למה דוקא רבי שמעון
1א
הדף מאת: קובי וייס / בית מדרש אלול
2ב
במה זכה רבי שמעון בר יוחאי ליום הלולא מיוחד כל"ג בעומר לעומת כל יתר התנאים והאמוראים. אפילו רבו רבי עקיבא לא זכה ליום כזה? בדף לוקטו קטעים שונים הקשורים לרבי שמעון שמתוכם ניתן להבין את היחודיות שבשיטתו ובמה הוא בולט על פני חבריו. במיוחד ניתן להבין מדוע דווקא רבי שמעון נבחר לסמל, ומה ההשלכות של סמל שכזה.
3ג
[פעם אחת] ישבו רבי יהודה ורבי יוסי ורבי שמעון, וישב איתם יהודה בן גרים. פתח רבי יהודה ואמר: כמה נאים מעשיהן של אומה זו [רומא]: תיקנו שווקים, תיקנו גשרים, תיקנו מרחצאות.
רבי יוסי שתק.
נענה רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ואמר: כל מה שתיקנו - לא תיקנו אלא לצורך עצמם: תיקנו שווקין - להושיב בהן זונות, מרחצאות - לעדן בהן עצמן, גשרים - ליטול מהן מכס.
הלך יהודה בן גרים וסיפר דבריהם [לאנשים נוספים], ונשמעו למלכות.
אמרו: יהודה שעילה [=ששיבח] – יתעלה; יוסי ששתק - יגלה לציפורי; שמעון שגינה - ייהרג.
for neglecting to separate tithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: Askara comes as punishment for slander. Rava said, and some say that it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said it: What is the verse that alludes to this? “But the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped” (Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. Askara affects the mouth along with other parts of the body. A dilemma was raised before those who were sitting in the study hall: Did Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, say that askara comes as punishment only for slander, or perhaps he said it was also for slander? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a baraita: When our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before them with regard to this plague of askara: Why does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila’i, who was the head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapes the voice that emerges from the mouth, still, the mouth completes the formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said: This disease ends in the mouth because one eats with it non-kosher things. They immediately wondered about this: Does it enter your mind to say that askara is caused by eating non-kosher food? Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? Rather, it comes as a punishment for eating foods that were not ritually prepared, i.e., were not tithed. Rabbi Shimon responded and said: This disease comes as a punishment for the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. They said to him: Women will prove that dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their husbands to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Gentiles will prove that this is not the cause, as they also contract askara even though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because they cause Israel to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Children will prove that this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their fathers to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: School children will prove that this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from askara. The Gemara answers: There, it must be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Guryon, as Rabbi Guryon said, and some say that it was Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya, who said it: At a time when there are righteous people in the generation, the righteous are seized, i.e., they die or suffer, for the sins of the generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children, who are also without sin, are seized for the sins of the generation. Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Ze’iri said, and some say that Rabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the verse that alludes to this? “If you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherds’ tents [mishkenot]” (Song of Songs 1:8). And we say in explanation of this verse: They are the lambs that are taken as collateral [hamemushkanin], which is etymologically similar to the word mishkenot, in place of the shepherds. If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, conclude from it that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said that the illness of askara also results from slander, as the baraita provides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from it. In this baraita Rabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: And why did they call him head of the speakers in every place? The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place when Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts,sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation, the Romans, as they established marketplaces, established bridges, and established bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves; and bridges, to collect taxes from all who pass over them. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statements to his household, and those statements continued to spread until they were heard by the monarchy. They ruled and said: Yehuda, who elevated the Roman regime, shall be elevated and appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. Yosei, who remained silent, shall be exiled from his home in Judea as punishment, and sent to the city of Tzippori in the Galilee. And Shimon, who denounced the government, shall be killed. Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai and his son, Rabbi Elazar, went and hid in the study hall. Every day Rabbi Shimon’s wife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified, Rabbi Shimon said to his son: Women are easily impressionable and, therefore, there is room for concern lest the authorities torture her and she reveal our whereabouts. They went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurred and a carob tree was created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sit covered in sand up to their necks. They would study Torah all day in that manner. At the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijah the Prophet came and stood at the entrance to the cave and said: Who will inform bar Yoḥai that the emperor died and his decree has been abrogated? They emerged from the cave, and saw people who were plowing and sowing. Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai said: These people abandon eternal life of Torah study and engage in temporal life for their own sustenance. The Gemara relates that every place that Rabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar directed their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Did you emerge from the cave in order to destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again went and sat there for twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lasts for twelve months. Surely their sin was atoned in that time. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Emerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal. Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Elazar: My son, you and I suffice for the entire world, as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah. As the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat. They said to him: And let one suffice. He answered them: One is corresponding to: “Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8), and one is corresponding to: “Observe the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon said to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds were put at ease and they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study. Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir, Rabbi Shimon’s son-in-law, heard and went out to greet him. He brought him into the bathhouse and began tending to his flesh. He saw that Rabbi Shimon had cracks in the skin on his body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and caused Rabbi Shimon pain. Rabbi Pineḥas said to Rabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: Woe is me, that I have seen you like this. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me this prominence in Torah, as the Gemara relates: At first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would respond to his question with twelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would respond with twenty-four answers. Rabbi Shimon said: Since a miracle transpired for me, I will go and repair something for the sake of others in gratitude for God’s kindness, as it is written: “And Jacob came whole to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countenance of the city” (Genesis 33:18). Rav said, the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: Whole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah. And what did he do? And he graced the countenance of the city; he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. Rav said: Jacob established a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He established bathhouses for them. In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. He said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity
4ד
רשב"י ובנו במערה
מקור
אזל הוא ובריה טשו בי מדרשא.
כל יומא הוה מייתי להו דביתהו ריפתא וכוזא דמיא וכרכי.
כי תקיף גזירתא, אמר ליה לבריה:
נשים דעתן קלה עליהן,
דילמא מצערי לה ומגליא לן.
אזלו טשו במערתא.
איתרחיש ניסא איברי להו חרובא ועינא דמיא.
והוו משלחי מנייהו,
והוו יתבי עד צוארייהו בחלא,
כולי יומא גרסי,
בעידן צלויי לבשו מיכסו ומצלו,
והדר משלחי מנייהו כי היכי דלא ליבלו.

איתבו תריסר שני במערתא.
אתא אליהו וקם אפיתחא דמערתא,
אמר: מאן לודעיה לבר יוחי דמית קיסר ובטיל גזרתיה?

נפקו.
חזו אינשי דקא כרבי וזרעי,
אמר: מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה!
כל מקום שנותנין עיניהן - מיד נשרף.
יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם:
להחריב עולמי יצאתם? חיזרו למערתכם!

הדור אזול.
איתיבו תריסר ירחי שתא.
אמרי: משפט רשעים בגיהנם - שנים עשר חדש.
יצתה בת קול ואמרה: צאו ממערתכם!

נפקו,
כל היכא דהוה מחי רבי אלעזר –
הוה מסי רבי שמעון.
אמר לו: בני, די לעולם אני ואתה.

בהדי פניא דמעלי שבתא
חזו ההוא סבא דהוה נקיט תרי מדאני אסא,
ורהיט בין השמשות.
אמרו ליה: הני למה לך?
אמר להו: לכבוד שבת.
ותיסגי לך בחד?
חד כנגד זכור, וחד כנגד שמור.
אמר ליה לבריה: חזי כמה חביבין מצות על ישראל!
יתיב דעתייהו.
