
א"ר יהושע בן לוי מעלין אונקלי בשבת מאי אונקלי אמר רבי אבא איסתומכא דליבא מאי אסותא מייתי כמונא כרוייא וניניא ואגדנא וציתרי ואבדתא
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One may lift the unkali on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the unkali? Rabbi Abba said: It is the edge of the ribs [istumkha] near the heart which sometimes bend inward, in which case they must be lifted and straightened into their proper position. The Gemara asks: What is the cure for one whose unkali has been bent? He should take cumin, caraway, mint [ninya], wormwood, satureja, and hyssop.
35לה
לליבא בחמרא וסימנך (תהלים קד, טו) ויין ישמח לבב אנוש לרוחא במיא וסימנך (בראשית א, ב) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים לכודא בשיכרא וסימנך (בראשית כד, טו) וכדה על שכמה
This remedy is beneficial for several ailments, and the Gemara presents each of these in turn: For curing the heart, the above combination should be taken with wine, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: “And wine that makes glad the heart of man” (Psalms 104:15). For curing an ailment that arises due to the wind [ruḥa], one drinks the mixture in water, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: “And the spirit [ruaḥ] of God hovered over the face of the waters” (Genesis 1:2). For childbirth [lekhuda], a woman in labor drinks the mixture with beer [shikhra], and your mnemonic for this is the verse: “With her pitcher [vekhadah] upon her shoulder [shikhmah]” (Genesis 24:15).
36לו
אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: קִסְתָּא דְמוּרְיְסָא דַּהֲוָה בְּצִיפּוֹרִי הִיא הֲוָת כְּמִין לוּגָּא דְּמַקְדְּשָׁא, וּבָהּ מְשַׁעֲרִין רְבִיעִית שֶׁל פֶּסַח. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: תְּמָנְיָיתָא קַדְמָיְיתָא דַּהֲוָה בִּטְבֶרְיָא הֲוָת יַתִּירָה עַל דָּא רִיבְעָא, וּבָהּ מְשַׁעֲרִין רְבִיעִית שֶׁל פֶּסַח.
Rabbi Yitzḥak said: The vessel used for measuring brine [moraysa] that was in Tzippori was the same volume as the log in the Temple, and with it the Sages would measure the quarter-log of Passover. They would fill this vessel and then divide the liquid it contained into four equal parts. The result was one quarter-log, which is the minimum measure of wine for the four cups on Passover and for certain other halakhot. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The old eighth measure that was in use in Tiberias was greater than this eighth measure by one quarter-log, and with it we measure the quarter-log of Passover. When the old measure is filled and poured into the newer version, the amount left in the original vessel is one quarter-log.
37לז
קסט [שאלע. קרוג] קוסטר דמוריסא בלומא עיין בערך לם (פסחים קט) א"ר יצחק קיסטא דמוריסא דהוות בצפורי היא הוות לוגא דמקדשא (בפסקא דאיכה) הוה אזיל למזבן קיסע דחמר (ב"ר פ' נ) כי ידעתיו א"ל חד קוסט דחמר ביה פולדי (כלים פט"ו) דדרור עגלה וקסטות מלכים פי' הוא לגין ובלשון ישמעאל הוא קסט והוא עשוי מכל דבר בין מחרס בין ממתכת בין מעץ בין מזכוכית:
38לח
