בידי מי נמצא מפתח הגשמים? - חלק א'
1א
הדף מאת: מנחי גשר / גשר - מפעלים חינוכיים
2ב
מוטיב הגשם משמש בתנ"ך דימוי אולטימטיבי להשגחת אלוהים וביטוי ליחסי שכר ועונש קולקטיביים - "אם בחוקתי תלכו... ונתתי גשמיכם בעתם" (ויקרא כו, ג-ד). כיצד מתמודד עם רעיון זה האדם המודרני? היכן הם חופש הבחירה והעצמאות? האם אדם המצוי בעת צרה מסוגל לראות את צרתם של אחרים וחסרונם, או שהוא מרוכז בכאבו שלו? ומה בין תפילה לבין עצמאות ואחריות אישית של האדם על חייו? על כל אלו ננסה להרחיב מעט בלימוד זה, בסיוע הסרטון בסדרת 'גשר ההלכה' העוסק בנושא.
3ג
חלק א' – מוריד הגשם
אמר ר' יוחנן: ארבעה מפתחות שמורים ביד הקב"ה, ולא מסר אותן לבריה בעולם, ואלו הן: מפתח של גשמים, ומפתח של כלכלה, ומפתח של קברות [=של חיים ומוות], ומפתח של עקרות. ולכשהוצרכו - מסרן הקב"ה לצדיקים: מפתח של גשמים מסר לאליהו, שנאמר: [בדברי אליהו הנביא:] 'אם יהיה השנים האלה טל ומטר כי אם לפי דברי' (מלכים א' יז, א); מפתח של כלכלה מסר לנח, שנאמר: 'ואתה קח לך מכל מאכל אשר יאכל' (בראשית ו, כא); מפתח של קברות מסר ליחזקאל, שנאמר: 'ואמרת אליהם העצמות היבשות... ונתתי בכן רוח וחייתן' (יחזקאל לז, ד); ומפתח של עקרות מסר לאלישע, שנאמר: 'למועד הזה כעת חיה את חובקת בן' (מלכים ב' ד, טז).
4ד
דיון
  • מדוע דווקא מפתחות אלו שמורים אצל הקב"ה?
  • מה משמעות הדבר כי המפתח שמור בידיו של אלוהים?
  • באילו מקרים מופר הכלל ועל פי אילו קריטריונים הם ניתנים לצדיקים?
  • מה המאפיין המשותף לכל המפתחות?
  • האם לדעתכם יש מפתחות נוספים השמורים בידי אלוהים?
  • 5ה
    רבי חמא בר חנינא גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא, אמרו ליה: והא רבי יהושע בן לוי גזר תעניתא ואתי מיטרא! - אמר להו: הא אנא, הא בר ליואי. אמרו ליה: דניתי וניכוין דעתין, אפשר דתברי ציבורא לבייהו דאתי מיטרא. בעון רחמי ולא אתי מיטרא. אמר להו: ניחא לכו שיבא מטר בשבילנו? - אמרו ליה: הן. אמר: רקיע רקיע, כסי פניך! לא איכסי. אמר: כמה עזין פני רקיע! איכסי, ואתא מיטרא. לוי גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא, אמר לפניו: רבונו של עולם! עלית וישבת במרום ואין אתה מרחם על בניך. אתא מיטרא, ואיטלע.
    תרגום:
    רבי חמא בר חנינא גזר תענית [בשנת בצורת] ולא ירד מטר. אמרו לו: והרי רבי יהושע בן לוי גזר תענית וירד גשם?! אמר להם: אני זה אני, והוא בן לוי. אמרו לו [חכמים]: אולי נתאסף כולנו ונכוון דעתנו בתפילה, ויישבר לבו של הציבור ויבוא גשם. ביקשו רחמים, ולא בא הגשם. אמר להם [רבי חמא]: טוב בעיניכם שיבוא מטר בשבילנו ובזכותנו? אמרו לו: כן. אמר: רקיע רקיע, כסה פניך! [בענני גשם]. לא התכסה. אמר: כמה עזין פני רקיע! נתכסו [השמים בעננים], וירד גשם. לוי גזר תענית ולא בא גשם. אמר לפניו: ריבונו של עולם! עלית וישבת במרום, ואין אתה מרחם על בניך?! בא מטר, אך לוי נענש ונעשה צולע.

