Shabbat 139bשבת קל״ט ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Shabbat 139b"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
139bקל״ט ב

ולא ידענא אי מלפניה אי מלאחריה ואתו לקמיה דרבי יוחנן ואמר להו יתעסקו ביה עממין

and I do not know whether the Festival occurred before Shabbat or after Shabbat. And they came before Rabbi Yoḥanan, and he said to them: Let gentiles attend to his burial.

ואמר רבא מת ביום טוב ראשון יתעסקו בו עממין ביום טוב שני יתעסקו בו ישראל ואפילו ביום טוב שני של ראש השנה מה שאין כן בביצה לפי שאינן בני תורה:

And likewise, Rava said: If a person died on the first day of a Festival, gentiles may attend to his burial; on the second day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora, Jews may attend to his burial. And this is the halakha even on the second day of the festival of Rosh HaShana, which is not so with regard to an egg. With regard to an egg laid on the Festival, the two days of Rosh HaShana are considered one long day that cannot be disconnected. Therefore, in contrast to other two-day Festivals in the Diaspora, use of an egg laid on the first day of Rosh HaShana is prohibited on the second day. However, in deference to the dead, the Sages were lenient with regard to burial on the second day of Rosh HaShana. Why then did Rav Menashya prohibit the inhabitants of Bashkar from attending to the burial on a Festival? The Gemara answers: Because they were not well versed in Torah.

אמר רבי אבין בר רב הונא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא מתעטף אדם בכילה ובכסכסיה ויוצא לרשות הרבים בשבת ואינו חושש

Rabbi Avin bar Rav Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gureya said: A person may wrap himself in a canopy and in its straps and go out to the public domain on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned about violating the prohibited act of carrying out a burden.

מאי שנא מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב היוצא בטלית שאינה מצוייצת כהילכתה בשבת חייב חטאת ציצית לגבי טלית חשיבי ולא בטלי הני לא חשיבי ובטלי

The Gemara asks: In what way is the halakha with regard to the straps different from that which Rav Huna said? As Rav Huna said that Rav said: One who goes out unwittingly to the public domain on Shabbat with a four-cornered garment that does not have the requisite ritual fringes attached is liable to bring a sin-offering, because the remaining fringes are not an integral part of the garment. Since they do not fulfill the mitzva, they are considered a burden that may not be carried into the public domain on Shabbat. The Gemara answers: There is a distinction between the cases. Ritual fringes are significant relative to a garment and are not negated. They are considered an independent entity that may not be carried out into the public domain. These straps of a canopy are not significant and are negated.

אמר רבה בר רב הונא מערים אדם על המשמרת ביום טוב לתלות בה רמונים ותולה בה שמרים אמר רב אשי והוא דתלה בה רמונים

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: According to the Rabbis, who prohibit suspending a strainer on a Festival, a person may nevertheless employ artifice and circumvent the prohibition against suspending a strainer by taking it on a Festival and suspending it for the purpose of pomegranates in it, which is permitted. Once the strainer is suspended, he may suspend it in order to filter sediment from the wine, as even the Rabbis hold that on a Festival it is permitted to do this straining through a strainer that is already suspended. Rav Ashi said: And this is only permitted provided that he actually suspended pomegranates in it before using it to strain wine. It must be obvious to all that he used the strainer in a permitted manner.

מאי שנא מהא דתניא מטילין שכר במועד לצורך המועד שלא לצורך המועד אסור אחד שכר תמרים ואחד שכר שעורים אף על פי שיש להן ישן מערים ושותה מן החדש

The Gemara asks: In what way is that halakha different from that which was taught in a baraita: One may begin brewing beer during the intermediate days of a Festival for the purpose of using it on the Festival. If it is not for the purpose of the Festival, it is prohibited. This is the halakha both with regard to date beer and with regard to barley beer. And even though they have old beer, one may employ artifice and say that he wishes to drink from the new, and that he is making beer on the intermediate days of the Festival for that purpose. Apparently, it is permitted to employ artifice even without actively demonstrating that one is performing the action for a permitted purpose. This contradicts the opinion of Rav Ashi.

התם לא מוכחא מילתא הכא מוכחא מילתא

The Gemara answers: There, with regard to beer, the matter is not evident. When people see someone starting to brew beer, they have no way of knowing whether or not he has beer at home, and consequently, whether or not the action itself is prohibited in that case. However, here, with regard to a strainer, the matter is evident, as people see him suspending a strainer for wine, which is prohibited.