לוּגָּא, לֻגָּא (or לַגָּא) ch. same, 1) small bottle.—Pl. לֻגֵּי or לַגֵּי. Yoma 83ᵇ [read:] אהדרוהו בל׳ וצעי (v. Rabb. D. S. a. l. note, a. פְּלוּג) they surrounded him with bottles (of cordials) and dishes; (Ms. O. אהד׳ צעי ולגי they placed around him dishes &c.). —2) Log, v. preced. Targ. Lev. XIV, 10; a. fr. (some ed. לוֹגָא).—Pes. 109ᵃ ל׳ דמקדשא the Log measure of the Temple. Y. Sabb. VIII, 11ᵃ bot.; Y. Shek. III, 47ᶜ top ל׳ דאוריתא the Biblical Log, v. תּוּמַנְתָּא; a. fr.—Pl. לוּגִּין. Targ. Y. Ex. XXX, 24.—Y. Ter. X, 47ᵇ top; a. e.
39לט
מוּרְיִיס , (ch. m. (muries) brine, pickle containing fish-hash and sometimes wine. Ab. Zar. 34ᵇ מ׳ אומן מותר you may use muries prepared by a gentile professional cook (because he puts no wine into it). Ib. ארבא דמורייסא a ship-load of muries. Pes. 109ᵃ קסתא דמ׳ וכ׳ a xestos measure for muries existed in Sepphoris which corresponded to the Log of the Temple; Y. Sabb. VIII, 11ᵃ bot.; Y. Pes. X, 37ᶜ bot. תומנתא עתיקתא דמ׳ וכ׳ an old Tumanta (eighth of a kab) for muries in Sepphoris. Y. Ter. VIII, 45ᵇ bot., v. צִירָא I. Tosef. Ber. IV, 2. Tosef. Dem. I, 24; Ḥull. 6ᵃ; a. fr.
40מ
איסתומכא דליבא - דופני בשר שתחת הלב והוא טרפשא. לישנא אחרינא תנוך שכנגד הלב שקורין ניבל"א ופעמים שנכפף לצד פנים ומעכב את הנשימה וזהו עיקר:
41מא
אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: רְבִיעִית שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֶצְבָּעַיִם עַל אֶצְבָּעַיִם בְּרוּם אֶצְבָּעַיִם וַחֲצִי אֶצְבַּע וְחוֹמֶשׁ אֶצְבַּע. כִּדְתַנְיָא: ״וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ״ — שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא דָּבָר חוֹצֵץ בֵּין בְּשָׂרוֹ לַמַּיִם. ״בַּמַּיִם״ — בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה. ״אֶת כׇּל בְּשָׂרוֹ״ — מַיִם שֶׁכׇּל גּוּפוֹ עוֹלֶה בָּהֶן, וְכַמָּה הֵן?
Rav Ḥisda said: The quarter-log measurement of the Torah is two fingerbreadths by two fingerbreadths in volume, by the height of two fingerbreadths and one half fingerbreadth and one-fifth of a fingerbreadth. This statement is as it was taught in a baraita concerning a ritual bath, about which the verse states: “And he shall bathe all his flesh in the water” (Leviticus 15:16), from which the Sages expounded: This phrase teaches that there should be nothing interposing between one’s flesh and the water. The expression “in the water” indicates that the verse is referring to a specific body of water, i.e., in the water of a ritual bath. The phrase “all his flesh” teaches that one must immerse in water that his whole body can enter at once. And how much is that?
42מב
אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה בְּרוּם שָׁלֹשׁ אַמּוֹת, וְשִׁיעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים שִׁיעוּר מֵי מִקְוֶה אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה.
A cubit, by a cubit, by a height of three cubits. And the Sages measured the measure of the water necessary for a ritual bath at forty se’a.
43מג
אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: אָמַר לִי רָבִין בַּר חִינָּנָא, שׁוּלְחָן שֶׁל מִקְדָּשׁ — שֶׁל פְּרָקִים הֲוָה, דְּאִי סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ הַדּוֹקֵי הֲוָה מִיהַדַּק, אַמְּתָא בְּאַמְּתָא הֵיכִי מַטְבְּלֵיהּ?!