תרגום
הלך הוא (רשב"י) ובנו, וברחו אל בית המדרש.
כל יום היתה מביאה להם אישתו לחם וכד של מים והיו אוכלים.
כשנתחזקה הגזירה, אמר לבנו:
נשים דעתן קלה עליהן,
שמא יצערו (יענו) אותה ותגלה להם.
הלכו והתחבאו במערה.
נתרחש נס ונברא להם חרוב ומעין.
והיו פושטים בגדיהם,
והיו יושבים עד צואריהם בחול,
כל היום היו לומדים,
ובשעות התפילה התלבשו והתפללו.
ולאחר מכן פושטים בגדיהם כדי שלא יתבלו.

ישבו תריסר שנים במערה.
בא אליהו ונעמד בפתח המערה
אמר: מי יודיע לבר-יוחאי שמת הקיסר ובטלה גזרתו?

יצאו.
ראו אנשים חורשים וזורעים.
אמר: מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה!
כל מקום שנותנין עיניהן - מיד נשרף.
יצאה בת קול ואמרה להם:
להחריב עולמי יצאתם? חיזרו למערתכם!

חזרו והלכו.
ישבו תריסר חודשים.
אמרו: משפט רשעים בגיהנום- 12 חודש.
יצאה בת קול ואמרה: צאו ממערתכם!

יצאו
כל מקום שהיה מכה ר' אלעזר-
היה מרפא ר' שמעון.
אמר לו: בני, די לעולם אני ואתה.

לפני החשיכה בערב שבת
ראו זקן אחד אוחז שתי חבילות הדסים,
ורץ בין השמשות.
אמרו לו: אלה למה לך?
אמר להם: לכבוד שבת.
ולא תספיק לך חבילה אחת?
(אמר להם:) אחת כנגד הציווי "זכור", ואחת כנגד הציווי "שמור". [את יום השבת לקדשו]
אמר לבנו: ראה כמה חביבות מצוות על ישראל!
נתיישבה דעתם.
for neglecting to separate tithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: Askara comes as punishment for slander. Rava said, and some say that it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said it: What is the verse that alludes to this? “But the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped” (Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. Askara affects the mouth along with other parts of the body. A dilemma was raised before those who were sitting in the study hall: Did Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, say that askara comes as punishment only for slander, or perhaps he said it was also for slander? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a baraita: When our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before them with regard to this plague of askara: Why does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila’i, who was the head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapes the voice that emerges from the mouth, still, the mouth completes the formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said: This disease ends in the mouth because one eats with it non-kosher things. They immediately wondered about this: Does it enter your mind to say that askara is caused by eating non-kosher food? Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? Rather, it comes as a punishment for eating foods that were not ritually prepared, i.e., were not tithed. Rabbi Shimon responded and said: This disease comes as a punishment for the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. They said to him: Women will prove that dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their husbands to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Gentiles will prove that this is not the cause, as they also contract askara even though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because they cause Israel to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Children will prove that this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their fathers to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: School children will prove that this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from askara. The Gemara answers: There, it must be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Guryon, as Rabbi Guryon said, and some say that it was Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya, who said it: At a time when there are righteous people in the generation, the righteous are seized, i.e., they die or suffer, for the sins of the generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children, who are also without sin, are seized for the sins of the generation. Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Ze’iri said, and some say that Rabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the verse that alludes to this? “If you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherds’ tents [mishkenot]” (Song of Songs 1:8). And we say in explanation of this verse: They are the lambs that are taken as collateral [hamemushkanin], which is etymologically similar to the word mishkenot, in place of the shepherds. If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, conclude from it that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said that the illness of askara also results from slander, as the baraita provides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from it. In this baraita Rabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: And why did they call him head of the speakers in every place? The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place when Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts,sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation, the Romans, as they established marketplaces, established bridges, and established bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves; and bridges, to collect taxes from all who pass over them. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statements to his household, and those statements continued to spread until they were heard by the monarchy. They ruled and said: Yehuda, who elevated the Roman regime, shall be elevated and appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. Yosei, who remained silent, shall be exiled from his home in Judea as punishment, and sent to the city of Tzippori in the Galilee. And Shimon, who denounced the government, shall be killed. Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai and his son, Rabbi Elazar, went and hid in the study hall. Every day Rabbi Shimon’s wife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified, Rabbi Shimon said to his son: Women are easily impressionable and, therefore, there is room for concern lest the authorities torture her and she reveal our whereabouts. They went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurred and a carob tree was created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sit covered in sand up to their necks. They would study Torah all day in that manner. At the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijah the Prophet came and stood at the entrance to the cave and said: Who will inform bar Yoḥai that the emperor died and his decree has been abrogated? They emerged from the cave, and saw people who were plowing and sowing. Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai said: These people abandon eternal life of Torah study and engage in temporal life for their own sustenance. The Gemara relates that every place that Rabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar directed their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Did you emerge from the cave in order to destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again went and sat there for twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lasts for twelve months. Surely their sin was atoned in that time. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Emerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal. Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Elazar: My son, you and I suffice for the entire world, as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah. As the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat. They said to him: And let one suffice. He answered them: One is corresponding to: “Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8), and one is corresponding to: “Observe the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon said to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds were put at ease and they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study. Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir, Rabbi Shimon’s son-in-law, heard and went out to greet him. He brought him into the bathhouse and began tending to his flesh. He saw that Rabbi Shimon had cracks in the skin on his body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and caused Rabbi Shimon pain. Rabbi Pineḥas said to Rabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: Woe is me, that I have seen you like this. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me this prominence in Torah, as the Gemara relates: At first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would respond to his question with twelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would respond with twenty-four answers. Rabbi Shimon said: Since a miracle transpired for me, I will go and repair something for the sake of others in gratitude for God’s kindness, as it is written: “And Jacob came whole to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countenance of the city” (Genesis 33:18). Rav said, the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: Whole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah. And what did he do? And he graced the countenance of the city; he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. Rav said: Jacob established a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He established bathhouses for them. In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. He said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity
5ה
שמע רבי פינחס חתנו [של רשב"י], ויצא לקראתו.
הכניסו לבית המרחץ, והיה מטפל בבשרו. ראה שהיו בו סדקים בעורו, והיה בוכה, ונשרו דמעות עיניו וציערו אותו.
אמר לו: "אוי לי שראיתיך בכך".
אמר לו: "אשריך שראיתנו בכך, שאלמלא לא ראיתני בכך, לא מצאת בי כך".
בתחילה כאשר היה מקשה ר' שמעון בן יוחאי קושיה, היה מתרץ לו רבי פינחס בן יאיר שנים-עשר תירוצים. לבסוף, כאשר היה מקשה רבי פינחס בן יאיר קושיה, היה מפרק [=פותר] לו רבי שמעון בן יוחאי עשרים וארבעה תירוצים.
אמר [רבי שמעון]: "הואיל והתרחש לי נס, אלך ואתקן דבר", דכתיב: 'ויבא יעקב עיר שלם'
ואמר רב: "שלם בגופו, שלם בממונו, שלם בתורתו". 'ויחן את פני העיר'
אמר רב: מטבע תיקן להם ;
ושמואל אמר: שווקים תיקן להם;
ורבי יוחנן אמר: מרחצאות תיקן להם.
אמר: "היש דבר שצריך תיקון?"
אמרו לו: "יש מקום שיש בו ספק טומאה ויש צער לכוהנים להקיפו".
