בידי מי נמצא מפתח הגשמים? חלק ב'
1א
הדף מאת: מנחי גשר / גשר - מפעלים חינוכיים
2ב
מוטיב הגשם משמש בתנ"ך דימוי אולטימטיבי להשגחת אלוהים וביטוי ליחסי שכר ועונש קולקטיביים - "אם בחוקתי תלכו... ונתתי גשמיכם בעתם" (ויקרא כו, ג-ד). כיצד מתמודד עם רעיון זה האדם המודרני? היכן הם חופש הבחירה והעצמאות? האם אדם המצוי בעת צרה מסוגל לראות את צרתם של אחרים וחסרונם, או שהוא מרוכז בכאבו שלו? ומה בין תפילה לבין עצמאות ואחריות אישית של האדם על חייו?על כל אלו ננסה להרחיב מעט בלימוד זה, בסיוע הסרטון בסדרת 'גשר ההלכה' העוסק בנושא.
3ג
גשמי ברכה ותן טל
4ד
אמר רבי איבו: שני דברים שאלו [=ביקשו] ישראל מלפני הקב"ה ולא שאלו כהוגן, עמדו הנביאים ותקנו על ידיהם. ישראל אמרו: (הושע ו') "ויבא כגשם לנו". אמרו להן הנביאים: לא שאלתם כהוגן, שהגשמים הללו סימן טירחות [טרדות] הן לעולם, יוצאי דרכים מצירין [=מצטערים] בהם, מפרישי ימים [=מלחים פורשי מפרש] מצירין בהם, טחי גגות מצירין בהם, דורכי גיתות מצירין בהם, עומסי גרנות מצירין בהם, מי שבורו מלא מים וגתו מלא יין מצירין בהם, ואתם אומרים "ויבא כגשם לנו"? ועמדו הנביאים ותיקנו: (הושע י"ד) "אהיה כטל לישראל" [טל שכולם שמחים בו, ואין איש מצטער או ניזוק ממנו].

מושגים
  • שיר השירים רבה - מדרש אגדה ארץ-ישראלי מן המאות 7-6 הבנוי לפי סדר הפסוקים של מגילת שיר השירים. כתוב בלשון המשנה משולבת בארמית.
5ה
דיון
  • מה ההבדל בין הגשם לטל?
  • איך אנחנו מתייחסים לבקשה שטובה מאוד לאחד, ומזיקה לאחר?
  • האם תיתכן בכלל מציאות של גשם שהוא טוב לכולם, או לפחות לא מזיק לכולם?
  • 6ו
    אגדת בראשית פרק מד
    גדול הטל [יותר מן הגשמים, שכן בגשם יש המצטערים - כמו בסיפור שלפנינו, ואילו הטל נוח לכול], שפעם אחת גזר רבי יהודה הנשיא תענית שירדו גשמים, ועמדה זקנה אחת ועשתה לה כיריים [מטיט וחמר], והעלתה אותן לראש גג ליבשן. והיו הכל מתריעין ומתפללין שירדו גשמים, ואותה הזקנה מתפללת שיהא חורב, ואומרת: אל תשמע להן עד שתייבש הכיריים שלי. ושמע לה הקב"ה, מפני שהפילה בקשה, שנאמר "אהיה כטל לישראל יפרח כשושנה" (הושע י"ד ו) [דהיינו, אלוקים מבטיח: לא אוריד גשמים אלא כאשר זה נוח לכולם - כמו ירידת הטל].

    מילים
    • גזרו תענית ובקשו רחמים - דרך מקובלת להתמודד עם אסון קרב ובא: גוזרים צום על הציבור ומתפללים כדי לבטל את רוע הגזירה, במקרה זה, מותו של רבי הקרב ובא.
    7ז
    דיון
  • מדוע שמע הקב"ה דווקא לתפילתה של האישה ולא לבקשת הכלל ורבי יהודה?
  • האם בכל פעם שיורד גשם יש להמתין לתזמון הנוח לכולם על מנת להורידו?
  • 8ח
    אמר רב יוסף: מאי אהניא ליה צלותא דכהן גדול לגבי רבי חנינא בן דוסא. דתנן: היה מתפלל תפלה קצרה בבית החיצון. מאי מצלי? רבין בר אדא ורבא בר אדא דאמרי תרוייהו משמיה דרב יהודה: יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא השנה הזו גשומה ושחונה. שחונה מעלייתא היא? אדרבה, גריעותא היא! אלא: אם שחונה - תהא גשומה וטלולה. ואל יכנס לפניך תפילת עוברי דרכים. רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים משמיה דרב יהודה: לא יעדי עביד שולטן מדבית יהודה, ואל יהו עמך ישראל צריכין להתפרנס זה מזה, ולא לעם אחר).