    מושגים
    • תלמוד בבלי - חיבור קולקטיבי שבו מסוכמת הגותם של האמוראים במאות 3-5 לספירה כפרשנות והרחבה של המשנה, וכולל דברי הלכה ואגדה. האמוראים פעלו בשני מרכזים עיקריים, בבל וארץ-ישראל, ולפיכך ישנם שני תלמודים - התלמוד הירושלמי (הארץ-ישראלי) והתלמוד הבבלי שנחשב לחשוב מביניהם, ודיוניו ההלכתיים הם הבסיס להלכה הנוהגת עד היום. יש המדגישים כי התלמוד הבבלי מציג לעיתים קרובות נרטיב שונה (לפעמים אף באופן מהותי), מיצירתה של ארץ ישראל המשתקפת בספרות התנאים ובתלמוד הירושלמי, ומשקף את עולמם של יהודי בבל.
    The Gemara returns to the topic of fasting for rain. Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina decreed a fast but rain did not come. They said to him: Didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi decree a fast and rain came? He said to them: This is I; this is a son of a Levite, i.e., we are two different people of unequal stature. They said to him: Let us come and focus our minds. Perhaps the hearts of the members of the community will break and rain will come. They prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said to them: Are you content that rain should come on our account, and through our merit? They said to him: Yes. He said: Skies, skies, cover your face with clouds. The sky was not covered with clouds. He said in rebuke: How impudent is the face of the sky, to ignore me. The sky became covered with clouds and rain came. The Gemara relates a similar story. Levi decreed a fast but rain did not come. He said before God: Master of the Universe, You have ascended and sat up high, and You do not have mercy upon Your children. Rain came, but as a punishment for his harsh statement toward God, Levi became lame. Consequently, Rav Elazar said: A person should never cast harsh statements toward God on High, as a great person cast statements toward God on High, and he became lame. And who was this individual? Levi.
    6ו
    דיון
  • מפני מה ירד הגשם בסופו של דבר?
  • האם לדעתכם, בסיפורים אלה, אלוהים רצה להוריד גשם?
  • מה היתה הצעתו של לוי ומדוע נענש ?
  • מה כוונת הביטוי "אני זה אני, וזהו בן לוי...". אז מה? מהו המפתח לירידת גשמים לפי סיפורים אלו? במי תלתה כל דמות בסיפור את הגורם לעצירת גשמים ולהורדתם (הציבור, חכמים, בן לוי, רבי חמא)?
  • 7ז
    תלמוד ירושלמי, מסכת תענית, פרק ג, הלכה א
    בציפורין [...] חד זמן צרכון מיעבד תענית, ולא נחת מיטרא. עבד רבי יהושע תעניתא בדרומא ונחת מטרא, והוון ציפוראיי אמרין: רבי יהושע בן לוי מחית מיטרא לדרומאיי, ורבי חנינה עצר מיא מן ציפוראיי. צרכון מיעבד זמן תיניינות. שלח ואייתי לרבי יהושע בן לוי. אמר ליה: מישגח מרי מיפוק עימן להתענות. נפקון תריהון לתעניתא ולא נחת מיטרא. עאל ואמר קומיהון: לא רבי יהושע בן לוי מחית מיטרא לדרומאיי, ולא רבי חנינה עצר מיטרא מן ציפוראיי, אלא דרומאיי ליבהון רכיך, ושמעין מילה דאורייא ומתכנעין, וציפוראיי ליבהון קשי, ושמעין מילה דאורייא ולא מיתכנעין.
    תרגום:
    פעם אחת הייתה בצורת ברחבי ארץ ישראל. גזר רבי חנינה תענית בציפורי, התענו הציבור, ולא ירד גשם. באותו זמן בדרום הארץ - התקין רבי יהושע בן לוי תענית, וירד גשם. היו אנשי ציפורי אומרים: רבי יהושע בן לוי מוריד גשם לדרומיים, ורבי חנינה עוצר את הגשמים מאנשי ציפורי. פעם אחרת היו צריכים שוב לתענית מפני הבצורת. שלח רבי חנינה והביא את רבי יהושע בן לוי לציפורי. אמר לו: התרצה לצאת עמי מן העיר ונתענה יחדיו? יצאו שניהם והתענו, ולא בא הגשם! קם רבי חנינה ואמר לפני אנשי ציפורי: לא רבי יהושע בן לוי מוריד מטר לדרומיים, ולא רבי חנינה עוצר את הגשם מאנשי ציפורי. אלא דרומיים ליבם רך ופתוח, ושומעין דברי תורה ונכנעים לפני הבורא. ואילו אנשי ציפורי ליבם קשה, ושומעין דברי תורה ובכל זאת לא נכנעים לפני הבורא...
    8ח
    דיון
  • את מי האשימו אנשי ציפורי בכישלון תעניתם?
  • האם הסכים עמם רבי חנינה רבם?
  • מהי דעת המדרש בשאלה במי תלויה מתנת הגשם - בצדיק או במעשי המון העם?