The Gemara cites a discussion related to the topic of measurements. Rav Ashi said: Ravin bar Ḥinnana said to me: The table of the Temple, upon which the shewbread was placed, was comprised of assembled parts. For if it should enter your mind that the table was firmly connected and could not be taken apart, how could the priests immerse a cubit in a cubit? The dimensions of the table were two cubits by one cubit, with a height of one and a half cubits. If the table contracted ritual impurity, it had to be immersed in a ritual bath. If a ritual bath contains an area of one cubit by one cubit, the table can fit inside only if it is dismantled.
44מד
מַאי קוּשְׁיָא? דִּילְמָא בְּיָם שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה הֲוָה מַטְבֵּיל לֵיהּ. דְּתָנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּיא: יָם שֶׁעָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה מַחֲזִיק מֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים מִקְוֵה טׇהֳרָה.
The Gemara responds: What is the difficulty? Perhaps the priest would immerse it in the sea that King Solomon built, which was a very wide ritual bath, as it states: “And he made the molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass” (I Kings 7:23). As Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: The sea that Solomon built contained the volume of water of one hundred and fifty ritual purification baths. It was certainly possible to immerse even large vessels in this sea.
45מה
וְלֹא יִפְחֲתוּ לוֹ מֵאַרְבָּעָה. הֵיכִי מְתַקְּנִי רַבָּנַן מִידֵּי דְּאָתֵי בֵּהּ לִידֵי סַכָּנָה, וְהָתַנְיָא: לֹא יֹאכַל אָדָם תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יִשְׁתֶּה תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יְקַנַּח תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו תְּרֵי?
We learned in the mishna that even with regard to the poorest of Jews, the charity distributors should not give him less than four cups of wine. The Gemara asks: How could the Sages establish a matter through which one will come to expose himself to danger? But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: A person should not eat pairs, i.e., an even number of food items; and he should not drink pairs of cups; and he should not wipe himself with pairs; and he should not attend to his sexual needs in pairs. The concern was that one who uses pairs exposes himself to sorcery or demons. Why would the Sages require one to drink an even number of cups and thereby place himself in a position of danger?
46מו
אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן, אָמַר קְרָא: ״לֵיל שִׁמּוּרִים״ — לַיִל הַמְשׁוּמָּר וּבָא מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין.
Rav Naḥman said that the verse said: “It was a night of watching to the Lord” (Exodus 12:42), which indicates that Passover night is a night that remains guarded from demons and harmful spirits of all kinds. Therefore, there is no cause for concern about this form of danger on this particular night.
47מז
(מב) לֵ֣יל שִׁמֻּרִ֥ים הוּא֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לְהוֹצִיאָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם הֽוּא־הַלַּ֤יְלָה הַזֶּה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שִׁמֻּרִ֛ים לְכׇל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְדֹרֹתָֽם׃ {פ}
(42) That was for the LORD a night of vigil to bring them out of the land of Egypt; that same night is the LORD’s, one of vigil for all the children of Israel throughout the ages.
48מח

