"שביבותיה" חלק ראשון -טוב שכן טוב
1א
הדף מאת: עידו דרור / עלמא
2ב
שיעור זה פותח סדרה העוסקת ביחסי השכנות המורכבים של חכמים בשכונה התלמודית. בשיעור זה ננסה להגדיר את כוחו של החכם והשפעתו הרוחנית על הקהילה שסביבו. נבחן את מערכת היחסים השכונתית, את מארג השכנוּת ואת הדמויות המתפקדות בו.
3ג
דיון
פתיחה
דף הלימוד עוסק בסביבתו ("שביבותיה") של החכם התלמודי: המרקם החברתי המורכב הסובב את מנהיג הקהילה.
נגלה דמויות נוספות בקהילה, שבכוחן לשנות את מערך היחסים בה. נעמוד על כוחו של המנהיג בקהילתו ועל הביקורת המרומזת של התלמוד על השימוש הנעשה בכוח זה.
4ד
בסורא הוות דברתא [בסורא היה דֶבר], בשיבבותיה דרב לא הוות דברתא [בשכונתו של רב לא היה דֶבר]. סברו מיניה משום זכותיה דרב דנפיש [חשבו שזה משום זכויותיו הרבות של רב]. איתחזי להו בחילמא [נראה להם בחלום]: רב דנפישא זכותיה טובא [רב, שזכויותיו רבות ביותר], הא מילתא זוטרא ליה לרב [זהו דבר קטן לו לרב]. אלא משום ההוא גברא [אלא (הזכויות הן) בשל אותו האיש], דשייל מרא וזבילא לקבורה [שהיה משאיל מעדר ואת לצורכי קבורה].
בדרוקרת הוות דליקתא [בדרוקרת הייתה דליקה], ובשיבבותיה דרב הונא לא הוות דליקתא [ובשכונתו של רב הונא לא הייתה דליקה]. סבור מינה בזכותא דרב הונא דנפיש [חשבו שזה משום זכויותיו הרבות של רב הונא]. איתחזי להו בחילמא [נראה להם בחלום]: האי זוטרא ליה לרב הונא [זה עניין קטן הוא לרב הונא], אלא משום ההיא איתתא דמחממת תנורא, ומשיילי לשיבבותיה [אלא (הזכויות הן) בשל אותה אישה שמחממת את התנור ומשאילה לשכנותיה].
If all three died on one day or over four days, this is not a plague of pestilence. In explanation of the counterintuitive ruling that many deaths in one day is not indicative of a plague, the Gemara relates: Drokart was a city that sent out five hundred infantrymen, and three dead were removed from it on one day. Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda decreed a fast on account of the plague. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: In accordance with whose opinion did you declare this fast? It must be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir. This is related to the definition of a forewarned ox, an animal that has gored enough times to be considered a dangerous beast that requires careful supervision, as Rabbi Meir said: The owner of an ox is liable to pay full damages if its acts of goring were separated, i.e., if it gored three times on three consecutive days, as claimed by the Rabbis. If its acts of goring were near each other, performed on a single day, is it not all the more so that this animal should be classified as a forewarned ox? However, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak continued, this represents a minority opinion. Just as Rabbi Meir’s reasoning is rejected for halakha in the case of an ox, so too it is rejected with regard to a plague. Upon hearing this impressive argument, Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: Let the Master arise and come to live with us as our community leader. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to him: We already learned in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: It is not the place of a person that honors him; rather, the person honors his place, as we found with regard to Mount Sinai, that as long as the Divine Presence rested upon it, the Torah said: “Neither let the flocks nor the herds feed before that mount” (Exodus 34:3). Once the Divine Presence departed from the mountain, the Torah said: “When the shofar sounds long they shall come up to the mount” (Exodus 19:13). This indicates that the sanctity was not inherent to the place but was due to the Divine Presence resting there. And we likewise found with regard to the Tent of Meeting that was in the wilderness, that whenever it was erected, the Torah said: “That they put out of the camp every leper” (Numbers 5:2). Once the curtain was rolled up and the Tent of Meeting was prepared for travel, zavim and lepers were permitted to enter the place where it had stood. The place itself had no intrinsic sanctity; rather, it was sacred only because the Divine Presence was there. Accordingly, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak maintained that there is no reason for him to move places to receive honor. Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: If so, let me arise and come to the Master, to learn Torah from you. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to him: It is better that one hundred dinars that is the son of a peras, fifty dinars, should come to one hundred dinars that is the son of one hundred dinars; but one hundred dinars that is the son of one hundred dinars, should not come to one hundred dinars that is the son of a peras. In other words, although Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak was a learned scholar, comparable to one hundred dinars, it was nevertheless more appropriate for him to come to Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda. Whereas Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak was the son of a peras, an ordinary man, Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda was the son of a scholar. The Gemara relates another story involving a plague: Once there was a plague of pestilence in Sura, but in the neighborhood of Rav there was no pestilence. The people therefore thought that this was due to Rav’s great merit. However, it was revealed to them in a dream that Rav’s merit was too great and this matter too small for the merit of Rav to be involved. Rather, his neighborhood was spared due to the acts of kindness of a certain man, who would lend his hoe [mara] and shovel [zevila] to prepare sites for burial. The Gemara relates a similar incident. In Drokart there was a fire, but in the neighborhood of Rav Huna there was no fire. The people therefore thought that this was due to Rav Huna’s great merit. It was revealed to them in a dream that this matter was too small for the merit of Rav Huna to have played a role. Rather, it was due to a certain woman who heats her oven and lends it, i.e., the use of her oven, to her neighbors. They said to Rav Yehuda: Locusts have come to our region. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast. They said to him: They are not destroying anything, as they are eating only a little. He said to them: Have they brought provisions with them, that they have something else to eat? Even if they are not damaging your crops now, they will certainly eat them soon. On another occasion, they said to Rav Yehuda: There is pestilence among the pigs. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast. The Gemara asks: Let us say that Rav Yehuda maintains that a plague affecting one species will come to affect all species, and that is why he decreed a fast. The Gemara answers: No, in other cases there is no cause for concern. However, pigs are different, as their intestines are similar to those of humans. Consequently, their disease might spread to people. They said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in the region of Bei Ḥozai, which is quite a distance from Babylonia. Shmuel decreed a fast. They said to him: But it is far from here. He said: There is no crossing here that will stop the pestilence, and therefore there is cause for concern that it will reach us. They said to Rav Naḥman: There is pestilence in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Naḥman decreed a fast in Babylonia, saying: If the lady of the house, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, is afflicted, is it not all the more so that the maidservant, Babylonia, will be afflicted? The Gemara asks: The reason for this ruling is apparently only because Eretz Yisrael is a lady in comparison to the Diaspora, which is likened to a maidservant. It may be inferred from this that in a case involving a maidservant and a maidservant, i.e., two places in the Diaspora, there is no reason to fast. But in the previous story, when they said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in the region of Bei Ḥozai, he decreed a fast in Neharde’a, despite the fact that Neharde’a is not considered a lady with respect to Bei Ḥozai. The Gemara answers: It is different there. Since there are caravans that regularly travel from Bei Ḥozai to Neharde’a, the pestilence will join and accompany them in the caravans. § Apropos the above stories that deal with the merits of ordinary people, the Gemara relates: Abba the Bloodletter would receive greetings from the yeshiva on High every day, and Abaye would receive these greetings every Shabbat eve, and Rava would receive greetings only once a year on Yom Kippur eve. Abaye was distressed due to Abba the Bloodletter, as he did not understand why Abba received greater honor than he did. They said to him: You are unable to perform what he does, and therefore you do not merit the same honor. The Gemara asks: And what were these righteous deeds of Abba the Bloodletter? The Gemara explains that when he would perform a matter of bloodletting, he would bring in men separately from women, for reasons of modesty. And he had a special garment that had a slit in the place of the incision [kusilta] where the bloodletting instrument was inserted. When a woman came to him, he would have her dress in that garment, so that he would not see her exposed. And furthermore, he had a hidden place where he worked, where customers would place the coins [peshitei] that he would take as his fee. In this manner, one who had money would throw it there, while one who did not have money was not embarrassed. When a Torah scholar came to him for bloodletting, he would take no pay from him, and after the scholar arose, Abba would give him money and say to him: Go and purchase food with this money to heal yourself, as it is important to eat healthy food after bloodletting. One day, Abaye sent a pair of Sages to investigate the extent of Abba the Bloodletter’s righteousness. Abba the Bloodletter sat them down, and gave them food to eat, and gave them something to drink. And at night he spread out mats [bistarkei] for them to sleep on.