  • 9ט
    רב יהודה חזא הנהו בי תרי קא פרצי בריפתא, אמר: שמע מינה איכא שבעא בעלמא. יהיב עיניה, הוה כפנא. אמרו ליה רבנן לרב כהנא בריה דרב נחוניא שמעיה: מר דשכיח קמיה ניעשייה דליפוק בפתחא דסמוך לשוקא. עשייה ונפק לשוקא. חזא כנופיא, אמר להו: מאי האי? אמרו ליה: אכוספא דתמרי קיימי, דקא מזדבן. אמר: שמע מינה כפנא בעלמא. אמר ליה לשמעיה: שלוף לי מסאניי. שלף ליה חד מסאנא, ואתא מיטרא. כי מטא למישלף אחרינא - אתא אליהו ואמר ליה: אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא: אי שלפת אחרינא מחריבנא לעלמא.
    תרגום:
    רב יהודה ראה שני אנשים שנהגו זלזול ושיחקו בלחם, אמר [בלבו]: משמע יש שובע ועודף מזון בעולם. הזעיף פניו, ונהיה רעב בעולם. אמרו חכמים לרב כהנא בנו של רב נחוניא, [משמשו של רב יהודה]: אתה שמצוי אתה אצלו, תגרום לו שייצא לפתח ביתו הפונה לשוק, ויראה שיש רעב בעולם. הוציאו רב כהנא לשוק, וראה רב יהודה תור ארוך. אמר להם: מהו תור זה? אמרו לו: אנשים ממתינים לקנות כאן קליפות של תמרים. אמר רב יהודה בליבו: משמע שיש רעב בעולם, וצריך להתפלל שיתבטל. אמר לו לשמשו: שלוף לי את נעלי (לאות צער/אבל). שלף לו נעל אחת, ומיד החל לרדת מטר. כשרצה להמשיך ולהוריד גם את הנעל השנייה, בא אליהו הנביא ואמר לו: דע לך, שאמר הקדוש ברוך הוא: אם תשלוף גם את נעלך השנייה, יחרב העולם מרוב שפע הגשמים.
    was connected to the order of Nezikin, while they were largely unfamiliar with the rest of the Mishna, and we learn all six orders of the Mishna. And when Rav Yehuda reached tractate Uktzin, which discusses the extent to which various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of becoming ritually impure, which is the basis for the halakha that a woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, etc. (Teharot 2:1), and some say that when he reached the halakha that olives that are pickled with their leaves are ritually pure, etc., as they are no longer considered part of the fruit (Uktzin 2:1), he would say: Those are the disputes between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. He felt it was an extremely challenging passage, as difficult as the most complex arguments between Rav and Shmuel. And we, in contrast, learn tractate Uktzin in thirteen yeshivot, while, with regard to miracles, after declaring a fast to pray for a drought to end, when Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes as a sign of distress, the rain would immediately come, before he could remove his second shoe. And yet we cry out all day and no one notices us. Rabba continued: If the difference between the generations is due to inappropriate deeds, if there is anyone who has seen me do anything improper, let him say so. I am not at fault, but what can the great leaders of the generation do when their generation is not worthy, and rain is withheld on account of the people’s transgressions? The Gemara explains the reference to Rav Yehuda’s shoe. Rav Yehuda saw two people wasting bread, throwing it back and forth. He said: I can learn from the fact that people are acting like this that there is plenty in the world. He cast his eyes angrily upon the world, and there was a famine. The Sages said to Rav Kahana, son of Rav Neḥunya, the attendant of Rav Yehuda: The Master, who is frequently present before Rav Yehuda, should persuade him to leave by way of the door nearest the market, so that he will see the terrible effects of the famine. Rav Kahana persuaded Rav Yehuda, and he went out to the market, where he saw a crowd. He said to them: What is this gathering? They said to him: We are standing by a container [kuspa] of dates that is for sale. He said: If so many people are crowding around to purchase a single container of dates, I can learn from this that there is a famine in the world. He said to his attendant: I want to fast over this; remove my shoes as a sign of distress. He removed one of his shoes and rain came. When he began to take off the other shoe, Elijah came and said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: If you remove your other shoe, I will destroy the entire world so that you will not be further distressed. Rav Mari, son of Shmuel’s daughter, said: At that moment, I was standing on the bank of the Pappa River. I saw angels who appeared as sailors bringing sand and filling ships with it, and it became fine flour. Everyone came to buy this flour, but I said to them: Do not purchase this flour, as it is the product of miracles. Tomorrow, boats filled with wheat will come from Parzina, and you may purchase that produce. § The Gemara relates another story. Rava happened to come to the city of Hagrunya. He decreed a fast, but rain did not come. He said to the local residents: Everyone, continue your fast and do not eat tonight. The next morning he said to them: Whoever had a dream last night, let him say it. Rabbi Elazar of Hagronya said to them: The following was recited to me in my dream. Good greetings to a good master from a good Lord, Who in His goodness does good for His people. Rava said: I can learn from this that it is a favorable time to pray for mercy. He prayed for mercy and rain came. The Gemara relates another story that deals with prayer for