King James Translation of Ex 12:42 -

It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.

49מט
שמרים לכל בני ישראל לדרתם. מְשֻׁמָּר וּבָא מִן הַמַּזִּיקִין, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית וְגוֹ'" (פסחים ק"ט):
שמרים לכל בני ישראל לדרתם [IT IS A NIGHT] OF PROTECTION FOR ALL THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL THROUGHOUT THEIR GENERATIONS — this night is protected, and comes as such from ages past, against all destructive forces, as it is said, (v. 33) “And He will not permit the destroyer [to enter your houses]” (Pesachim 109b; Rosh Hashanah 11b).
50נ
רָבָא אָמַר: כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה מִצְטָרֵף לְטוֹבָה, וְאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לְרָעָה. רָבִינָא אָמַר: אַרְבָּעָה כָּסֵי תַּקִּינוּ רַבָּנַן דֶּרֶךְ חֵירוּת, כׇּל חַד וְחַד
Rava said a different answer: The cup of blessing for Grace after Meals on Passover night is used in the performance of an additional mitzva and is not simply an expression of freedom. Therefore, it combines with the other cups for the good, i.e., to fulfill the mitzva to drink four cups, and it does not combine for the bad. With regard to the danger of drinking pairs of cups, it is as though one drinks only three cups. Ravina said: The Sages instituted four separate cups, each of which is consumed in a manner that demonstrates freedom. Therefore, each and every one
51נא
מִצְוָה בְּאַפֵּי נַפְשַׁהּ הוּא.
is a distinct mitzva in its own right. In other words, each cup is treated separately and one is not considered to be drinking in pairs.
52נב
רָבָא אָמַר: כּוֹס שֶׁל בְּרָכָה מִצְטָרֵף לְטוֹבָה, וְאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לְרָעָה. רָבִינָא אָמַר: אַרְבָּעָה כָּסֵי תַּקִּינוּ רַבָּנַן דֶּרֶךְ חֵירוּת, כׇּל חַד וְחַד
Rava said a different answer: The cup of blessing for Grace after Meals on Passover night is used in the performance of an additional mitzva and is not simply an expression of freedom. Therefore, it combines with the other cups for the good, i.e., to fulfill the mitzva to drink four cups, and it does not combine for the bad. With regard to the danger of drinking pairs of cups, it is as though one drinks only three cups. Ravina said: The Sages instituted four separate cups, each of which is consumed in a manner that demonstrates freedom. Therefore, each and every one
53נג
״לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו תְּרֵי״, אַמַּאי? נִמְלָךְ הוּא! אָמַר אַבָּיֵי, הָכִי קָאָמַר: לֹא יֹאכַל תְּרֵי וְיִשְׁתֶּה תְּרֵי, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו אֲפִילּוּ פַּעַם אַחַת — דִּילְמָא חָלֵישׁ וּמִיתְּרַע.
The baraita taught that one should not attend to his sexual needs in pairs. The Gemara asks: Why should one be concerned for this; he has changed his mind? One does not plan in advance to engage in marital relations twice, and therefore the two acts should not combine to form a dangerous pair. Abaye said: This is what the tanna is saying, i.e., the baraita should be understood in the following manner: One should not eat in pairs nor drink in pairs, and if he does so he should not attend to his sexual needs right afterward even once, lest he is weakened by the act and will be harmed for having eaten or drunk in pairs.
54נד

so they're saying that if you eat a pair of candy bars or a pair of cups of wine, and then have sex, then you're extra vulnerable to the demon punishment for eating/drinking because the sex has weakened you!

55נה
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: שׁוֹתֶה כִּפְלַיִם — דָּמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ. אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: אֵימָתַי — בִּזְמַן שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה פְּנֵי הַשּׁוּק, אֲבָל רָאָה פְּנֵי הַשּׁוּק — הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ. אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: חֲזֵינָא לֵיהּ לְרַב חֲנַנְיָא בַּר בִּיבִי, דְּאַכֹּל כָּסָא הֲוָה נָפֵיק וְחָזֵי אַפֵּי שׁוּקָא.
The Sages taught in another baraita: If one drinks in pairs his blood is upon his head, i.e., he bears responsibility for his own demise. Rav Yehuda said: When is that the case? When one did not leave the house and view the marketplace between cups. However, if he saw the marketplace after the first cup, he has permission to drink another cup without concern. Likewise, Rav Ashi said: I saw Rav Ḥananya bar Beivai follow this policy: Upon drinking each cup, he would leave the house and view the marketplace.
56נו

Jacob Neusner translation of ראי פני השוק:

Said R. Judah, “Under what circumstances? If he hasn’t gone into fresh air [between drinks], but if he went into fresh air between drinks, it’s perfectly all right to do so.”