אמר: "היש אדם היודע שהייתה מוחזקת כאן טהרה?"
אמר לו זקן אחד: "כאן קיצץ בן-זכאי תורמוסי תרומה".
עשה גם הוא כן, כל מקום שהיה קשה - טיהרו, וכל מקום שהיה רפה - ציינו.

מושגים
  • תורמוסי תרומה - ריב"ז קצץ באותו מקום תורמוסים לתרומה וזוהי הוכחה לכך שהמקום נחשב טהור ומותר לכוהנים לעבור בו.
for neglecting to separate tithes. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: Askara comes as punishment for slander. Rava said, and some say that it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said it: What is the verse that alludes to this? “But the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by Him shall glory; for the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped” (Psalms 63:12). The punishment for lying is that the mouth will be stopped. Askara affects the mouth along with other parts of the body. A dilemma was raised before those who were sitting in the study hall: Did Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, say that askara comes as punishment only for slander, or perhaps he said it was also for slander? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from that which was taught in a baraita: When our Sages entered the vineyard in Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Shimon were there, and a question was asked before them with regard to this plague of askara: Why does it begin in the intestines and end in the mouth? Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ila’i, who was the head of the speakers in every place, responded and said: Even though the kidneys advise, and the heart understands, and the tongue shapes the voice that emerges from the mouth, still, the mouth completes the formation of the voice. Therefore, the disease begins in the same place that slander begins and it ends in the mouth. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, responded and said: This disease ends in the mouth because one eats with it non-kosher things. They immediately wondered about this: Does it enter your mind to say that askara is caused by eating non-kosher food? Are those who eat non-kosher food so numerous? Rather, it comes as a punishment for eating foods that were not ritually prepared, i.e., were not tithed. Rabbi Shimon responded and said: This disease comes as a punishment for the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. They said to him: Women will prove that dereliction in the study of Torah is not the cause, as they are not obligated to study Torah and, nevertheless, they contract askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their husbands to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Gentiles will prove that this is not the cause, as they also contract askara even though they are not obligated to study Torah. He answered them: They are also punished because they cause Israel to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: Children will prove that this is not the cause, for they are not at all obligated to study Torah and they also suffer from askara. He answered them: They are punished because they cause their fathers to be idle from the study of Torah. They said to him: School children will prove that this is not the cause, as they study Torah and, nevertheless, they suffer from askara. The Gemara answers: There, it must be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Guryon, as Rabbi Guryon said, and some say that it was Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Shemaya, who said it: At a time when there are righteous people in the generation, the righteous are seized, i.e., they die or suffer, for the sins of the generation. If there are no righteous people in the generation, school children, who are also without sin, are seized for the sins of the generation. Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Ze’iri said, and some say that Rabbi Shimon ben Nezira said: What is the verse that alludes to this? “If you know not, you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherds’ tents [mishkenot]” (Song of Songs 1:8). And we say in explanation of this verse: They are the lambs that are taken as collateral [hamemushkanin], which is etymologically similar to the word mishkenot, in place of the shepherds. If the shepherds and leaders of the generation corrupt the multitudes, young children die because of their sins. With regard to the dilemma, conclude from it that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, said that the illness of askara also results from slander, as the baraita provides an additional cause of the illness. The Gemara comments: Indeed, conclude from it. In this baraita Rabbi Yehuda is described as head of the speakers in every place. The Gemara asks: And why did they call him head of the speakers in every place? The Gemara relates that this resulted due to an incident that took place when Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon were sitting, and Yehuda, son of converts,sat beside them. Rabbi Yehuda opened and said: How pleasant are the actions of this nation, the Romans, as they established marketplaces, established bridges, and established bathhouses. Rabbi Yosei was silent. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai responded and said: Everything that they established, they established only for their own purposes. They established marketplaces, to place prostitutes in them; bathhouses, to pamper themselves; and bridges, to collect taxes from all who pass over them. Yehuda, son of converts, went and related their statements to his household, and those statements continued to spread until they were heard by the monarchy. They ruled and said: Yehuda, who elevated the Roman regime, shall be elevated and appointed as head of the Sages, the head of the speakers in every place. Yosei, who remained silent, shall be exiled from his home in Judea as punishment, and sent to the city of Tzippori in the Galilee. And Shimon, who denounced the government, shall be killed. Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai and his son, Rabbi Elazar, went and hid in the study hall. Every day Rabbi Shimon’s wife would bring them bread and a jug of water and they would eat. When the decree intensified, Rabbi Shimon said to his son: Women are easily impressionable and, therefore, there is room for concern lest the authorities torture her and she reveal our whereabouts. They went and they hid in a cave. A miracle occurred and a carob tree was created for them as well as a spring of water. They would remove their clothes and sit covered in sand up to their necks. They would study Torah all day in that manner. At the time of prayer, they would dress, cover themselves, and pray, and they would again remove their clothes afterward so that they would not become tattered. They sat in the cave for twelve years. Elijah the Prophet came and stood at the entrance to the cave and said: Who will inform bar Yoḥai that the emperor died and his decree has been abrogated? They emerged from the cave, and saw people who were plowing and sowing. Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai said: These people abandon eternal life of Torah study and engage in temporal life for their own sustenance. The Gemara relates that every place that Rabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar directed their eyes was immediately burned. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Did you emerge from the cave in order to destroy My world? Return to your cave. They again went and sat there for twelve months. They said: The judgment of the wicked in Gehenna lasts for twelve months. Surely their sin was atoned in that time. A Divine Voice emerged and said to them: Emerge from your cave. They emerged. Everywhere that Rabbi Elazar would strike, Rabbi Shimon would heal. Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Elazar: My son, you and I suffice for the entire world, as the two of us are engaged in the proper study of Torah. As the sun was setting on Shabbat eve, they saw an elderly man who was holding two bundles of myrtle branches and running at twilight. They said to him: Why do you have these? He said to them: In honor of Shabbat. They said to him: And let one suffice. He answered them: One is corresponding to: “Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8), and one is corresponding to: “Observe the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Deuteronomy 5:12). Rabbi Shimon said to his son: See how beloved the mitzvot are to Israel. Their minds were put at ease and they were no longer as upset that people were not engaged in Torah study. Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir, Rabbi Shimon’s son-in-law, heard and went out to greet him. He brought him into the bathhouse and began tending to his flesh. He saw that Rabbi Shimon had cracks in the skin on his body. He was crying, and the tears fell from his eyes and caused Rabbi Shimon pain. Rabbi Pineḥas said to Rabbi Shimon, his father-in-law: Woe is me, that I have seen you like this. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Happy are you that you have seen me like this, as had you not seen me like this, you would not have found in me this prominence in Torah, as the Gemara relates: At first, when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would respond to his question with twelve answers. Ultimately, when Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir would raise a difficulty, Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai would respond with twenty-four answers. Rabbi Shimon said: Since a miracle transpired for me, I will go and repair something for the sake of others in gratitude for God’s kindness, as it is written: “And Jacob came whole to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram; and he graced the countenance of the city” (Genesis 33:18). Rav said, the meaning of: And Jacob came whole, is: Whole in his body, whole in his money, whole in his Torah. And what did he do? And he graced the countenance of the city; he performed gracious acts to benefit the city. Rav said: Jacob established a currency for them. And Shmuel said: He established marketplaces for them. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: He established bathhouses for them. In any event, clearly one for whom a miracle transpires should perform an act of kindness for his neighbors as a sign of gratitude. He said: Is there something that needs repair? They said to him: There is a place where there is uncertainty with regard to ritual impurity and the priests are troubled by being forced to circumvent it, as it is prohibited for them to become ritually impure from contact with a corpse. There was suspicion, but no certainty, that a corpse was buried there. Therefore, they were unable to definitively determine its status. Rabbi Shimon said: Is there a person who knows that there was a presumption of ritual purity here? Is there anyone who remembers a time when this place was not considered ritually impure, or that at least part of it was considered to be ritually pure? An Elder said to him: Here ben Zakkai planted and cut the teruma of lupines. In this marketplace Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Zakkai, who himself was a priest, once planted lupines that were given to him as teruma. On that basis, the conclusion can be drawn that it was definitely ritually pure. Rabbi Shimon, like Jacob, also did so and took steps to improve the city and examined the ground (Tosafot). Everywhere that the ground was hard, he pronounced it ritually pure as there was certainly no corpse there, and every place that the ground was soft, he marked it indicating that perhaps a corpse was buried there. In that way, he purified the marketplace so that even priests could walk through it. A certain Elder said in ridicule and surprise: Ben Yoḥai purified the cemetery. Rabbi Shimon got angry and said to him: Had you not been with us, and even had you been with us and were not counted with us in rendering this ruling, what you say is fine. You could have said that you were unaware of my intention or that you did not agree or participate in this decision. Now that you were with us and were counted with us in rendering this ruling, you will cause people to say that Sages are unwilling to cooperate with one another. They will say: If competing prostitutes still apply makeup to each other to help one another look beautiful, all the more so that Torah scholars should cooperate with each other. He directed his eyes toward him and the Elder died. Rabbi Shimon went out to the marketplace and he saw Yehuda, son of converts,who was the cause of this entire incident. Rabbi Shimon, said: This one still has a place in the world? He directed his eyes toward him and turned him into a pile of bones. MISHNA: There are three things a person must say in his home on Shabbat eve at nightfall and not before. The mishna elaborates: He should ask the members of his household, have you tithed the crop that required tithing? Have you placed the eiruv for joining the courtyards and joining the Shabbat borders? If you have done so, light the lamp in honor of Shabbat. The Sages stated a principle: If the time arrives on Friday when there is uncertainty whether it is nightfall and uncertainty whether it is not yet nightfall, one may not tithe the crop that has definitely not been tithed, and one may not immerse ritually impure vessels in a ritual bath to render them ritually pure, and one may not light the Shabbat lights. However, one may tithe demai, doubtfully tithed produce, which must be tithed due to mere suspicion. And one may place an eiruv and insulate the hot water to be used on Shabbat. GEMARA: The Gemara attempts to clarify: From where are these matters, that one must ask these questions in his home at nightfall of Shabbat, derived? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: As the verse said: “And you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation, and shall not sin” (Job 5:24). From here it is derived that one should visit his habitation, i.e., ask in his home, so that he will not come to sin. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Although the Sages said that there are three things a person should, indeed he is required to, say in his home on Shabbat eve at nightfall, one must say them calmly so that the members of his household will accept them from him. If he says them harshly, his family members may mislead him and cause him to sin. Rav Ashi said: I did not hear this halakha of Rabba bar Rav Huna, but I fulfilled it based on my own reasoning. The Gemara asks: This mishna itself is difficult, as it contains an internal contradiction. On the one hand, you stated initially that there are three things a person must say in his home before Shabbat at nightfall, and this means: At nightfall, i.e., before nightfall, yes, he should say those things; when there is uncertainty whether it is nightfall and uncertainty whether it is not yet nightfall, no, he should not say them. Even if one were to ask then, it is no longer permitted to correct these matters. And then it taught: When there is uncertainty whether it is nightfall and uncertainty whether it is not yet nightfall, one may place an eiruv. One may correct the situation even then. Why did the mishna restrict asking these questions to an earlier time? Incidentally, prior to answering this question, the Gemara lists all of the other halakhot in tractate Shabbat stated by the Sage who answers the question, with the mnemonic: Self, pruning, bird, cord, silk. Rabbi Abba said that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: This is not difficult and there is no contradiction here. Here, at the beginning of the mishna, where it indicates that the eiruv can only be placed while it is still day, it is referring to the joining of Shabbat boundaries, which is based on a Torah law. Therefore, one must place this eiruv while it is definitely day. And here, where the mishna said that it is permitted even when it is uncertain whether or not it is already nighttime, it is referring to the joining of courtyards, which is more lenient and based merely on a stringency. In connection to this, the Gemara cites the halakha that Rava said in order to emphasize the rabbinic aspect of the halakhot of eiruv: One to whom two people said: Go and place an eiruv, a joining of courtyards (Rabbeinu Ḥananel), for us. For one of them he placed an eiruv while it was still day, and for one he placed an eiruv at twilight, when it is uncertain whether it is day or night. The one for whom he placed an eiruv while it was still day had his eiruv eaten during twilight, and the one for whom he placed an eiruv during twilight had his eiruv eaten after nightfall. The principle is as follows: Whether or not an eiruv takes effect is determined at the moment that Shabbat begins. If one placed the eiruv beforehand, and it remains intact at the moment Shabbat begins, the eiruv is in effect. However, if the eiruv that was placed at the appropriate time was eaten during twilight, it is problematic. Twilight is a period of uncertainty. There is uncertainty whether it is day, and consequently the eiruv was not in place at the moment that Shabbat began, or whether it is night, and it was in place. In the latter case, there is still uncertainty as to whether or not the eiruv was in place prior to Shabbat, so that it could take effect at all. In that case, Rava ruled that both of them acquired the eiruv. The Gemara is surprised by this: Whichever way you look at it, this ruling is difficult. If the twilight period is considered day, let the latter one acquire his eiruv, but let the first one not acquire his because his eiruv was eaten while it was still day. And if the twilight period is night, let the first one acquire his eiruv, but let the latter one not acquire his eiruv because his was not placed before Shabbat. In any event, it is impossible for the eiruv in both of these cases to be valid. The Gemara answers this according to Rava’s position: The status of twilight is uncertain, as it is unknown whether it is day, or night, or both, and uncertainty in the case of a rabbinic ordinance is ruled leniently. Therefore, in both cases the eiruv is acquired. And Rava said: Why did they say that one may not insulate hot water even in something that does not add heat, but only retains the pre-existing heat, from nightfall on Friday? It is a decree lest one come to boil the pot on Shabbat. Abaye said to him: If so, if it is due to concern that one may boil it, then during twilight we should also issue a decree and prohibit insulating in something that does not add heat. Rava said to him: During twilight, there is no reason to be concerned because at that time most pots are boiling, as they have just been taken off of the fire. Later at night the pots cool down and it is conceivable that one may come to boil them in order to restore the heat. And Rava said:
6ו
תנו רבנן: "ואספת דגנך" [דברים יא, יד] מה תלמוד לומר - לפי שנאמר "לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך" [יהושע א, ח]. יכול דברים ככתבן [כיצד ניתן להבין את הסתירה שבין הדרישה לעבוד מצד אחד, והדרישה ללמוד מצד שני]? תלמוד לומר: "ואספת דגנך" - הנהג בהן [=בלימודי התורה שלך] מנהג דרך ארץ, דברי ר' ישמעאל.
רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר: אפשר אדם חורש בשעת חרישה, וזורע בשעת זריעה, וקוצר בשעת קצירה, ודש בשעת דישה, וזורה בשעת הרוח, תורה מה תהא עליה? אלא: בזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום מלאכתן נעשית ע"י אחרים שנאמר: "ועמדו זרים ורעו צאנכם וגו'" [ישעיהו סא, ה] ובזמן שאין ישראל עושין רצונו של מקום מלאכתן נעשית ע"י עצמן שנאמר: "ואספת דגנך" [דברים יא, יד] ולא עוד אלא שמלאכת אחרים נעשית על ידן שנאמר "ועבדת את אויביך וגו'" [דברים כח, מח]
The Sages taught: What is the meaning of that which the verse states: “And you shall gather your grain”? Because it is stated: “This Torah shall not depart from your mouths, and you shall contemplate in it day and night” (Joshua 1:8), I might have thought that these matters are to be understood as they are written; one is to literally spend his days immersed exclusively in Torah study. Therefore, the verse states: “And you shall gather your grain, your wine and your oil,” assume in their regard, the way of the world; set aside time not only for Torah, but also for work. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Is it possible that a person plows in the plowing season and sows in the sowing season and harvests in the harvest season and threshes in the threshing season and winnows in the windy season, as grain is separated from the chaff by means of the wind, and is constantly busy; what will become of Torah? Rather, one must dedicate himself exclusively to Torah at the expense of other endeavors; as when Israel performs God’s will, their work is performed by others, as it is stated: “And strangers will stand and feed your flocks, and foreigners will be your plowmen and your vinedressers” (Isaiah 61:5). When Israel does not perform God’s will, their work is performed by them themselves, as it is stated: “And you shall gather your grain.” Moreover, if Israel fails to perform God’s will, others’ work will be performed by them, as it is stated: “You shall serve your enemy whom God shall send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness and in want of all things” (Deuteronomy 28:48). Summing up this dispute, Abaye said: Although there is room for both opinions, many have acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, and combined working for a living and learning Torah, and although they engaged in activities other than the study of Torah, were successful in their Torah study. Many have acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai and were not successful in their Torah study. They were ultimately forced to abandon their Torah study altogether.
7ז
אמר אביי: הרבה עשו כרבי ישמעאל ועלתה בידן, [הרבה עשו גם] כר' שמעון בן יוחי ולא עלתה בידן. אמר להם רבא לרבנן, במטותא מינייכו [=בבקשה מכם] ביומי ניסן וביומי תשרי [זמן העבודה החקלאית הקשה] לא תתחזו קמאי [=אל תבואו לפני, כלומר לכו לעבוד] כי היכי דלא תטרדו במזונייכו כולא שתא [=כדי שלא תהיו טרודים בפרנסתכם כל השנה].
and here, where it says that He gave the earth to mankind refers to after a blessing is recited. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he stole from God and the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Whoever robs his father and his mother and says: It is no transgression, he is the companion of a destroyer” (Proverbs 28:24). The phrase, his father, refers to none other than God, as it is stated: “Is He not your Father Who created you, Who made you and established you” (Deuteronomy 32:6). The phrase his mother refers to none other than the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Hear, my son, the discipline of your father, and do not forsake the Torah of your mother” (Proverbs 1:8). The mention of the Torah as emanating from the mouth of the mother, apparently means that your mother is the community of Israel. What is the meaning of the continuation of the verse: He is the companion of a destroyer? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: He is a companion of Jeroboam ben Nevat, who corrupted Israel before their Father in heaven by sinning and causing others to sin. On a similar note, the Gemara cites that Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction: It is written, “I will take back My grain at its time and wine in its season” (Hosea 2:11), and it is written: “And you shall gather your grain, your wine and your oil” (Deuteronomy 11:14). To whom does the grain belong: To God, or to the people? The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. Here, where God promises Israel that they will gather their grain, the verse refers to a time when they perform God’s will. Here, where the verse indicates that the grain belongs to God, it refers to a time when they do not perform God’s will, as then He will take back the grain, demonstrating that it belongs to Him. The Sages taught: What is the meaning of that which the verse states: “And you shall gather your grain”? Because it is stated: “This Torah shall not depart from your mouths, and you shall contemplate in it day and night” (Joshua 1:8), I might have thought that these matters are to be understood as they are written; one is to literally spend his days immersed exclusively in Torah study. Therefore, the verse states: “And you shall gather your grain, your wine and your oil,” assume in their regard, the way of the world; set aside time not only for Torah, but also for work. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Is it possible that a person plows in the plowing season and sows in the sowing season and harvests in the harvest season and threshes in the threshing season and winnows in the windy season, as grain is separated from the chaff by means of the wind, and is constantly busy; what will become of Torah? Rather, one must dedicate himself exclusively to Torah at the expense of other endeavors; as when Israel performs God’s will, their work is performed by others, as it is stated: “And strangers will stand and feed your flocks, and foreigners will be your plowmen and your vinedressers” (Isaiah 61:5). When Israel does not perform God’s will, their work is performed by them themselves, as it is stated: “And you shall gather your grain.” Moreover, if Israel fails to perform God’s will, others’ work will be performed by them, as it is stated: “You shall serve your enemy whom God shall send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness and in want of all things” (Deuteronomy 28:48). Summing up this dispute, Abaye said: Although there is room for both opinions, many have acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, and combined working for a living and learning Torah, and although they engaged in activities other than the study of Torah, were successful in their Torah study. Many have acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai and were not successful in their Torah study. They were ultimately forced to abandon their Torah study altogether. Similarly, Rava said to the Sages who would attend his study hall: I implore you; during the months of Nisan and Tishrei, the crucial agricultural periods, do not appear before me. Engage in your agricultural work then so that you will not be preoccupied with your sustenance all year. Summarizing these statements, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of the tanna Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations; rather they are their inferiors. The earlier generations made their Torah permanent and their work occasional, and this, Torah study, and that, their work, were successful for them. However, the latter generations who made their work permanent and their Torah occasional, neither this nor that was successful for them. Along these lines, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations. In the earlier generations, people would bring their fruits into their courtyards through the main gate in order to obligate them in tithes. However, the latter generations bring their fruits through roofs, through courtyards and through enclosed courtyards, avoiding the main gate in order to exempt them from the mitzva of tithing. As Rabbi Yannai said: Untithed produce is not obligated in the mitzva of tithing until it sees the front of the house through which people enter and exit, and it is brought into the house that way as it is stated in the formula of the confession of the tithes: “I have removed the consecrated from the house” (Deuteronomy 26:13), as the obligation to tithe produce whose purpose has not yet been designated takes effect only when it is brought into the house. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even bringing it into the courtyard determines its status as having completed the production process and obligates the produce to be tithed, as it is written in the confession of the tithes: “And I have given to the Levite, the stranger, the orphan and the widow, and they shall eat in your gates and be satisfied” (Deuteronomy 26:12). We learned in our mishna: Over fruits that grow on a tree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, with the exception of wine that even though it originates from fruit of the tree, a separate blessing was established for it: Who creates the fruit of the vine. The Gemara asks: What is different about wine, that a separate blessing was established for it? If you say that because the fruit changed for the better into wine, therefore, the blessing changed. Olive oil changed for the better and nevertheless, its blessing did not change. As Rabbi Yehuda said that Shmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Over olive oil, one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, just as he does over the fruit itself. The Sages said: There, in the case of oil, it is because it is impossible to find an appropriate blessing, as how shall we recite the blessing? If we recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive, the fruit itself is called olive and that is what was created. The oil is a man-made product of that fruit, rendering that formula inappropriate. Similarly, reciting a formula parallel to the blessing on wine: Who creates the fruit of the vine, is inappropriate as the grapes themselves are the fruit that was created, as opposed to oil which was not. The Gemara challenges: Nevertheless, it is still possible to formulate a blessing, as we may recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive tree, which would be parallel to the blessing recited over wine. Rather, Mar Zutra offered a different rationale: The reason that no separate blessing was established over oil is because, as opposed to wine that nourishes, oil does not nourish. The Gemara asks: And oil does not nourish? Didn’t we learn in a mishna: One who vows that nourishment is forbidden to him is permitted to eat water and salt, as they are not considered nourishment. And we discussed this halakha: By inference, water and salt are not considered nourishment, but all other edible items are considered nourishment. Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav and Shmuel, who said: One only recites: Who creates various kinds of nourishment, over the five species of grain alone, as they alone are considered nourishing. And Rav Huna said as a solution that this mishna referred to a case where he vows and says: Anything that nourishes is prohibited to me. That formula includes anything that is at all nourishing and therefore only water and salt are excluded. Olive oil is not excluded. Apparently, oil nourishes. Rather, there is another distinction between wine and oil: Wine satisfies, oil does not satisfy. Wine not only nourishes, but it is also filling. The Gemara asks: And does wine satisfy? Wouldn’t Rava drink wine all day on the eve of Passover in order to stimulate his heart, i.e., whet his appetite so that he might eat more matza at the seder? Wine does not satisfy, it whets the appetite. The Gemara answers: A lot of wine stimulates, a little satisfies. Again, the Gemara asks: Does wine satisfy at all? Isn’t it written: “Wine gladdens the heart of man, making the face brighter than oil, and bread fills man’s heart” (Psalms 104:15); bread is that which satisfies, wine does not satisfy. Rather, this verse is not a proof; wine has two advantages, it satisfies and gladdens. Bread, however, satisfies but does not gladden. Since wine possesses all of these virtues, the Gemara asks: If so, let us recite the three blessings of Grace after Meals over it after drinking, just as we do after eating bread. The Gemara answers: People do not base their meals on wine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to Rava: If one based his meal on it, what is the ruling? Must he recite the Grace after Meals as he does after bread? He replied: When Elijah comes and says whether or not it can serve as the basis for a meal, this will be resolved. Nevertheless, now, until then, his intention is rendered irrelevant by the opinions of all other men and he is not required to recite the complete Grace after Meals. Previously, the Gemara cited the halakha that one recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oil. The Gemara discusses the matter itself. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oil just as he does over the fruit itself. What are the circumstances? If you say that he drank it plain, it causes damage to the drinker. As it was taught in a baraita: One who drinks oil of teruma, while unaware that it was teruma, pays the principal and does not pay the additional fifth which is the typical penalty for unintentional misuse of consecrated property, as in that case the individual is considered to have only damaged consecrated property without deriving benefit from it. One who anoints his body with the oil of teruma pays the principal and pays the fifth, as he derived benefit from it. Apparently, one who drinks oil derives no benefit and it even causes him damage. Rather, it is referring to a case where he eats the oil by dipping bread into it. If so, the bread is primary and the oil secondary, and we learned in a mishna: This is the principle: Any food that is primary, and is eaten with food that is secondary, one recites a blessing over the primary food, and that blessing exempts the secondary from the requirement to recite a blessing before eating it. A blessing need only be recited over the bread, not over the oil. Rather, it is referring to a case where he is drinking it by means of an anigeron, as Rabba bar Shmuel said: Anigeron is water in which a beet was boiled, ansigeron is the water
8ח
תלמוד בבלי, סוכה, מה:ב
אמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י כל המצות כולן אין אדם יוצא בהן אלא דרך גדילתן שנאמר (שמות כו) עצי שטים עומדים תנ"ה עצי שטים עומדים שעומדים דרך גדילתן דבר אחר עומדים שמעמידין את ציפוין דבר אחר עומדים שמא תאמר אבד סיברם ובטל סיכויין ת"ל עצי שטים עומדים שעומדים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים ואמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י יכול אני לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין מיום שנבראתי עד עתה ואילמלי אליעזר בני עמי מיום שנברא העולם ועד עכשיו ואילמלי יותם בן עוזיהו עמנו מיום שנברא העולם עד סופו ואמר חזקיה א"ר ירמיה משום רשב"י ראיתי בני עלייה והן מועטין אם אלף הן אני ובני מהן אם מאה הם אני ובני מהן אם שנים הן אני ובני הן
9ט
כל המשים על ליבו שיעסוק בתורה ולא יעשה מלאכה, ויתפרנס מן הצדקה, הרי זה חילל את השם, וביזה את התורה, וכיבה מאור הדת, וגרם רעה לעצמו, ונטל חייו מן העולם הבא - לפי שאסור ליהנות בדברי תורה בעולם הזה.
Nevertheless, whosoever sets his heart to pursue the study of the Torah but do no secular work at all, and permits himself to be supported by charity, behold him, he blasphemed the Name, and degraded the Torah, and shadowed the light of religion, and caused evil to be brought upon himself, and deprived his own life from its share in the world to come; because it is forbidden to enjoy aught in this world in return of the study of the words of the Torah. The sages said: "Whosoever enjoys aught in return of the study of the words of the Torah takes his own life away from the world" (Pirke Abot, 4.7). They have, moreover, commanded and said: "Thou shalt not make them a garland by which to be considered great nor a spade to dig with them" (Ibid.). Again they have commanded and said: "Love manual labor and hate rank". (Pirke Abot, 1.10); whosoever studies the Torah and does not acquire at the same time a manual trade his knowledge of the Torah will be nullified and bring about sin" (Ibid. 2.2.). The end of this will be that he will rob people for his living.10The text is clear enough to absolve Maimonides from forbidding scholars to accept renumeration. It can not be construed to include priests, teachers, Rabbis and other scholars who render services to the public. He only includes such scholars as are doing nothing in return for gifts received by them. This would be enjoying fruit of the Torah in this world. Cairo strenously objects to this law, and supports his objections by authority from Yoma, 35a; Berakot, 17a; Ta’anit 25a; Ketubot, 105a; Gittin 67b; Baba Mezi’a, 84b; Sotah, 21a; Hullin, 134a; Nedarim, 62a. G.
10י
י ולמה לא זכה לוי בנחלת ארץ ישראל ובביזתה עם אחיו: מפני שהובדל לעבוד את ה' ולשרתו, ולהורות דרכיו הישרים ומשפטיו הצדיקים לרבים--שנאמר "יורו משפטיך ליעקוב, ותורתך לישראל" (דברים לג,י). לפיכך הובדלו מדרכי העולם--לא עורכין מלחמה כשאר ישראל, ולא נוחלין, ולא זוכין לעצמן בכוח גופן; אלא הם חיל ה', שנאמר "ברך ה' חילו" (דברים לג,יא), והוא ברוך הוא זיכה להם, שנאמר "אני חלקך ונחלתך" (במדבר יח,כ).

יא ולא שבט לוי בלבד, אלא כל איש ואיש מכל באי העולם אשר נדבה רוחו אותו והבינו מדעו להיבדל לעמוד לפני ה' לשרתו ולעובדו לדעה את ה', והלך ישר כמו שעשהו האלוהים, ופרק מעל צווארו עול החשבונות הרבים אשר ביקשו בני האדם--הרי זה נתקדש קודש קודשים, ויהיה ה' חלקו ונחלתו לעולם ולעולמי עולמים; ויזכה לו בעולם הזה דבר המספיק לו, כמו שזיכה לכוהנים וללויים. הרי דויד אומר "ה', מנת חלקי וכוסי--אתה, תומיך גורלי" (תהילים טז,ה).
Why were the Levites not allotted land in Eretz Yisrael or a share in its booty along with their brethren? Because they were singled out to serve the Lord and minister to him, to teach his upright ways and just laws to many people, as it is written: "They shall teach thy laws to Jacob, and thy instruction to Israel" (Deuteronomy 33:10). For this reason, they were separated from worldly affairs: they fought no battles like the rest of Israel; they inherited no land; they won nothing by means of their physical ability. They are indeed the Lord's army, as it is written: "Bless, O Lord, his substance" (11). He, blessed be he, has won them for himself, as it is written: "I am your portion and your share" (Numbers 18:20). Not only the tribe of Levi, but each well-informed thinking person whose spirit moves him to devote himself to the service of the Lord, to know the Lord, and has walked uprightly after casting off his neck the yoke of many a cunning wile that men contrived, is indeed divinely consecrated, and the Lord will forever and ever be his portion. God will provide sufficiently for his needs, as he did for the priests and the Levites. David, may he rest in peace, declared: "The Lord is my allotted portion and my cup; thou holdest my lot" (Psalm 16:5).
11יא
סמי שלום שטרית, המאבק המזרחי בישראל: בין דיכוי לשחרור, בין הזדהות לאלטרנטיבה: 1948-2003, הוצאת עם עובד 2004, עמ' 26
השפעות אלה של הרדיקלים על המתונים בתחומים שונים של המאבק, בעיקר גיוס תמיכה ציבורית, תקשורת, גיוס כספים ומשא ומתן עם הממסד הלבן, מכונות "האפקטים הרדיקליים האגפּיים". האפקטים הם "רדיקליים" משום שהם מתאפיינים בפעולה חריפה הכוללת עימות אידיאולוגי ופיסי עם הממסד, והם "אגפּיים" משום שהם מצליחים להשפיע על המרכז הפוליטי מן השוליים בפעולת איגוף. הוא מחלק את פעולת האיגוף לשניים: "אפקטים חיוביים ואפקטים שליליים". אפקט חיובי מתרחש כאשר קבוצה רדיקלית עושה פעולה בעלת אופי מיליטנטי כלפי השלטון או הממסד, וכתוצאה מפעולה זו פונים אנשי השלטון והממסד אל קבוצה מתונה יותר המזוהה עם המאבק ומנסים לקיים עמה, ולא עם הרדיקליים, משא ומתן לפתרון אותה בעיה או סוגיה שהעלו הרדיקליים בפעולתם. המתונים מבחינתם, מנצלים את האפקט הן לקידום פתרון הבעיה, על פי תפיסתם, והן ובעיקר לקידום מעמדם וכוחם הפוליטי. אפקט שלילי מתרחש כאשר הפעולה המיליטנטית של הרדיקלים היא קיצונית מדי, עד כדי כך שהממסד סוגר את כל צינורות המשא ומתן ופונה לדיכוי המאבק, כולל פגיעה בקבוצות המתונות...

מושגים
  • ד"ר סמי שלום שטרית - נולד ב-1960 במרוקו. ב-1963 עלה לישראל עם משפחתו וגדל באשדוד. ד"ר למדעי המדינה באוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים. את עבודת הדוקטורט שלו כתב על ההיסטוריה הפוליטית של המזרחים בישראל. פרסם בארץ ובעולם מאמרים רבים על החברה הישראלית, על יחסים אתניים-מעמדיים, על תרבות, חינוך והכיבוש הישראלי. בשנות התשעים היה פעיל מרכזי בתנועות חברתיות ומזרחיות כמו 'קדמה - למען חינוך עיוני שוויוני בישראל', 'הקשת הדמוקרטית המזרחית'.
12יב
ת"ר כשנכנסו רבותינו לכרם ביבנה אמרו עתידה תורה שתשתכח מישראל שנאמר (עמוס ח, יא) הנה ימים באים נאם ה' אלהים והשלחתי רעב בארץ לא רעב ללחם ולא צמא למים כי אם לשמוע את דברי ה' וכתיב (עמוס ח, יב) ונעו מים עד ים ומצפון ועד מזרח ישוטטו לבקש את דבר ה' ולא ימצאו ;
דבר ה' זו הלכה, דבר ה' זה הקץ, דבר ה' זו נבואה. ומאי ישוטטו לבקש את דבר ה' ?
אמרו עתידה אשה שתטול ככר של תרומה ותחזור בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות לידע אם טמאה היא ואם טהורה היא ואין מבין אם טהורה היא ואם טמאה היא ...
תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר: חס ושלום שתשתכח תורה מישראל שנאמר (דברים לא, כא) כי לא תשכח מפי זרעו אלא מה אני מקיים ישוטטו לבקש את דבר ה' ולא ימצאו שלא ימצאו הלכה ברורה ומשנה ברורה במקום אחד.
and I do not know whether the Festival occurred before Shabbat or after Shabbat. And they came before Rabbi Yoḥanan, and he said to them: Let gentiles attend to his burial. And likewise, Rava said: If a person died on the first day of a Festival, gentiles may attend to his burial; on the second day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora, Jews may attend to his burial. And this is the halakha even on the second day of the festival of Rosh HaShana, which is not so with regard to an egg. With regard to an egg laid on the Festival, the two days of Rosh HaShana are considered one long day that cannot be disconnected. Therefore, in contrast to other two-day Festivals in the Diaspora, use of an egg laid on the first day of Rosh HaShana is prohibited on the second day. However, in deference to the dead, the Sages were lenient with regard to burial on the second day of Rosh HaShana. Why then did Rav Menashya prohibit the inhabitants of Bashkar from attending to the burial on a Festival? The Gemara answers: Because they were not well versed in Torah. Rabbi Avin bar Rav Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gureya said: A person may wrap himself in a canopy and in its straps and go out to the public domain on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned about violating the prohibited act of carrying out a burden. The Gemara asks: In what way is the halakha with regard to the straps different from that which Rav Huna said? As Rav Huna said that Rav said: One who goes out unwittingly to the public domain on Shabbat with a four-cornered garment that does not have the requisite ritual fringes attached is liable to bring a sin-offering, because the remaining fringes are not an integral part of the garment. Since they do not fulfill the mitzva, they are considered a burden that may not be carried into the public domain on Shabbat. The Gemara answers: There is a distinction between the cases. Ritual fringes are significant relative to a garment and are not negated. They are considered an independent entity that may not be carried out into the public domain. These straps of a canopy are not significant and are negated. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: According to the Rabbis, who prohibit suspending a strainer on a Festival, a person may nevertheless employ artifice and circumvent the prohibition against suspending a strainer by taking it on a Festival and suspending it for the purpose of pomegranates in it, which is permitted. Once the strainer is suspended, he may suspend it in order to filter sediment from the wine, as even the Rabbis hold that on a Festival it is permitted to do this straining through a strainer that is already suspended. Rav Ashi said: And this is only permitted provided that he actually suspended pomegranates in it before using it to strain wine. It must be obvious to all that he used the strainer in a permitted manner. The Gemara asks: In what way is that halakha different from that which was taught in a baraita: One may begin brewing beer during the intermediate days of a Festival for the purpose of using it on the Festival. If it is not for the purpose of the Festival, it is prohibited. This is the halakha both with regard to date beer and with regard to barley beer. And even though they have old beer, one may employ artifice and say that he wishes to drink from the new, and that he is making beer on the intermediate days of the Festival for that purpose. Apparently, it is permitted to employ artifice even without actively demonstrating that one is performing the action for a permitted purpose. This contradicts the opinion of Rav Ashi. The Gemara answers: There, with regard to beer, the matter is not evident. When people see someone