    תרגום:
    אמר רב יוסף: מה הועילה לו תפילתו של הכהן הגדול לגבי רבי חנינא בן דוסא?! שכן שנינו: ביציאתו [של הכהן הגדול מקודש הקודשים ביום הכיפורים], היה מתפלל תפילה קצרה בבית החיצון. ומה הייתה תפילתו? נאמר בשמו של רב יהודה: "יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלוהינו, שתהא השנה הזו גשומה ושחונה גם יחד". הכיצד? האם 'שחונה' זו מעלה? והרי זו מגרעת. אלא ביקש: אם שחונה - תהא גשומה וטלולה [אם נגזר עליה שתהא שנה חמה ויבשה, אז תן בה גשמים וטללים רבים שירוו צימאון השדות], ואל תיכנס לפניך תפילת עוברי דרכים [המתפללים שלא ירד עליהם מטר בעת הליכתם בדרך]. רב אחא בנו של רבא מסיים משמו של רב יהודה: שלא ייפסק שלטון וממשלה מבית יהודה, ואל יהיו עמך ישראל צריכין להתפרנס זה מזה, ושלא יזדקקו לעם אחר.

    מושגים
    • תלמוד בבלי - חיבור קולקטיבי שבו מסוכמת הגותם של האמוראים במאות 3-5 לספירה כפרשנות והרחבה של המשנה, וכולל דברי הלכה ואגדה. האמוראים פעלו בשני מרכזים עיקריים, בבל וארץ-ישראל, ולפיכך ישנם שני תלמודים - התלמוד הירושלמי (הארץ-ישראלי) והתלמוד הבבלי שנחשב לחשוב מביניהם, ודיוניו ההלכתיים הם הבסיס להלכה הנוהגת עד היום. יש המדגישים כי התלמוד הבבלי מציג לעיתים קרובות נרטיב שונה (לפעמים אף באופן מהותי), מיצירתה של ארץ ישראל המשתקפת בספרות התנאים ובתלמוד הירושלמי, ומשקף את עולמם של יהודי בבל.
    was connected to the order of Nezikin, while they were largely unfamiliar with the rest of the Mishna, and we learn all six orders of the Mishna. And when Rav Yehuda reached tractate Uktzin, which discusses the extent to which various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of becoming ritually impure, which is the basis for the halakha that a woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, etc. (Teharot 2:1), and some say that when he reached the halakha that olives that are pickled with their leaves are ritually pure, etc., as they are no longer considered part of the fruit (Uktzin 2:1), he would say: Those are the disputes between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. He felt it was an extremely challenging passage, as difficult as the most complex arguments between Rav and Shmuel. And we, in contrast, learn tractate Uktzin in thirteen yeshivot, while, with regard to miracles, after declaring a fast to pray for a drought to end, when Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes as a sign of distress, the rain would immediately come, before he could remove his second shoe. And yet we cry out all day and no one notices us. Rabba continued: If the difference between the generations is due to inappropriate deeds, if there is anyone who has seen me do anything improper, let him say so. I am not at fault, but what can the great leaders of the generation do when their generation is not worthy, and rain is withheld on account of the people’s transgressions? The Gemara explains the reference to Rav Yehuda’s shoe. Rav Yehuda saw two people wasting bread, throwing it back and forth. He said: I can learn from the fact that people are acting like this that there is plenty in the world. He cast his eyes angrily upon the world, and there was a famine. The Sages said to Rav Kahana, son of Rav Neḥunya, the attendant of Rav Yehuda: The Master, who is frequently present before Rav Yehuda, should persuade him to leave by way of the door nearest the market, so that he will see the terrible effects of the famine. Rav Kahana persuaded Rav Yehuda, and he went out to the market, where he saw a crowd. He said to them: What is this gathering? They said to him: We are standing by a container [kuspa] of dates that is for sale. He said: If so many people are crowding around to purchase a single container of dates, I can learn from this that there is a famine in the world. He said to his attendant: I want to fast over this; remove my shoes as a sign of distress. He removed one of his shoes and rain came. When he began to take off the other shoe, Elijah came and said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: If you remove your other shoe, I will destroy the entire world so that you will not be further distressed. Rav Mari, son of Shmuel’s daughter, said: At that moment, I was standing on the bank of the Pappa River. I saw angels who appeared as sailors bringing sand and filling ships with it, and it became fine flour. Everyone came to buy this flour, but I said to them: Do not purchase this flour, as it is the product of miracles. Tomorrow, boats filled with wheat will come from Parzina, and you may purchase that produce. § The Gemara relates another story. Rava happened to come to the city of Hagrunya. He decreed a fast, but rain did not come. He said to the local residents: Everyone, continue your fast and do not eat tonight. The next morning he said to them: Whoever had a dream last night, let him say it. Rabbi Elazar of Hagronya said to them: The following was recited to me in my dream. Good greetings to a good master from a good Lord, Who in His goodness does good for His people. Rava said: I can learn from this that it is a favorable time to pray for mercy. He prayed