D. Said R. Ashi, “I saw R. Hanania bar Bibi would go out for fresh air at each cup.”

TALMUD ENGLISH (NEUSNER) The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary (Talmud-N) by Jacob Neusner Copyright © 2005 Hendrickson Publishers Used by permission. Accordance edition hypertexted and formatted by OakTree Software, Inc. Version 1.5

57נז
וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא לָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ, אֲבָל בְּבֵיתוֹ — לָא. אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא: וּלְיָשֵׁן — כְּלָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ דָּמֵי. אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: וְלָצֵאת לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא — כְּלָצֵאת לַדֶּרֶךְ דָּמֵי. וּבְבֵיתוֹ לָא? וְהָא רָבָא מָנֵי כְּשׁוּרֵי.
And we said that there is concern for the safety of one who drinks in pairs only when he intends to set out on the road after drinking, but if he intends to remain in his home there is no need for concern. Rabbi Zeira said: And one who plans to sleep is comparable to one who is setting out on the road. He should be concerned that he might be harmed. Rav Pappa said: And going to the bathroom is comparable to setting out on the road. The Gemara asks: And if one intends to remain in his home, is there no cause for concern? But Rava would count the beams of the house to keep track of the number of cups he had drunk so as to ensure that he would not consume an even number.
58נח

Koren Steinsaltz:

Apparently, Rabbeinu Hananel had a textual variant, which he understood to mean that if one sleeps or

uses the lavatory between cups, they do not combine to form a dangerous pair.

59 נט
60ס
ולא אמרן - דמרעי ליה זוגות אלא לצאת לדרך אחר הזוגות אבל לעמוד בביתו לית לן בה:
61סא
מני כשורי - כששותה כוס זה מסתכל בקורה זו וכשהוא שותה שני מסתכל בשאצלה ולפי חשבון הקורות מזדהר בזוגות:
62סב
ולא אמרן - דמרעי ליה זוגות אלא לצאת לדרך אבל לעמוד בביתו לית לן בה:
63סג
מני כשורי - כששותה כוס זה מסתכל בקורה זו וכששותה שני מסתכל בשאצלה ולפי חשבון הקורות יזהר בזוגות ובכל פעם ופעם עושה כן אע''פ שאינו יוצא לדרך:
64סד
וְאַבָּיֵי, כִּי שָׁתֵי חַד כָּסָא, מְנַקֵּיט לֵיהּ אִימֵּיהּ תְּרֵי כָסֵי בִּתְרֵי יְדֵיהּ. וְרַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק, כִּי הֲוָה שָׁתֵי תְּרֵי כָסֵי, מְנַקֵּיט לֵיהּ שַׁמָּעֵיהּ חַד כָּסָא, חַד כָּסָא — מְנַקֵּיט לֵיהּ תְּרֵי כָסֵי בִּתְרֵי יְדֵיהּ! אָדָם חָשׁוּב שָׁאנֵי.
And likewise Abaye, when he would drink one cup, his mother would immediately place two cups in his two hands so that he would not inadvertently drink only one more cup and thereby expose himself to the danger of drinking in pairs. And similarly, when Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak would drink two cups, his attendant would immediately place one more cup in his hand, and if he would drink one cup, the attendant would place two cups in his two hands. These reports indicate that one should be concerned for his safety after drinking an even number of cups, even when he remains at home. The Gemara answers: An important person is different. The demons focus their attention on him, and he must therefore be more careful than the average person.
65סה
כי הוה שתי חד כסא מנקטא תרי כסי - דהוו להו תלתא:
66סו
אדם חשוב שאני - דמסרי שדים נפשייהו לאזוקי:
67סז
אָמַר עוּלָּא: עֲשָׂרָה כּוֹסוֹת אֵין בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת. עוּלָּא לְטַעְמֵיהּ, דְּאָמַר עוּלָּא, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ בְּמַתְנִיתָא תָּנָא: עֲשָׂרָה כּוֹסוֹת תִּיקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים בְּבֵית הָאֵבֶל, וְאִי סָלְקָא דַעְתָּךְ עֲשָׂרָה כּוֹסוֹת יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת, הֵיכִי קָיְימִי רַבָּנַן וְתַקִּנוּ מִילְּתָא דְּאָתֵי לִידֵי סַכָּנָה?! אֲבָל תְּמָנְיָא יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Ulla said: Ten cups contain no element of the danger associated with pairs. Ulla rules here in accordance with his reasoning stated elsewhere, as Ulla said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: The Sages instituted that one must drink ten cups of wine in the house of a mourner during the meal of comfort. And if it could enter your mind that ten cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs, how could the Sages arise and institute something that might bring a person to a state of danger? However, eight cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.
68סח
עשרה כוסות דבית האבל - מפרש טעמא בכתובות בפ"ק (דף ח:):
69סט
עשרה אין בהם משום זוגות - ולית ליה דרבא דאמר לעיל כוס של ברכה אין מצטרף לרעה דבאותן עשרה כוסות איכא ברכת המזון:
70ע
עשרה כוסות אין בהן משום זוגות - וכל שכן טפי:
71עא