rain. There was a certain man who was sentenced to be flogged by Rava’s court because he had relations with a gentile woman. Rava flogged the man and he died as a result. When this matter was heard in the house of the Persian King Shapur, he wanted to punish Rava for imposing the death penalty, as he thought, without the king’s permission. Ifra Hormiz, mother of King Shapur, said to her son: Do not interfere and quarrel with the Jews, as whatever they request from God, their Master, He gives them. He said to her: What is this that He grants them? She replied: They pray for mercy and rain comes. He said to her: This does not prove that God hears their prayers, as that occurs merely because it is the time for rain, and it just so happens that rain falls after they pray. Rather, if you want to prove that God answers the prayers of the Jews, let them pray for mercy now, in the summer season of Tammuz, and let rain come. Ifra Hormiz sent a message to Rava: Direct your attention and pray for mercy that rain may come. He prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. He said before God: Master of the Universe, it is written: “O God, we have heard with our ears, our fathers have told us, what work You did in their days, in days of old” (Psalms 44:2), but we have not seen it with our own eyes. As soon as he said this, rain came until the gutters of Meḥoza overflowed and poured into the Tigris River. Rava’s father came and appeared to him in a dream and said to him: Is there anyone who troubles Heaven so much to ask for rain out of its season? In his dream, his father further said to him: Change your place of rest at night. He changed his place, and the next day he found that his bed had been slashed by knives. The Gemara relates: Rav Pappa decreed a fast, but rain did not come. His heart became weak from hunger, so he swallowed [seraf ] a bowl [pinka] of porridge, and prayed for mercy, but rain still did not come. Rav Naḥman bar Ushpazti said to him: If the Master swallows another bowl of porridge, rain will come. He was mocking Rav Pappa for eating while everyone else was fasting. Rav Pappa was embarrassed and grew upset, and rain came. The Gemara tells another story about prayer for rain. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was traveling along a road when it began to rain. He said before God: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable, because they needed rain, but Ḥanina is suffering, as he is getting wet. The rain ceased. When he arrived at his home, he said before God: Master of the Universe, the entire world is suffering that the rain stopped, and Ḥanina is comfortable? The rain began to come again. Rav Yosef said, in reaction to this story: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have against that of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa? As we learned in a mishna: After leaving the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur, the High Priest would recite a brief prayer in the outer chamber. The Gemara asks: What would he pray? Ravin bar Adda and Rava bar Adda both say in the name of Rav Yehuda that this was his prayer: May it be Your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot. The Gemara expresses surprise at this request: Is heat a good matter? On the contrary, it is unfavorable. Why should he request that the year be hot? Rather, say that he recited the following: If the upcoming year is hot, may it also be rainy and moist with dew, lest the heat harm the crops. The High Priest would also pray: And let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presence. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, in the name of Rav Yehuda, concluded the wording of this prayer: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judea. And may Your nation Israel not depend upon each other for sustenance, nor upon another nation. Instead, they should be sustained from the produce of their own land. Evidently, the High Priest’s prayer that God should not listen to the prayer of individual travelers was disregarded in the case of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa. § The Gemara continues to discuss the righteous Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa and the wonders he performed. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Each and every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained by the merit of My son Ḥanina ben Dosa, and yet for Ḥanina, My son, a kav of carobs, a very small amount of inferior food, is sufficient to sustain him for an entire week, from one Shabbat eve to the next Shabbat eve. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s wife would heat the oven every Shabbat eve and create a great amount of smoke,
    10י
    דיון
  • מדוע נעשה רעב בעולם?
  • מהו כל כך חמור במשחק בלחם?
  • מדוע שינה רב יהודה את טעמו והחל להתענות ולהצטער עם הציבור, הרי הוא שגרם לבצורת בקפידתו ובכעסו ?
  • מדוע רצו חכמים שיראה את השוק המרוקן ממזון? מה פשר האיסור לחלוץ נעל נוספת? מה מסמלת חליצת הנעל של רב יהודה?
  • 11יא
    (תהלים קמה) "טוב ה' לכל ורחמיו על כל מעשיו". רבי תנחומא ורבי אבא בר אבין בשם רב אחא: למחר שנת בצורת באה והבריות מרחמין אלו על אלו והקב"ה מתמלא עליהן רחמים. ביומי דר' תנחומא היו צריכין ישראל לתענית. אתון לגביה אמרין ליה: ר' גזר תעניתא, גזר תעניתא יום קדמאי יום ב' יום ג' ולא נחת מטרא, עאל ודרש להון. אמר להון: בני התמלאו רחמים אלו על אלו והקב"ה מתמלא עליכם רחמים. עד שהן מחלקין צדקה לענייהם ראו אדם אחד נותן מעות לגרושתו, אתון לגביה ואמרו ליה: ר' מה אנן יתבין הכא ועבירתא הכא?! אמר להן: מה ראיתם? אמרו לו: ראינו אדם פלוני נותן מעות לגרושתו, שלח בתריהון ואייתינון לגו ציבורא. א"ל: מה היא לך זו? אמר לו: גרושתי היא. אמר לו: מפני מה נתת לה מעות? אמר לו: רבי, ראיתי אותה בצרה והתמלאתי עליה רחמים. באותה שעה הגביה רבי תנחומא פניו כלפי מעלה ואמר: רבון על העולמים, מה אם זה שאין לה עליו מזונות ראה אותה בצרה ונתמלא עליה רחמים - אתה שכתוב בך חנון ורחום, ואנו בני ידידיך בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב על אחת כמה וכמה שתתמלא עלינו רחמים, מיד ירדו גשמים ונתרוה העולם.

    תרגום:

    רבי תנחומא ורבי אבא בר אבין בשם רב אחא אומרים: למחר שנת בצורת באה, והבריות מרחמין אלו על אלו, והקב"ה מתמלא עליהן רחמים. בימיו של רבי תנחומא היו צריכין ישראל לתענית [בשל הבצורת]. באו אליו [בני העיר] ואמרו לו: רבי, גזור תענית. גזר תענית - יום אחד, יום שני, ויום שלישי - ולא ירד גשם. עלה [לבימה] ודרש: בניי, התמלאו רחמים אלו על אלו, והקב"ה מתמלא עליכם רחמים. [יצאו האנשים לחלק צדקה.] בעת שחילקו צדקה לעניים, ראו אדם אחד נותן מעות לגרושתו [סברו שלא ייתכן שהוא נותן לה צדקה שהרי הוא שונא אותה. ולכן הסיקו שהכסף הוא אתנן תמורת שירותים לא מוסריים). באו האנשים אל רבי תנחומא ואמרו לו: רבי, מה אנחנו יושבים ומתענים כאן, ואילו זה עובר כאן עבירות [ובאשמתו יש בצורת]. אמר להם: מה ראיתם? אמרו לו: ראינו אדם פלוני נותן מעות לגרושתו. שלח רבי תנחומא שליחים, והביא את השניים לפני הציבור כולו. אמר לו: מה היא לך זו? אמר לו: גרושתי היא. אמר לו: מפני מה נתת לה מעות? אמר לו: רבי, ראיתי אותה בצרה, והתמלאתי עליה רחמים. באותה שעה הגביה רבי תנחומא פניו כלפי מעלה, ואמר: ריבון כל העולמים, מה אם זה שאין לה עליו מזונות (הוא אינו חייב לה כלום, ובכל זאת כש)ראה אותה בצרה, ונתמלא עליה רחמים. אתה שכתוב בך "חנון ורחום", ואנו בני ידידיך - בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב, על אחת כמה וכמה שתתמלא עלינו רחמים. מיד ירדו גשמים ונתרווה העולם.
    God is good to all and His mercies are upon all of His works (Psalms 145:9): Rabbi Levi said, "'God is good to all,' upon all, that He is their maker." Rabbi Shmuel said, "'God is good to all and His mercies' - upon all that are His traits, He has mercy.” Rabbi Yehoshua of Sakhnin said in the name of Rabbi Levi, "'God is good to all' and His merciful ones He give to His creatures." Rabbi Tanchuma and Rabbi Abba bar Avin [said] in the name of Rav Acha, “Tomorrow a famine will arrive and the creatures will have mercy, these upon those, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will be filled with mercy on them.” In the days of Rabbi Tanchuma, Israel required a fast (to bring about rain). They came to [Rabbi Tanchuma and] said to him, “Rabbi, decree a fast.” [So] he decreed a fast on the first day, on the second day, on the third day and rain did not fall. He got up and expounded to them. He said to them, "My children, have mercy, these upon those, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will be filled with mercy on you." While they were still distributing charity to the poor, they saw a man giving money to his ex-wife. They came to [Rabbi Tanchuma] and said to him, "Rabbi, how are we sitting here [while] there is a sin here." He said [back] to them, "What did you see?" They said to him, "We saw Mr. x give money to his ex-wife." They sent for them and they brought them in front of the community. [Rabbi Tanchuma] said to him, "What is she to you?" He said [back] to him, "She is my ex-wife." He said to him, "Why did you give her money?" He said to him, "Rabbi, I saw her in distress and I was filled with mercy on her." At that time, Rabbi Tanchuma lifted his head towards above and said, "Master over the worlds, just like this one that does not have an obligation to sustain [her] saw her in distress and he was filled with mercy for her, all the more so, You, that it is written about You, 'Compassionate and Merciful' and we are the children of Your friends, Avraham, Yitschak and Yaakov, will You be filled with mercy on us." Immediately, rains fell and the world was irrigated. Our rabbi (Yehuda Hanassi) was sitting, involved in Torah in front of the synagogue of the Babylonian [Jews] in Tzippori [when] a calf passed in front of him [and] was going to be slaughtered and started to yell out as if to say, "Save me." He said to it, "And what can I do for you? That is what you were created for." [As a result, Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi] had toothaches for thirteen years. Rabbi Yoss bar Avin said, "[During] those entire thirteen years that [he] had toothaches, no pregnant woman had a miscarriage in the Land of Israel and no birthing mother had pain. After some time, a crawling animal passed in front of his daughter and she wanted to kill it. He said to her, "My daughter, let it go, as it is written, "and His mercies are upon all of his works." Our rabbi had great modesty and said, "I will do anything that people tell me except what the sons of Batira did to my forefather - that they came down from their greatness (office) and brought him up; and [even] if Rabbi Huna, the Exilarch, came here, I would get up in front of him. Why? As he is from [the tribe of] Yehuda and I am from Binyamin, and he is from the males of Yehuda and I am from the females." Rabbi Chiya the Great said to him, "And behold, he is [waiting] outside." [Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi]'s face changed colors. And when he saw that his face changed colors, [Rabbi Chiya] said to him, "It is [Rabbi Huna]'s coffin." He said [back] to [Rabbi Chiya], "Go out and see who needs you outside." He went out and did not find a person and he knew that he was excommunicated - and there is no excommunication less than thirty days. Rabbi Yossi bar Avin said, "[During] the entire thirty days that Rabbi Chiya the Great was excommunicated from our rabbi, he taught Rav, the son of his sister, the principles of the Torah." And what are the principles of the Torah? They are the laws of the Babylonians. At the end of thirty days, Eliyahu - may he be remembered for good - came in the likeness of Rabbi Chiya the Great to our rabbi and put his hand on his teeth and he became healed. When Rabbi Chiya the Great came to our rabbi, he said to him, "What did you do to your teeth?" He said [back] to him, "From the time that you put your hand on them, they became better. He said, "I do not know what this is." When he heard this, he began to treat him with respect and he brought close the students and brought up [Rabbi Chiya] to the top. Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose said, "And [should he] come closer than I?" He said [back] to him, "God forbid, such should not be done in Israel." Our rabbi was teaching the praises of Rabbi Chiya the Great in front of Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose - he said, "He is a great man, he is a holy man." One time, [Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose] saw [Rabbi Chiya] in the bathhouse and [the latter] did not humble himself before him. He said to [Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi], "Is this your student that you have been praising? I saw him in the bathhouse and he did not humble himself before me." He said to him, "Why did you not humble yourself before him?" Rabbi Chiya said [back], I was looking at the homilies (aggadot) of Psalms." Once [Rabbi Yehudah Hanassi] heard this, he gave him two students to go with him to the dark places, that he not get confounded and lose himself. Another explanation: "God is good to all, etc." "And God remembered Noach, etc." - Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmani said, "Woe to the evildoers who switch the [Divine] trait of mercy to the [Divine] trait of [strict] justice. In every place that it states 'the Lord,' it is the trait of mercy: 'The Lord, the Lord, merciful and compassionate God' (Exodus 34:6). And [yet] it is written (Genesis 6:5-6), 'And the Lord saw that the evil of man on the earth was very great[...] And the Lord regretted that He had made man on the earth, and the Lord said, "I will erase, etc."' Happy are the righteous who switch the trait of [Divine] justice to the [divine] trait of mercy. In every place that it states 'Elohim,' it is the trait of mercy: 'Judges (Elohim) you shall not curse' (Exodus 22:27); 'to the judges (elohim) the matter of both of them will come' (Exodus 22:8). And [yet] it is written (Exodus 2:24), 'And God heard their cries and God remembered His covenant'; '(Genesis 30:22), 'And God remembered Rachel'; 'And God remembered Noach.' And what memory did He remember for him? That he fed and sustained them all of the twelve months in the ark." "And God remembered Noach" - and justice requires it, from the merit of the pure ones that he brought with him into the ark. Rabbi Eliezer says, "[Noach] was named corresponding to his sacrifice, as it states, 'And the Lord smelled the pleasant (nichoach) fragrance.'" Rabbi Yose bar Chaninah [says], "He was named corresponding to the resting of the ark, as it states, 'And the ark rested (tanach) on the seventh month, etc.'" Rabbi Yehoshua says, "'Will not cease' (Genesis 8:22) implies that they ceased."