for mercy and rain came. The Gemara relates another story that deals with prayer for rain. There was a certain man who was sentenced to be flogged by Rava’s court because he had relations with a gentile woman. Rava flogged the man and he died as a result. When this matter was heard in the house of the Persian King Shapur, he wanted to punish Rava for imposing the death penalty, as he thought, without the king’s permission. Ifra Hormiz, mother of King Shapur, said to her son: Do not interfere and quarrel with the Jews, as whatever they request from God, their Master, He gives them. He said to her: What is this that He grants them? She replied: They pray for mercy and rain comes. He said to her: This does not prove that God hears their prayers, as that occurs merely because it is the time for rain, and it just so happens that rain falls after they pray. Rather, if you want to prove that God answers the prayers of the Jews, let them pray for mercy now, in the summer season of Tammuz, and let rain come. Ifra Hormiz sent a message to Rava: Direct your attention and pray for mercy that rain may come. He prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. He said before God: Master of the Universe, it is written: “O God, we have heard with our ears, our fathers have told us, what work You did in their days, in days of old” (Psalms 44:2), but we have not seen it with our own eyes. As soon as he said this, rain came until the gutters of Meḥoza overflowed and poured into the Tigris River. Rava’s father came and appeared to him in a dream and said to him: Is there anyone who troubles Heaven so much to ask for rain out of its season? In his dream, his father further said to him: Change your place of rest at night. He changed his place, and the next day he found that his bed had been slashed by knives. The Gemara relates: Rav Pappa decreed a fast, but rain did not come. His heart became weak from hunger, so he swallowed [seraf ] a bowl [pinka] of porridge, and prayed for mercy, but rain still did not come. Rav Naḥman bar Ushpazti said to him: If the Master swallows another bowl of porridge, rain will come. He was mocking Rav Pappa for eating while everyone else was fasting. Rav Pappa was embarrassed and grew upset, and rain came. The Gemara tells another story about prayer for rain. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was traveling along a road when it began to rain. He said before God: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable, because they needed rain, but Ḥanina is suffering, as he is getting wet. The rain ceased. When he arrived at his home, he said before God: Master of the Universe, the entire world is suffering that the rain stopped, and Ḥanina is comfortable? The rain began to come again. Rav Yosef said, in reaction to this story: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have against that of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa? As we learned in a mishna: After leaving the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur, the High Priest would recite a brief prayer in the outer chamber. The Gemara asks: What would he pray? Ravin bar Adda and Rava bar Adda both say in the name of Rav Yehuda that this was his prayer: May it be Your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot. The Gemara expresses surprise at this request: Is heat a good matter? On the contrary, it is unfavorable. Why should he request that the year be hot? Rather, say that he recited the following: If the upcoming year is hot, may it also be rainy and moist with dew, lest the heat harm the crops. The High Priest would also pray: And let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presence. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, in the name of Rav Yehuda, concluded the wording of this prayer: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judea. And may Your nation Israel not depend upon each other for sustenance, nor upon another nation. Instead, they should be sustained from the produce of their own land. Evidently, the High Priest’s prayer that God should not listen to the prayer of individual travelers was disregarded in the case of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa. § The Gemara continues to discuss the righteous Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa and the wonders he performed. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Each and every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained by the merit of My son Ḥanina ben Dosa, and yet for Ḥanina, My son, a kav of carobs, a very small amount of inferior food, is sufficient to sustain him for an entire week, from one Shabbat eve to the next Shabbat eve. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s wife would heat the oven every Shabbat eve and create a great amount of smoke,
    9ט
    דיון
  • האם מטר היורד ומיטיב עם האחד אך מזיק לאחר, הוא דבר טוב או רע?
  • כיצד מקשר רב אחא את ירידת הגשמים עם יחסי אדם וחברו?