5ה
דיון
  • מה מעמדו של מנהיג הקהילה לעומת מעמדן של הדמויות האנונימיות המוזכרות בסיפורים?
  • מהו תפקידן של דמויות אנונימיות אלה בסיפורים?
  • מהו תפקידו של הרב בסיפורים?
  • מדוע לדעתכם בחר הדרשן לתאר כך את ההתרחשות בקהילה?
6ו
דיון
לימוד בחברותות
בשלושת הסיפורים הבאים נבחן את ההתרחשות החברתית בחצר השכונתית, ואת בעלי התפקידים הפועלים בה. ננסה לבדוק מה כוחו של החכם בסביבת מגוריו, וכיצד הוא בוחר להשתמש בכוח זה.
7ז
"[בכו תבכה] בלילה" (איכה א' 2) - למה בלילה? לפי שאין קול הולך אלא בלילה, לכך נאמר "בלילה". אמר ר' איבו: לילה מושך עמה קינה.
מעשה באשה אחת שהייתה בשכונתו של רבן גמליאל והיה לה בן תשחורת ומת והייתה בוכה עליו בלילה. והיה רבן גמליאל שומע את קולה, והיה נזכר חורבן בית המקדש, והיה בוכה עמה עד שנשרו ריסי עיניו. וכיון שהרגישו בו תלמידיו, עמדו ופנו אותה משכונתו.
8ח
ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב: כל המתקשה על מתו יותר מדאי - על מת אחר הוא בוכה. ההיא איתתא דהות בשיבבותיה דרב הונא [אותה אשה שהייתה בשכונתו של רב הונא], הוו לה שבעה בני [היו לה שבעה בנים]. מת חד מינייהו [מת אחד מהם]. הוות קא בכיא ביתירתא עליה [הייתה בוכה עליו ביותר]. שלח לה רב הונא: לא תעבדי הכי [אל תעשי כך]! לא אשגחה ביה [לא השגיחה בו]. שלח לה: אי צייתת [אם את מצייתת] - מוטב, ואי לא - צבית זוודתא לאידך מית [הכיני צידה (תכריכים) למת אחר]. ומיתו כולהו [ומתו כולם]. לסוף אמר לה: תימוש זוודתא לנפשיך [הכיני צידה לעצמך], ומיתא [ומתה].
And Rav Yehuda said further in the name of Rav: Anyone who grieves excessively over his dead and does not allow himself to be consoled will in the end weep for another person. The Gemara relates that a certain woman who lived in the neighborhood of Rav Huna had seven sons. One of them died and she wept for him excessively. Rav Huna sent a message to her: Do not do this. But she took no heed of him. He then sent another message to her: If you listen to me, it is well, but if not, prepare shrouds for another death. But she would not listen and they all died. In the end, when she continued with her excessive mourning, he said to her: Since you are acting in this way, prepare shrouds for yourself, and soon thereafter she died. The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse that states: “Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him” (Jeremiah 22:10): “Weep not for the dead” is referring to excessive mourning; “neither bemoan him” more than the appropriate measure of time. How so? What is the appropriate measure? Three days for weeping, and seven for eulogizing, and thirty for the prohibition against ironing clothing and for the prohibition against cutting hair. From this point forward the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Do not be more merciful with the deceased than I am. If the Torah commands one to mourn for a certain period of time, then that suffices.
