"שביבותיה" חלק שני - על חכמים וביריונים
1א
הדף מאת: עידו דרור / עלמא
2ב
שיעור שני בסדרה העוסקת ביחסי שכנות בסביבתם של חכמים. בשיעור זה נבחן כיצד מתמודדים חכמים עם בריונים בשכונתם, האם הם מפעילים את כוחם שלהם כנגד הבריונות? והאם הסיפורים מעודדים דרך זו או מבקרים אותה?
3ג
דיון
בשלושת הסיפורים שלפנינו מוצגת לכאורה חלוקה ספרותית ברורה בין צדיק לרשע, בין הרב לבריוני שכונתו. אך בכולם יש רמז להיפוך תפקידים - לא ברור מי הוא הבריון ומי צריך לחזור בתשובה.
מטרת הלימוד היא להדגיש את הזהירות הנדרשת ממנהיגים הנמצאים בעמדת כוח, מפני שימוש לא ראוי בכוחם בסביבתם הפרטית, זאת גם כאשר הם פועלים לכאורה למען 'הסדר הטוב' בשכונתם, שכן פעילות זו עשויה להתפרש כמעשה בריונות.

שאלות מנחות ללימוד בחברותא:
  • איזה תפקיד ממלאת כל אחת מהדמויות בסיפורים?
  • מהם היחסים הנרקמים במארג השכנות של החכמים?
  • אילו ביטויי אלימות גלויים וסמויים עולים בסיפורים?
  • מי הופך להיות הציר המרכזי בחיי השכונה?
4ד
ר' מאיר והבריונים
הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דרבי מאיר והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא. הו הקא בעי רבי מאיר רחמי עלויה דלימותו. אמרה ליה ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך? –משום דכתיב: "יתמו חטאים" (תהילים ק"ד 35), מי כתיב "חוטאים"? "חטאים" כתיב! ועוד, שפיל לסיפיה דקרא: "ורשעים עוד אינם" כיון ד"יתמו חטאים" – "ורשעים עוד אינם" (שם) אלא, בעי רחמי עלויהו, דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם.
With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say Halleluya until he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: There were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed for God to have mercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking? On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, as it is written: “Let sins cease from the land” (Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But is it written, let sinners cease?” Let sins cease, is written. One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves. Moreover, go to the end of the verse, where it says: “And the wicked will be no more.” If, as you suggest, transgressions shall cease refers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that the wicked will be no more, i.e., that they will no longer be evil? Rather, pray for God to have mercy on them, that they should repent, as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.
5ה
דיון
רבי מאיר משתמש בכוח תפילתו לבקש את מותם של בריוני שכונתו. אשתו ברוריא מוכיחה אותו על מעשיו ומלמדת אותו מפסוק בתהלים שיש להפריד בין האדם למעשיו, ולהתפלל שייתמו חטאים ולא חוטאים.
  • מי הוא הבריון בעיני המספר? האם בריוני השכונה או רבי מאיר המבקש את מותם?
  • מי מוביל לחזרה בתשובה בסיומו של הסיפור ומי החוזרים?
  • כיצד בונה הסיפור את דמותה של ברוריא?
6ו
רבי זירא והבריונים
הנהו בריוני דהוה בשיבבותיה דרבי זירא דהוה מקרב להו כי היכי דניהדרו להו בתיובתא והוו קפדי רבנן כי נח נפשיה דרבי זירא אמרי עד האידנא הוה חריכא קטין שקיה הרהרו בלבייהו, ועבדו תשובה דהוה בעי עלן רחמי השתא מאן בעי עלן רחמי.
And three rows of Torah scholars sit before the judges, and each and every one among those sitting recognizes his place, i.e., they are seated in accordance with their stature. When the court must ordain an additional judge, e.g., if a judge dies during the proceedings or in the case of a court without a decisive majority (see 40a), the court ordains the greatest Torah scholar from the first row. As a seat in the first row is now vacant, one Torah scholar from the second row comes to the first row, and one Torah scholar from the third row comes to the second row, and the court selects another Torah scholar from among the assembled and they seat him in the third row. And this Torah scholar who moves from the second row to the first row would not sit in the place of the first Torah scholar, who joined the court, rather, he would sit in the place appropriate for him, i.e., at the end of that row, in accordance with his stature. GEMARA: The mishna teaches that the Sanhedrin would sit in a semicircle. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina says: As the verse states: “Your navel is like a round goblet, let no mingled wine be wanting; your belly is like a heap of wheat set about with lilies” (Song of Songs 7:3). This verse is interpreted as referring to the members of the Sanhedrin, who sit in a semicircle. “Your navel”; this is an allusion to the Sanhedrin. And why is it called by way of allusion “your navel”? It is because it sits in the navel of the world, in the Temple. “Goblet [aggan]”; this teaches that the Sanhedrin protects [meginna] the entire world with its merit. “Round [hassahar]”; this teaches that the Sanhedrin is similar to the moon [sahar]. The court sits in a semicircle, like the shape of the moon. “Let no mingled wine be wanting”; this compares the Sanhedrin to wine mixed with water, which typically involved mixing two parts water with one part wine. This teaches that if one member of the Great Sanhedrin needed to leave, they see: If there are still present in the Chamber of Hewn Stone twenty-three members, i.e., a third of the judges, corresponding to the number of a lesser Sanhedrin, he may leave, but if not, he may not leave. The phrase “your belly is like a heap of wheat” teaches that just as with regard to a heap of wheat, all derive benefit from it, so too, with regard to the Sanhedrin, all derive benefit from their explanations of the Torah. The phrase “set about with lilies” is said in praise of the Jewish people, as they do not breach even a fence made of lilies, since the Jewish people observe both Torah law as well as rabbinic ordinances and decrees. And this is like an incident involving Rav Kahana, as a certain heretic said to Rav Kahana: You say that it is permitted for a menstruating woman to seclude herself with a man, i.e., her husband. Is it possible to set fire to chips of kindling and not have them blaze and burn? How can the couple be relied upon not to engage in sexual intercourse? Rav Kahana said to him: The Torah testifies concerning us that we are “set about with lilies,” as the Jewish people do not breach even a fence made of lilies. Reish Lakish says that the source to rely on them not to transgress is from here: “Your temples [rakkatekh] are like a pomegranate split open” (Song of Songs 6:7), which teaches that even the empty people [reikanin] among you are as full of mitzvot as the pomegranate is full of seeds. Rabbi Zeira says that the source is from here: The verse states concerning the occasion when Isaac blessed Jacob: “And he smelled the smell of his garments, and blessed him, and said: See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field that the Lord has blessed” (Genesis 27:27). Do not read “his garments [begadav]”; rather, read: His traitors [bogedav], meaning that even traitors and sinners among the Jewish people have qualities “as the smell of a field that the Lord has blessed.” The Gemara relates: There were certain hooligans [biryonei] who were living in the neighborhood of Rabbi Zeira. He brought them close, i.e., treated them with friendship, in order to cause them to repent of their sins, but the other Sages disapproved of his actions. When Rabbi Zeira died, those hooligans said: Until now, there was the short one with singed legs, i.e., Rabbi Zeira, who would pray for compassion for us. Who will pray for compassion for us now? They thought about this in their hearts and repented. Ultimately, Rabbi Zeira’s actions were proven correct, as they repented. § The mishna teaches that there are three rows of Torah scholars who sit before the court, and if one of the Torah scholars from the first row is elevated to a place on the court, the Torah scholar in the first position of the second row moves to the final position of the first row. Abaye says: Learn from the mishna that when they move, i.e., when the Torah scholars need to move as a result of one of them being elevated to the court, they all move. The Gemara inquires: But let the one being moved from the first position of the second row to the last position of the first row say to the court: Until now I was sitting at the head of the row, but now you are seating me at the tail, i.e., the end, of a row. Abaye says in explanation: That is not a valid claim, as the court can say this to him: Be a tail to the lions and do not be a head to the foxes (Avot 4:15), meaning that it is preferable to be the least among great people than the greatest among lesser people. MISHNA: How does the court intimidate the witnesses in giving testimony for cases of capital law? They would bring the witnesses in and intimidate them by saying to them: Perhaps what you say in your testimony is based on conjecture, or perhaps it is based on a rumor, perhaps it is testimony based on hearsay, e.g., you heard a witness testify to this in a different court, or perhaps it is based on the statement of a trusted person. Perhaps you do not know that ultimately we examine you with inquiry and interrogation, and if you are lying, your lie will be discovered. The court tells them: You should know that cases of capital law are not like cases of monetary law. In cases of monetary law, a person who testifies falsely, causing money to be given to the wrong party, can give the money to the proper owner and his sin is atoned for. In cases of capital law, if one testifies falsely, the blood of the accused and the blood of his offspring that he did not merit to produce are ascribed to the witness’s testimony until eternity. The proof for this is as we found with Cain, who killed his brother, as it is stated concerning him: “The voice of your brother’s blood [demei] cries out to Me from the ground” (Genesis 4:10). The verse does not state: Your brother’s blood [dam], in the singular, but rather: “Your brother’s blood [demei],” in the plural. This serves to teach that the loss of both his brother’s blood and the blood of his brother’s offspring are ascribed to Cain. The mishna notes: Alternatively, the phrase “your brother’s blood [demei],” written in the plural, teaches that that his blood was not gathered in one place but was splattered on the trees and on the stones. The court tells the witnesses: Therefore, Adam the first man was created alone, to teach you that with regard to anyone who destroys one soul from the Jewish people, i.e., kills one Jew, the verse ascribes him blame as if he destroyed an entire world, as Adam was one person, from whom the population of an entire world came forth. And conversely, anyone who sustains one soul from the Jewish people, the verse ascribes him credit as if he sustained an entire world. The mishna cites another reason Adam the first man was created alone: And this was done due to the importance of maintaining peace among people, so that one person will not say to another: My father, i.e., progenitor, is greater than your father. And it was also so that the heretics who believe in multiple gods will not say: There are many authorities in Heaven, and each created a different person. And this serves to tell of the greatness of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as when a person stamps several coins with one seal, they are all similar to each other. But the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, stamped all people with the seal of Adam the first man, as all of them are his offspring, and not one of them is similar to another. Therefore, since all humanity descends from one person, each and every person is obligated to say: The world was created for me, as one person can be the source of all humanity, and recognize the significance of his actions. The court says to the witnesses: And perhaps you will say:
7ז
דיון
  • מפגש זה בין חכם לבריוני שכונתו, נראה כמפגש חיובי: ר' זירא מקרב את בריוני השכונה על מנת שיחזרו בתשובה. מדוע אם כן מקפידים חכמים על ר' זירא? האם הגמרא מבקשת לרמוז לנו משהו בגנותם של חכמים או אולי בגנותו של ר' זירא?