  • 10י
    שנו חכמים: "ונתתי גשמיכם בעתם" - בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות [אלו לילות שבהם אף אחד לא יצא מן הבית. בליל רביעי בגלל חשש ממזיקים ושדים, ובליל שבת מפני מנוחת השבת]. שכן מצינו בימי שמעון בן שטח, שירדו להם גשמים בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות, עד שנעשו חטים [גדולות] ככליות, ושעורים כגרעיני זיתים, ועדשים כדינרי זהב. וצררו [=שמרו בצרור] מהם דוגמא לדורות, להודיע כמה החטא גורם [שנעלמו פירות ודגן משובחים כאלו]. שנאמר: (ירמיהו ה') "עוונותיכם הטו אלה, וחטאותיכם מנעו הטוב מכם". וכן מצינו בימי הורדוס, [בזמן] שהיו עוסקין בבנין בית המקדש, והיו יורדין גשמים בלילה. למחרת נשבה הרוח, ונתפזרו העבים, וזרחה החמה, ויצאו העם למלאכתן, וידעו שמלאכת שמים בידיהם [שאלוהים מסכים עִמם ועם מעשיהם, ושמח בבניינם].

    לסוגיה המלאה באתר פשיטא

    “In their season” means on Wednesday eves, i.e., Tuesday nights, and on Shabbat eves, i.e., Friday nights, because at these times people are not out in the streets, either due to fear of demonic forces that were thought to wander on Tuesday nights or due to the sanctity of Shabbat. As we found in the days of Shimon ben Shetaḥ that rain invariably fell for them on Wednesday eves and on Shabbat eves, until wheat grew as big as kidneys, and barley as big as olive pits, and lentils as golden dinars. And they tied up some of these crops as an example [dugma] for future generations, to convey to them how much damage sin causes, as it is stated: “The Lord our God, Who gives rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in its season that keeps for us the appointed weeks of the harvest. Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld the good from you” (Jeremiah 5:24–25). And we likewise found that in the days of Herod that they were occupied in the building of the Temple, and rain would fall at night. And the next day the wind would blow, the clouds would disperse, the sun would shine, and the people would go out to their work. And as rain would fall only at a time when it would not interfere with their labor, the nation knew that the work of Heaven was being performed by their hands. § The mishna taught: An incident occurred in which the people sent a message to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. This event is related in greater detail in the following baraita. The Sages taught: Once, most of the month of Adar had passed but rain had still not fallen. They sent this message to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Pray, and rain will fall. He prayed, but no rain fell. He drew a circle in the dust and stood inside it, in the manner that the prophet Habakkuk did, as it is stated: “And I will stand upon my watch and set myself upon the tower, and I will look out to see what He will say to me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved” (Habakkuk 2:1). This verse is taken to mean that Habakkuk fashioned a kind of prison for himself where he sat. Ḥoni said before God: Master of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household. Therefore, I take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until you have mercy upon Your children and answer their prayers for rain. Rain began to trickle down, but only in small droplets. His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen that you can perform great wonders, but this quantity of rain is not enough to ensure that we will not die. It appears to us that a small amount of rain is falling only to enable you to dissolve your oath, but it is not nearly enough to save us. Ḥoni said to God: I did not ask for this, but for rain to fill the cisterns, ditches, and caves. Rain began to fall furiously, until each and every drop was as big as the mouth of a barrel, and the Sages estimated that no drop was less than a log in size. His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen that you can call on God to perform miracles and we will not die, but now it appears to us that rain is falling only to destroy the world. Ḥoni again said before God: I did not ask for this harmful rain either, but for rain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity. Subsequently, the rains fell in their standard manner, until all of the people sought higher ground and ascended to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They said to him: Rabbi, just as you prayed that the rains should fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: This is the tradition that I received, that one does not pray over an excess of good. Ḥoni continued: Nevertheless, bring me a bull. I will sacrifice it as a thanks-offering and pray at the same time. They brought him a bull for a thanks-offering. He placed his two hands on its head and said before God: Master of the Universe, Your nation Israel, whom You brought out of Egypt, cannot bear either an excess of good or an excess of punishment. You grew angry with them and withheld rain, and they are unable to bear it. You bestowed upon them too much good, and they were also unable to bear it. May it be Your will that the rain stop and that there be relief for the world. Immediately, the wind blew, the clouds dispersed, the sun shone, and everyone went out to the fields and gathered for themselves truffles and mushrooms that had sprouted in the strong rain. Shimon ben Shetaḥ relayed to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: If you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you. For were these years like the years of Elijah, when the keys of rain were entrusted in Elijah’s hands, and he swore it would