אמר עולא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה כוסות תקנו חכמים בבית האבל שלשה קודם אכילה כדי לפתוח את בני מעיו שלשה בתוך אכילה כדי לשרות אכילה שבמעיו וארבעה לאחר אכילה אחד כנגד הזן ואחד כנגד ברכת הארץ ואחד כנגד בונה ירושלים ואחד כנגד הטוב והמטיב

In connection with comforting mourners, Ulla said, and some say that it was taught in a baraita: The Sages instituted ten cups of wine to be drunk in the house of the mourner: Three cups prior to the meal, in order to open his intestines, i.e., whet his appetite; three during the meal, to soak the food in his intestines in order to facilitate digestion; and four cups after the meal, each corresponding to a blessing in the Grace after Meals. One corresponds to the first blessing: Who feeds all; one corresponds to the second blessing, the blessing of the land; one corresponding to the third blessing: Who builds Jerusalem; and one corresponding to the fourth blessing: Who is good and does good.

72עב
עשרה כוסות תיקנו בבית האבל - בפרק קמא דכתובות מפרש טעמא:
73עג
רַב חִסְדָּא וְרַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: ״שָׁלוֹם״, לְטוֹבָה — מִצְטָרֵף, לְרָעָה — לֹא מִצְטָרֵף. אֲבָל שִׁיתָּא יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna both say that eight is also safe from the dangers of pairs, as the number seven, represented by the word shalom, combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. The final verse of the priestly benediction reads: “The Lord lift His countenance upon you and give you peace [shalom]” (Numbers 6:26). The word shalom, the seventh Hebrew word in this verse, has a purely positive connotation. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore maintain that the seventh cup combines with the previous six only for good purposes. After the seventh cup, i.e., from the eighth cup and on, the cups constitute pairs for the good but not for the bad. However, six cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.
74עד
רַב חִסְדָּא וְרַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: ״שָׁלוֹם״, לְטוֹבָה — מִצְטָרֵף, לְרָעָה — לֹא מִצְטָרֵף. אֲבָל שִׁיתָּא יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna both say that eight is also safe from the dangers of pairs, as the number seven, represented by the word shalom, combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. The final verse of the priestly benediction reads: “The Lord lift His countenance upon you and give you peace [shalom]” (Numbers 6:26). The word shalom, the seventh Hebrew word in this verse, has a purely positive connotation. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore maintain that the seventh cup combines with the previous six only for good purposes. After the seventh cup, i.e., from the eighth cup and on, the cups constitute pairs for the good but not for the bad. However, six cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.
75עה
רַב חִסְדָּא וְרַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: ״שָׁלוֹם״, לְטוֹבָה — מִצְטָרֵף, לְרָעָה — לֹא מִצְטָרֵף. אֲבָל שִׁיתָּא יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם זוּגוֹת.
Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna both say that eight is also safe from the dangers of pairs, as the number seven, represented by the word shalom, combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. The final verse of the priestly benediction reads: “The Lord lift His countenance upon you and give you peace [shalom]” (Numbers 6:26). The word shalom, the seventh Hebrew word in this verse, has a purely positive connotation. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore maintain that the seventh cup combines with the previous six only for good purposes. After the seventh cup, i.e., from the eighth cup and on, the cups constitute pairs for the good but not for the bad. However, six cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.