9ט
דיון
  • כיצד פועלים רבן גמליאל ורב הונא לנוכח בכייה של אישה על בנה בשכנותם?
  • איזה תפקיד ממלאים התלמידים בחצרו של רב הונא?
  • מה דעתכם על סיפורים אלה? כיצד הם משקפים את האופן שבו חכמים שולטים בחיי שכונתם?
10י
להטיל שלום בין איש לאשתו
רבי מאיר הוה יתיב ודריש בלילי שבתא [היה יושב ודורש בלילי שבת]. הוה תמן חדא איתתא יציבא ושמעה ליה [הייתה שם אישה אחת שעמדה והקשיבה לו] תנתא מדרשא [שנתה מדרש], אמתינת עד דיחסל ממדרש [המתינה עד שיסיים את המדרש], אזלה לביתה [הלכה לביתה], אשכחא בוצינא טפי [מצאה את הנר כבוי]. אמר לה בעלה: אן הוית [היכן היית]? אמרה ליה [לו]: אנא יתיבא ושמעה קליא דרושה [אני יושבת ושומעת את קול הדרשן]. אמר לה: כן וכן, לא אעיילת להכא עד דאזלת ורוקת באנפי דרושה [לא תיכנסי לכאן לפני שתלכי ותרקי בפניו של הדרשן]. יתיב שבתא קמייתא, תנינא ותליתא [ישב שבת ראשונה, שנייה ושלישית]. אמרין לה מגירתא [אמרו לה השכנות]: כדו אתון צהיבין [כעת אתם צהובים (מסוכסכים)]? אתינן עמך [נבוא איתך] לגבי דרושה [אצל הדרשן]. כיוון דחמי יתהון [שראה אותן] רבי מאיר, צפה ברוח הקודש. אמר להו [אמר להן]: אית מנכון איתתא דחכימא למילחש בעינא [יש ביניכן אשה חכמה היודעת ללחוש בעין (לצרכי רפואה)]? אמרין לה מגירתא [אמרו לה השכנות]: כדו את אזלת ורוקת באנפיה ותשרי לבעלך [כעת את הולכת ויורקת בפניו ותהיי מותרת לבעלך]. כיון דיתבא קמי [שישבה לפניו] - אידחילת מיניה [יראה ממנו]. אמרה ליה [אמרה לו]: רבי, לית אנא חכימא למילחש עינא [אין אני חכמה ללחוש בעין]. אמר לה: אפילו הכי, רוקי באנפי שבע זימנין ואנא מינשים [אפילו כך, ירקי בפניי שבע פעמים ואני מתרפא]. עבדה הכין [עשתה כן]. אמר לה: איזילי [לכי], אמרי לבעליך: את אמרת חדא זימנא ואנא רקית שבע זימנין [אתה אמרת פעם אחת, ואני רקקתי שבע פעמים]. אמרו לו תלמידיו: רבי, כך מבזין את התורה? לא היה לך למימר לחד מינן למלחש לך [לא היית צריך להגיד לאחד מאתנו ללחוש לך]? אמר להו [להם]: לא דיו למאיר להיות שווה לקונו? דתני [ששנה] ר' ישמעאל: גדול שלום, ששם הגדול שנכתב בקדושה אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא ימחה על המים בשביל להטיל שלום בין איש לאשתו.