not rain, wouldn’t the name of Heaven have been desecrated by your oath not to leave the circle until it rained? Once you have pronounced this oath, either yours or Elijah’s must be falsified. However, what can I do to you, as you nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and his father does his bidding. And the son says to his father: Father, take me to be bathed in hot water; wash me with cold water; give me nuts, almonds, peaches, and pomegranates. And his father gives him. About you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25). The Sages taught: What message did the members of the Chamber of the Hewn Stone, the Great Sanhedrin, send to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel? About you, the verse states: “You shall also decree a matter, and it shall be established for you; and the light shall shine upon your ways. When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up, for He saves the humble person. He will deliver the one who is not innocent and he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands” (Job 22:28–30). They interpreted: “You shall also decree a matter”; you, Ḥoni, decree from below, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, fulfills your statement from above. “And the light shall shine upon your ways”; a generation that was in darkness, you have illuminated it with your prayer. “When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up”; a generation that was cast down, you lifted it up with your prayer. “For He saves the humble person”; a generation that was humble in its transgression, you saved it through your prayer. “He will deliver the one who is not innocent”; a generation that was not innocent, you have delivered it through your prayer. “And he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands”; you have delivered an undeserving generation through the clean work of your hands. § The Gemara relates another story about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: All the days of the life of that righteous man, Ḥoni, he was distressed over the meaning of this verse: “A song of Ascents: When the Lord brought back those who returned to Zion, we were like those who dream” (Psalms 126:1). He said to himself: Is there really a person who can sleep and dream for seventy years? How is it possible to compare the seventy-year exile in Babylonia to a dream? One day, he was walking along the road when he saw a certain man planting a carob tree. Ḥoni said to him: This tree, after how many years will it bear fruit? The man said to him: It will not produce fruit until seventy years have passed. Ḥoni said to him: Is it obvious to you that you will live seventy years, that you expect to benefit from this tree? He said to him: That man himself found a world full of carob trees. Just as my ancestors planted for me, I too am planting for my descendants. Ḥoni sat and ate bread. Sleep overcame him and he slept. A cliff formed around him, and he disappeared from sight and slept for seventy years. When he awoke, he saw a certain man gathering carobs from that tree. Ḥoni said to him: Are you the one who planted this tree? The man said to him: I am his son’s son. Ḥoni said to him: I can learn from this that I have slept for seventy years, and indeed he saw that his donkey had sired several herds during those many years. Ḥoni went home and said to the members of the household: Is the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel alive? They said to him: His son is no longer with us, but his son’s son is alive. He said to them: I am Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. They did not believe him. He went to the study hall, where he heard the Sages say about one scholar: His halakhot are as enlightening and as clear as in the years of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, for when Ḥoni HaMe’aggel would enter the study hall he would resolve for the Sages any difficulty they had. Ḥoni said to them: I am he, but they did not believe him and did not pay him proper respect. Ḥoni became very upset, prayed for mercy, and died. Rava said: This explains the folk saying that people say: Either friendship or death, as one who has no friends is better off dead. § The Gemara relates another story, this time about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s descendants, who were also renowned for their righteous deeds. Abba Ḥilkiyya was the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s son. And when the world was in need of rain they would send Sages to him, and he would pray for mercy, and rain would fall. Once the world was in need of rain, and the Sages sent a pair of Sages to him so that he would pray for mercy and rain would fall. They went to his house but they did not find him there. They went to the field and found him hoeing the ground. They greeted him,
    11יא
    דיון
  • מדוע מעצים המדרש כל כך את ערכו של הגשם שאינו פוגע באף אחד?
  • האם ייתכן מצב אידאלי כזה לתמיד?
  • האם בני הדור יצאו מנקודת הנחה שבדורות הבאים המצב לא יישמר ועל כן שמרו מפירות הארץ המשובחים?
  • 12יב
    דיון
    שאלות סיכום:
  • בידי מי נמצא 'מפתח הגשמים' לדעתכם?
  • מהם התנאים הגורמים לירידת גשם ולעצירתו?
  • האם יש מטר אידיאלי? מהו, לדעתכם?
  • על פי התמונה שמצטיירת מהמדרשים - האם התפילה על הגשם מעצימה את אחריותו האישית והמוסרית של האדם, או מצמצמת אותה? מהי המשמעות הקולקטיבית של ירידת הגשמים?
  • 14 יד
    15טו
    דף הנחיות למנחה:
    גשמים למנחה.doc
    16טז
    דף מספר 2 בסדרה גשמים, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
    1