starting to brew beer, they have no way of knowing whether or not he has beer at home, and consequently, whether or not the action itself is prohibited in that case. However, here, with regard to a strainer, the matter is evident, as people see him suspending a strainer for wine, which is prohibited. On the topic of artifice, the Gemara relates that the Rabbis said to Rav Ashi: Master, observe this Torah scholar, and Rav Huna ben Rabbi Ḥayon is his name, and some say that his name is Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Ḥalvan, who took a slice of garlic and placed it in the spout of a barrel, and said: I intend to store it. He thereby stopped the spout on Shabbat. And similarly, he went and slept in a ferry on the river, and the ferryman sailed the ferry across the river, and he thereby crossed to the other side and inspected the fruit of his vineyard. He said: I intend to sleep. In this way, he crosses the river by boat on Shabbat, which is a prohibited activity. Rav Ashi said to them: Are you speaking of artifice? This is artifice employed to circumvent a rabbinic prohibition, and a Torah scholar will not come to perform the action ab initio without artifice. Therefore, there is no reason to prohibit him from doing so. MISHNA: One may pour water over sediment that is in a strainer on Shabbat so that it will become clear and clean. And similarly, one may filter wine through cloths and through an Egyptian basket made from palm leaves. Since these liquids are drinkable even without filtering, doing so does not violate the prohibition of selecting. And likewise, one may place an egg in a mustard strainer in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white, and one may prepare anumlin, a wine-based drink, on Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda says: On Shabbat one may only make anumlin in a small cup; on a Festival, in a larger vessel; and on the intermediate days of a Festival, one may even prepare it in a barrel. Rabbi Tzadok says: There is no objective principle; rather, it is all according to the number of guests; if they are numerous, one may prepare a larger quantity of anumlin. GEMARA: Ze’iri said: A person may place clear wine and clear water into a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned over the prohibition of selecting, as the wine is drinkable even without this filtering. However, doing so with murky liquids, no, one may not strain them. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A person may stir a barrel of wine, mixing its wine and its sediment, and place it in a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned. Apparently, it is permitted to place even murky wine in a strainer. Ze’iri explained that baraita and resolved the difficulty: That was taught with regard to wine between the presses, when the wine has yet to ferment and will remain murky even after filtering. We learned in the mishna: One may filter wine through cloths on Shabbat. Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya said: This is permitted provided one does not make a hole in the cloth through which to pour the wine, as one must diverge from the usual, weekday manner of performing this activity. We also learned in the mishna: And it is permitted to filter wine on Shabbat through an Egyptian basket. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said the following caveat to that statement: It is permitted provided one does not lift the basket a handbreadth from the bottom of the lower vessel. This ensures that one performs the activity in an atypical manner (Rabbeinu Yona). Rav said: It is permitted to place this cover that has holes for filtering over half a barrel, but it is prohibited to spread it over the entire barrel, in order that it not appear as though one is using it as a filter (Rabbeinu Ḥananel). Rav Pappa said: A person may not attach a bundle of straw to the mouth of a barrel’s spigot, because it appears like a strainer. The Gemara relates: The members of Rav Pappa’s household would carefully pour beer from one vessel to another so that the dregs from one vessel would not pass to the other. Rav Aḥa from Difti said to Ravina: But there are the final drops, which remain when one pours the beer into another vessel. When pouring the final drops from the dregs left in the vessel, one is in violation of the prohibition of selecting. He replied: In Rav Pappa’s house they would leave the final drops in the first vessel together with the dregs. They would not attempt to separate them, as the last drops were not significant to the household of Rav Pappa, because beer was always readily available in his house. And we further learned in the mishna: One may place an egg in a mustard strainer on Shabbat in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white. The Sage, Ya’akov Korḥa, taught a reason for this:
13יג
ליקוטי מוהר"ן, הקדמה לספר
"לכו חזו מפעלות ה' התגלות נפלא מסוד גדולת התנא האלקי רבי שמעון בר יוחאי ז"ל: רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי הִבְטִיחַ שֶׁלּא תִּשְׁתַּכַּח תּוֹרָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל עַל יָדוֹ כַּמּוּבָא בְּדִבְרֵי רַבּוֹתֵינוּ, זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה (שַׁבָּת קלח:): 'כְּשֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ לַכֶּרֶם בְּיַבְנֶה אָמְרוּ: עֲתִידָה תּוֹרָה שֶׁתִּשְׁתַּכַּח מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי שֶׁלּא תִּשְׁתַּכַּח וכַּמְבוֹאָר בַזוֹהַר (נָשׂא קכד:) "בְּהַאי חִבּוּרָא דְּאִיהוּ סֵפֶר הַזּהַר יִפְקוּן בֵּהּ מִן גָּלוּתָא" [=בחיבור הזה, ספר הזוהר, יצאו מהגלות]. וְעַתָּה בּוֹא וּרְאֵה וְהָבֵן נִפְלְאוֹת נִסְתָּרוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָתֵנוּ הַקְּדוֹשָׁה כִּי עַל כֵּן סָמַךְ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי עַצְמוֹ עַל זֶה הַפָּסוּק: כִּי לא תִשָּׁכַח מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ, כִּי בֶּאֱמֶת בְּזֶה הַפָּסוּק בְּעַצְמוֹ מְרֻמָּז וְנִסְתָּר סוֹד הַזֶּה, שֶׁעַל-יְדֵי זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יוֹחַאי, שֶׁהוּא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי, עַל יָדוֹ לא תִּשְׁתַּכַּח הַתּוֹרָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. כִּי סוֹפֵי תֵּבוֹת שֶׁל זֶה הַפָּסוּק, 'כִּי לּא תִשָּׁכַח מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ' הֵם אוֹתִיּוֹת יוֹחַאי. וְזֶה שֶׁמְּרַמֵּז וּמְגַלֶּה הַפָּסוּק כִּי לא תִשָּׁכַח מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ, מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ דַּיְקָא, הַיְנוּ מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל זֶה בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְרֻמָּז וְנִסְתָּר בְּזֶה הַפָּסוּק, שֶׁהוּא הַתַּנָּא יוֹחַאי, כִּי עַל יְדֵי זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יוֹחַאי שֶׁמְּרֻמָּז בְּזֶה הַפָּסוּק בְּסוֹפֵי תֵּבוֹת כַּנַּ"ל שֶׁהוּא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחַאי, עַל יָדוֹ לֹא תִשָּׁכַח הַתּוֹרָה. כִּי בְּזֹהַר דָּא יִפְקוּן מִן גָּלוּתָא כַּנַּ"ל. וְדַע שֶׁסּוֹד רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּעַצְמוֹ הוּא מְרֻמָּז בְּפָסוּק אַחֵר כִּי דַּע כִּי הַתַּנָּא הַקָּדוֹש רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הוּא בְּחִינַת (דָּנִיֵּאל ד): עִ'יר וְ'קַדִּישׁ מִ'ן שְׁ'מַיָּא נָ'חִית רָאשֵׁי תֵּבוֹת שִׁמְעוֹן וְכוּ'"
15 טו