Said Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Great is peace, for all blessings are included with it, "Adonai grants strength to His people, Adonai blesses his people with peace" (Psalm 29:11). Ḥizkiyah said two things. Ḥizkiyah said: Great is peace, for all the commandments are written this way: "When you see" (Exodus 23:5), "when you encounter" (Exodus 23:4), "when you come across" (Deuteronomy 22:6). If a commandment comes to you you are bound to do it, but if not you are not bound to do it. But here it says "Seek peace and pursue it" (Psalm 34:15) – seek it for your place, and pursue it for other places. Ḥizkiyah said also: Great is peace, for of all the encampments it is written thus (Numbers 33) "And they set out... and they encamped" – they would set out divided and would encamp divided. When they all came before Mt. Sinai it was done as one encampment, as it is written (Exodus 19:2) "And Israel encamped there"—it isn't written "And the Israelites encamped there" in the plural, but "and Israel encamped there" in the singular!—Because of this the Holy Blessed One said, "Here is the gate where I will give the Torah to My children." Bar Kappara said three things. Bar Kappara said: Great is peace, for the scriptures use words of fiction in the Torah so as to impose peace between Abraham and Sarah, as it is written "After I am withered shall I have pleasure? And my husband is so old!" (Genesis 18:12) But to Abraham He didn't say that but rather "And I am so old!" (Genesis 18:13). Bar Kappara also said: Great is peace, for the scriptures use words of fiction in the Prophetic books to impose peace between husband and wife, as it is said, "Look, you are barren and have borne no children, but you will conceive and bear a son" (Judges 13:3), but to Manoaḥ He didn't say that but rather "All that I said to the woman she should follow" (Judges 13:13) – in all that she still needs markers. Bar Kappara also said: Great is peace, for if the celestials who have no jealousy or hatred or rivalry or strife or quarrels or debates or evil eye require peace, as it is written (Job 25:2) "He who makes peace in the heavens," how much more so the mortals who have all those traits? Said Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel: Great is peace, because the writings spoke works of fiction in the Torah to impose peace between Joseph and his brothers, as it is written (Genesis 50:17) “Thus say to Yosef, please forgive” - but we do not find Jacob commanding any such thing! Said Rabbi Yosei the Galilean: Great is pace, for even in a time of war we only open with peace, as it is written (Deuteronomy 20:10) "When you approach a city to make war on it, call out to it for peace." Said Rabbi Yudan son of Rabbi Yosei: Great is peace, for the name of the Holy Blessed One is called peace, as it is written "And he called it "Adonai is peace" (Judges 6:24). Said Rabbi Tanḥum son of Yudan, from here we derive that it is forbidden for one to call out "Peace" to a companion in a filthy place. Taught Rabbi Yishmael: Great is peace, for even the Great Name written in holiness, the Holy Blessed One said to blot out in water so as to impose peace between husband and wife. (See Numbers 5:19-23). Rabbi Meir was sitting and discoursing on Shabbat evening. There was this one woman who would sit and listen to him give his lecture. Once she waited until the lecture ended, went home, and found the light had gone out. Her husband said to her, "Where have you been?" She said to him, "I was sitting and listening to the voice of the lecturer." He said to her, "Thus and more I vow: I will not let you enter here until you go and spit in the lecturer's face!" She stayed away one Shabbat, another, a third. Her neighbors said to her, "Are you still angry at each other? Let's come with you to the lecture." When Rabbi Meir saw them, he figured it out through the holy spirit. He said to them, "Is there here a woman knowledgeable in treating eyes?" Her neighbors said to her, "If you go spit in his eye you will unbind your husband." When she sat down in front of him she became afraid of him, and said to him, "Rabbi, I am not knowledgeable in treating eyes." He said to her, "Even so, spit