  • מה ניתן ללמוד מכך שהבריונים חוזרים בתשובה רק לאחר מותו של ר' זירא?
8ח
ואימת רתח? אמר אביי? בהנך תלת שעי קמייתא, כי חיורא כרבלתא דתרנגולא וקאי אחד כרעא... ההוא מינא דהוה בשבבותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי, הוה קא מצער ליה טובא בקראי. יומא חד שקל תרנגולא ואוקמיה בין כרעי' דערסא ועיין ביה. סבר כי מטא ההיא שעתא, אלטייה. כי מטא ההיא שעתא ניים אמר ש"מ לאו אורח ארעא למעבד הכי. "ורחמיו על כל מעשיו" (תהילים, קמה ט), כתיב. וכתיב: "גם ענוש לצדיק לא טוב" (משלי, יז, כו).

הסברים
  • תרגום: ומתי אלוהים כועס? באותן שלוש שעות ראשונות כאשר כרבולת התרנגול לבנה והוא עומד על רגל אחת... אותו מין היה בשכונתו של רבי יהושע בן לוי, שהיה מצער אותו הרבה בפסוקים. יום אחד לקח תרנגול, והעמיד אותו בין רגלי המיטה ועיין בו. סבר כשתבוא אותה שעה, אקלל אותו. כאשר הגיעה אותה שעה – נרדם. אמר: יש ללמוד מכך כי אין זה דרך ארץ לעשות כן. "ורחמיו על כל מעשיו" (תהילים, קמה ט), כתוב. וכתיב: "גם ענוש לצדיק לא טוב" (משלי, יז, כו).
The Gemara asks: When is the Holy One, Blessed be He, angry? Abaye said: God’s anger is revealed through animals. During the first three hours of the day, when the sun whitens the crest of the rooster and it stands on one leg. When it appears that its life has left him and he suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry. The Gemara asks: The rooster also stands that way every hour. What kind of sign is this? The Gemara answers: The difference is that every other hour when the rooster stands in that way, there are red streaks in his crest. But when God is angry, there are no red streaks in his crest. The Gemara relates: A certain heretic who was in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s neighborhood would upset him by incessantly challenging the legitimacy of verses. One day, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi took a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bed upon which he sat and looked at it. He thought: When the moment of God’s anger arrives, I will curse him and be rid of him. When the moment of God’s anger arrived, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi slept. When he woke up, he said to himself: Conclude from the fact that I nodded off that it is not proper conduct to do so, to curse people, even if they are wicked. “His mercy is over all His creations” (Psalms 145:9) is written even with regard to sinners. Moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as it is written: “Punishment, even for the righteous, is not good” (Proverbs 17:26), even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another.
9ט
דיון
זהו סיפור אבסורדי על אלימות סמויה בין מין (גוי) אחד, לבין חכם החי בשכנות לו, וסובל משאלותיו הרבות.
  • מה הביא את ר' יהושע בן לוי להתנהג בדרך כה חריגה? מה דעתכם על החלטתו?
  • האם ניתן לראות גם בסיפור זה היפוך תפקידים?
  • מה דעתכם על התובנה של ר' יהושע בן לוי בסיום הסיפור?
10י
דיון
סיכום
שאלת היחס בין אנשי ציבור (רבנים, פולטיקאים), לבין מפירי הסדר או מי שנחשב כזה, רלוונטית גם בימינו. לכאורה פועלים המנהיגים למען הסדר הטוב, אך לעתים השימוש שהם עושים בכוחם פסול. ניתן למצוא מקבילות ל'רבנן ובריוני' בכל שכונה ומרחב ציבורי.

מתי מנצלים בעלי כוח את עמדתם לפגיעה ב"אחר" הנמצא בסביבתם? מי מגדיר את חלוקת התפקידים? באילו מבנים חברתיים משרתים זה את זה 'הבריונים' ובעלי הכוח? מי ממלא היום את תפקידה של ברוריא, להביא דברים על תיקונם?
12 יב
13יג
דף מספר 2 בסדרה "שביבותיה" -סיפורים במארג השכנות, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
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