    12יב
    דיון
  • למה נגזרה הבצורת על פי המדרש?
  • האם, לדעתכם, רבי תנחומא זיהה נכוחה את סיבת הבצורת?
  • מה משמעותו של המשפט "התמלאו רחמים זה על זה"?
  • בחובת מי נפסקו הגשמים ובזכות מי ירדו בסופו של דבר?
  • מדוע רבי תנחומא נדרש להפנות את תשומת ליבו של הקב"ה אל מעשה האיש?
  • מהי משמעותם הקולקטיבית של ירידת הגשמים? מדוע נעשה חיבור דווקא בין הרחמים לירידת גשמים?
  • 13יג
    תנו רבנן: מעשה ברבי אליעזר שגזר שלש-עשרה תעניות על הציבור, ולא ירדו גשמים. בתענית האחרונה התחילו הציבור לצאת ממקום התפילה והכינוס [מתוך תחושה שזה לא מועיל]. אמר להם: תִקנתם קברים לעצמכם? געו כל העם בבכייה, וירדו גשמים.
    its shoots do not replenish themselves when its stump is cut down, so too, Heaven forbid, with regard to a righteous person, his shoots will not replenish themselves, i.e., he will be unable to recover from misfortune. Therefore, it is stated “cedar” in the verse. Just as the cedar grows new shoots after its stump is cut down, so too, a righteous individual will thrive again. Conversely, were it stated “cedar” and were it not stated “palm tree,” I would say that just as in the case of a cedar, it does not produce fruit, so too, a righteous man, God forbid, does not produce fruit, i.e., he will have no reward in the World-to-Come. Therefore, it is stated “palm tree” and it is also stated “cedar.” § The Gemara asks: And do a cedar’s shoots really replenish themselves? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: With regard to one who bought a tree from another to chop it down for wood, without acquiring total ownership of the tree, he must lift his ax a handbreadth and chop there, so as to allow the tree to grow back? However, in a case where he purchased a large sycamore, he must leave two handbreadths. In the case of an untrimmed sycamore, he must leave three handbreadths. In a situation where one bought reeds or grapevines, he may chop only from the first knot and above. In the case of palms or cedars, one may dig down and uproot it, as its shoots will not replenish themselves. This baraita indicates that cedars will not grow new shoots after they have been cut down. The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? With other species of cedars. This is in accordance with the opinion of Rabba bar Huna, as Rabba bar Huna said: There are ten species of cedars, as it is stated: “I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia tree and myrtle and the oil tree; I will set in the desert cypress, the plane tree and the larch together” (Isaiah 41:19). The seven species mentioned in this verse are all called cedars, as are three additional species. The Sages taught: An incident occurred involving Rabbi Eliezer, who decreed a complete cycle of thirteen fasts upon the congregation, but rain did not fall. At the end of the last fast, the congregation began to exit the synagogue. He said to them: Have you prepared graves for yourselves? If rain does not fall, we will all die of hunger. All the people burst into tears, and rain fell. There was another incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who descended to serve as prayer leader before the ark on a fast day. And he recited twenty-four blessings, but he was not answered. Rabbi Akiva descended before the ark after him and said: Our Father, our King, we have no king other than You. Our Father, our King, for Your sake, have mercy on us. And rain immediately fell. The Sages were whispering among themselves that Rabbi Akiva was answered while his teacher, Rabbi Eliezer, was not. A Divine Voice emerged and said: It is not because this Sage, Rabbi Akiva, is greater than that one, Rabbi Eliezer, but that this one is forgiving, and that one is not forgiving. God responded to Rabbi Akiva’s forgiving nature in kind by sending rain. § The Sages taught in a baraita: How much rain must fall for the community to cease their fast for rain? If the rain penetrates the soil by the full depth of the blade of a plow until the spot where it bends, they may cease fasting; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say a different measurement: If the earth is completely dry, the soil must become moist to the depth of a single handbreadth. For average soil, they must wait until the moisture reaches a depth of two handbreadths. If it is worked soil, i.e., soil that has been plowed, the moisture must reach to a depth of three handbreadths. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: There is no handbreadth of rain from above toward which the water of the deep does not rise three handbreadths. The Gemara raises an objection: But isn’t it taught in another baraita that the water of the deep rises two handbreadths? The Gemara explains: This is not difficult. Here, in first baraita, it is referring to worked land, which water penetrates faster, whereas there, in the second baraita, it is referring to unworked land, which water does not penetrate as easily, and therefore the water of the deep rises only two handbreadths. Rabbi Elazar said: When the water libation was poured during the festival of Sukkot, these waters of the deep say to the other waters of the deep: Let your water flow, as I hear the voices of two of our friends, the wine libation and the water libation, which are both poured on the altar. As it is stated: “Deep calls to deep at the sound of your channels, all Your waves and Your billows are gone over me” (Psalms 42:8), i.e., the upper waters of the deep call to the lower waters of the deep when they hear the sound of the libations. Rabba said: I have seen this angel in charge of water, Ridya, in the form of a calf whose lips were parted, standing between the lower waters of the deep and the upper waters of the deep. To the upper waters of the deep, he said: Distill your water and let it rain. To the lower waters of the deep, he said: Let your water flow from below, as it is stated: “The flowers appear on the earth; the time of the singing has come, and the voice of the turtledove [tur] is heard in our land” (Song of Songs 2:12). The appearance of flowers in this verse alludes to the libations, as both the blooming of flowers and pouring of these libations are annual events. The time of the singing is referring to the singing of the Festival. Finally, the term tur in Aramaic can also mean an ox; in this context, it is interpreted as a reference to the angel Ridya. § The mishna teaches: If they were fasting for rain and rain fell for them before sunrise, they need not complete their fast until the evening. The Sages taught: If they were fasting for rain and rain fell for them before sunrise, they need not complete their fast, as the obligation to fast does not come into effect until sunrise. However, if rain fell after sunrise, they must complete their fast. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: If rain fell before midday, they need not complete their fast; however, if it rains after midday, they must complete their fast. Rabbi Yosei says: If rain falls before the ninth hour, three hours into the afternoon, they need not complete their fast; if it rains after the ninth hour of the day, they must complete their fast, as we found with regard to Ahab, king of Israel, who fasted from the ninth hour and onward, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, when Ahab heard these words, that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly. And the word of the Lord came to Elijah the Tishbite saying: Do you see how Ahab humbles himself before Me?” (I Kings 21:27–29). According to tradition, this occurred in the ninth hour. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia decreed a fast, and rain fell for them after sunrise. He thought to complete the fast, but Rabbi Ami said to him that we learned: Before noon and after noon, i.e., the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Shmuel HaKatan decreed a fast, and rain fell for them before sunrise. The people thought to say: This is a sign of the praiseworthiness of the community, as we merited rainfall even before we prayed. He said to them: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a situation where there is a slave who requests a reward from his master, either food or livelihood, and the master says to his ministers: Give him what he asks for and let me not hear his voice, as I would rather not have to listen to him. Here, too, evidently God has no desire to hear our prayers. Again, on another occasion, Shmuel HaKatan decreed a fast, and rain fell for them after sunset. Based on his previous response, the people thought to say: This is a sign of the praiseworthiness of the community, as God listened to our prayers all day. Shmuel HaKatan said to them: It is not a sign of the praiseworthiness of the community. Rather, I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a situation where there is a slave who requests a reward from his master, and the master says to his ministers: Wait until he pines away and suffers, and afterward give it to him. Here too, the delay is not to the congregation’s credit. The Gemara asks: But if so, according to the opinion of Shmuel HaKatan, what is considered the praiseworthiness of the community; what are the circumstances in which approval is shown from Heaven? The Gemara explains: When the prayer leader recites: He Who makes the wind blow, and the wind blows; and when he recites: And the rain fall, and rain falls. The mishna teaches: An incident occurred in which the court decreed a fast in Lod, and when rain fell they ate and drank, and afterward they recited hallel. The Gemara asks: And let us recite hallel at the outset, without delay. Why did they first go home and eat? Abaye and Rava both said: Because one recites hallel
    14יד
    דיון
  • מה מאפיין את שלושת הסיפורים לעיל? מה גרם בהם לירידת הגשמים לבסוף?
  • מדוע חלישות הדעת – הכאב, הייאוש, תחושת חוסר האונים - הם סיבה להיענות שמים?
  • מהן הסיבות לחלישות הדעת בכל אחד הסיפורים?
  • האם, לדעתכם, זוהי סיבה מספיקה להורדת גשמים?
  • 16 טז
    17יז
    דף הנחיות למנחה:
    גשמים למנחה.doc
    18יח
    דף מספר 1 בסדרה גשמים, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
    2