in my eye seven times, and I will be cured." She did so. He said to her, "Go tell your husband you told me to do it once and I spat seven times. His disciples said to him, "Rabbi, should people thus abuse the Torah? Couldn't one of us offered a treatment for you?" He said to them, "Is it not enough for Meir to be like his Maker?" For it had been taught: Great is peace, for even the Great Name written in holiness, the Holy Blessed One said to blot out in water so as to impose peace between husband and wife." Said Rabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta: Great is peace, for when the Holy Blessed One created His universe He made pace between the upper and lower parts. On the first day He created some of the upper and lower parts, as it is written "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth" (Genesis 1:1). On the second He created some of the upper parts, as it is written "And God said, 'let there be a firmament'" (Genesis 1:6). On the third He created some of the lower parts, as it is written, "And God said, 'gather the waters'" (Genesis 1:9). On the fourth some of the upper parts — "Let there be lights in the heavenly firmament" (Genesis 1:14). On the fifth He created some of the lower parts — "And God said, 'Let the waters swarm'" (Genesis 1:20). On the sixth He came to create humanity. He said, "If I create him from more upper parts, then the upper parts will outnumber the lower by one creation. If I create him from more lower parts, then the lower parts will outnumber the upper by one creation." What did He do? He made him from upper parts and from lower parts, as it is written "And Adonai God created humanity from the dust of the earth" (Genesis 2:7) — lower parts, "and blew into his nostrils the breath of life (Genesis 2:7) — upper parts. Rabbi Manei of Sh'av and Rabbi Yehoshua of Sikhnin said in the name of Rabbi Levi: Great is peace for all blessings and goodnesses and mercies that the Holy Blessed One gives to Israel are sealed with peace. The reading of the Shema — "spreads the shelter of peace." The standing prayer — "He who makes peace." The Priestly Blessing — "and grant you peace" (Numbers 6:26). And I only know this regarding blessings, so where do we derive this for sacrifices? "This is the Torah of the burnt-offering, of the grain-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the guilt-offering, and of the fulfillment-offerings, and of the peace-offering" (Leviticus 7:37). I only know this in general, so where do we derive this in detail? "This is the Torah of the burnt-offering" (Leviticus 6:2), "This is the Torah of the grain-offering" (Leviticus 6:7), "This is the Torah of the sin-offering" (Leviticus 6:18), "This is the Torah of the guilt-offering" (Leviticus 7:1), "This is the Torah of the peace-offering" (Leviticus 7:11). I only know this for individual sacrifices, so where do we derive this for communal sacrifices? The verse (Numbers 29:39) says, "Do these for Adonai on your set times," but finishes with "your peace-offerings." I only know this in this world, so from where do we derive this in the next? "I will extend to her peace like a wadi" (Isaiah 66:12). The Rabbis said, great is peace for when the messianic king will come he will only open with peace, as it is written, "How pleasant on the mountains are the feet of the messenger proclaiming peace!" (Isaiah 52:7)
11יא
דיון
בסיפור זה מצטיירת מערכת יחסים מורכבת סביב בית מדרשו של רבי מאיר - דרשתו בליל שבת גורמת לסכסוך משפחתי, שנפתר רק בזכות מעורבותו.
  • עד כמה, לדעתכם, צריך החכם לגלות רגישות לנעשה בשכונתו?
  • מה תפקידן של השכנות בסיפור? איך אתם רואים את התנהגותן ביחס להתנהגותו של ר' מאיר?
12יב
דיון
סיכום
נעלה לדיון את השאלות שהנחו את הלימוד ונשרטט את מבנה השכונה התלמודית.
  • מי עומד במרכז השכונה? מי הן דמויות המשנה?
  • מה כוחו של החכם בשכונתו? והאם הוא משתמש בו לטובת קהילתו?
ניתן להרחיב בדוגמאות מקבילות לימינו:
  • מי ממלא היום את תפקיד החכם או בעל הכוח במרחב השכונתי?
  • באיזו מידה אנו משפיעים אחד על השני כשכנים?
  • האם בימינו יכולה להתקיים מערכת שכונתית שכזו?
14 יד
15טו
דף מספר 1 בסדרה "שביבותיה" -סיפורים במארג השכנות, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
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