אמרו ליה רבנן לרב אשי חזי מר האי צורבא מרבנן ורב הונא בן רבי חיון שמיה ואמרי לה רב הונא ברבי חלוון שמיה דשקל ברא דתומא ומנח בברזא דדנא ואמר לאצנועיה קמיכוינא ואזיל ונאים במברא ועבר להך גיסא וסייר פירי ואמר אנא למינם קמיכוינא

On the topic of artifice, the Gemara relates that the Rabbis said to Rav Ashi: Master, observe this Torah scholar, and Rav Huna ben Rabbi Ḥayon is his name, and some say that his name is Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Ḥalvan, who took a slice of garlic and placed it in the spout of a barrel, and said: I intend to store it. He thereby stopped the spout on Shabbat. And similarly, he went and slept in a ferry on the river, and the ferryman sailed the ferry across the river, and he thereby crossed to the other side and inspected the fruit of his vineyard. He said: I intend to sleep. In this way, he crosses the river by boat on Shabbat, which is a prohibited activity.

אמר להו הערמה קאמרת הערמה בדרבנן היא וצורבא מרבנן לא אתי למיעבד לכתחילה:

Rav Ashi said to them: Are you speaking of artifice? This is artifice employed to circumvent a rabbinic prohibition, and a Torah scholar will not come to perform the action ab initio without artifice. Therefore, there is no reason to prohibit him from doing so.

מתני׳ נותנין מים על גבי השמרים בשביל שיצולו ומסננין את היין בסודרין ובכפיפה מצרית

MISHNA: One may pour water over sediment that is in a strainer on Shabbat so that it will become clear and clean. And similarly, one may filter wine through cloths and through an Egyptian basket made from palm leaves. Since these liquids are drinkable even without filtering, doing so does not violate the prohibition of selecting.

ונותנין ביצה במסננת של חרדל ועושין אנומלין בשבת רבי יהודה אומר בשבת בכוס ביום טוב בלגין ובמועד בחבית רבי צדוק אומר הכל לפי האורחין:

And likewise, one may place an egg in a mustard strainer in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white, and one may prepare anumlin, a wine-based drink, on Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda says: On Shabbat one may only make anumlin in a small cup; on a Festival, in a larger vessel; and on the intermediate days of a Festival, one may even prepare it in a barrel. Rabbi Tzadok says: There is no objective principle; rather, it is all according to the number of guests; if they are numerous, one may prepare a larger quantity of anumlin.

גמ׳ אמר זעירי נותן אדם יין צלול ומים צלולין לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש אבל עכורין לא

GEMARA: Ze’iri said: A person may place clear wine and clear water into a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned over the prohibition of selecting, as the wine is drinkable even without this filtering. However, doing so with murky liquids, no, one may not strain them.

מיתיבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר טורד אדם חבית של יין יינה ושמריה ונותן לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש תרגמה זעירי בין הגיתות שנו:

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A person may stir a barrel of wine, mixing its wine and its sediment, and place it in a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned. Apparently, it is permitted to place even murky wine in a strainer. Ze’iri explained that baraita and resolved the difficulty: That was taught with regard to wine between the presses, when the wine has yet to ferment and will remain murky even after filtering.

מסננין את היין בסודרין: אמר רב שימי בר חייא ובלבד שלא יעשה גומא:

We learned in the mishna: One may filter wine through cloths on Shabbat. Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya said: This is permitted provided one does not make a hole in the cloth through which to pour the wine, as one must diverge from the usual, weekday manner of performing this activity.

ובכפיפה מצרית: אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב ובלבד שלא יגביה מקרקעיתו של כלי טפח

We also learned in the mishna: And it is permitted to filter wine on Shabbat through an Egyptian basket. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said the following caveat to that statement: It is permitted provided one does not lift the basket a handbreadth from the bottom of the lower vessel. This ensures that one performs the activity in an atypical manner (Rabbeinu Yona).

אמר רב האי פרונקא אפלגיה דכובא שרי אכוליה כובא אסור

Rav said: It is permitted to place this cover that has holes for filtering over half a barrel, but it is prohibited to spread it over the entire barrel, in order that it not appear as though one is using it as a filter (Rabbeinu Ḥananel).

אמר רב פפא לא ניהדק איניש צינייתא בפומיה דכוזני דחביתא משום דמיחזי כמשמרת

Rav Pappa said: A person may not attach a bundle of straw to the mouth of a barrel’s spigot, because it appears like a strainer.

דבי רב פפא שאפו שיכרא ממנא למנא אמר ליה רב אחא מדיפתי לרבינא האיכא ניצוצות ניצוצות לבי רב פפא לא חשיבי:

The Gemara relates: The members of Rav Pappa’s household would carefully pour beer from one vessel to another so that the dregs from one vessel would not pass to the other. Rav Aḥa from Difti said to Ravina: But there are the final drops, which remain when one pours the beer into another vessel. When pouring the final drops from the dregs left in the vessel, one is in violation of the prohibition of selecting. He replied: In Rav Pappa’s house they would leave the final drops in the first vessel together with the dregs. They would not attempt to separate them, as the last drops were not significant to the household of Rav Pappa, because beer was always readily available in his house.

ונותנין ביצה במסננת: תני יעקב קרחה

And we further learned in the mishna: One may place an egg in a mustard strainer on Shabbat in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white. The Sage, Ya’akov Korḥa, taught a reason for this: