האם אפשר לכתוב בטוויטר מה מהות היהדות?
1א
הדף מאת: איימי קליין / תא שמע - מליץ
2ב
הלימוד בודק האם יש ליהדות מסר מהותי אחד תמציתי, האם אפשר לצמצם את התורה כולה למשפט אחד. מעניין ללמוד היום, בעידן הטוויטר והפייסבוק, כאשר אין לאף אחד סבלנות למסרים ארוכים ומורכבים, כיצד ניסו חז"ל להעביר את התורה כולה על רגל אחת - במסר עיקרי ותמציתי המקובל על כולם.
3ג
מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי. אמר לו גיירני על מנת שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת.

דחפו באמַת הבנין שבידו. בא לפני הלל, גייריה [= גייר אותו]. אמר לו, דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד [= מה שעליך שנוא אל תעשה לחברך] זו היא כל התורה כולה, ואידך פירושה הוא [=וכל השאר הוא הפירוש למשפט זה.]

זיל גמור [= לך ולמד].

לסוגיה המלאה באתר פשיטא

who wagered with each other and said: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillel to the point that he reprimands him, will take four-hundred zuz. One of them said: I will aggravate him. That day that he chose to bother Hillel was Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washing the hair on his head. He went and passed the entrance to Hillel’s house and in a demeaning manner said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Hillel wrapped himself in a dignified garment and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. Hillel said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked him: Why are the heads of Babylonians oval? He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. He said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. The reason is because they do not have clever midwives. They do not know how to shape the child’s head at birth. That man went and waited one hour, a short while, returned to look for Hillel, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Again, Hillel wrapped himself and went out to greet him. Hillel said to him: My son, what do you seek? The man said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked: Why are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [terutot]? Hillel said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. The reason is because they live among the sands and the sand gets into their eyes. Once again the man went, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? Again, he, Hillel, wrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. The man asked: Why do Africans have wide feet? Hillel said to him: You have asked a significant question. The reason is because they live in marshlands and their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas. That man said to him: I have many more questions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry. Hillel wrapped himself and sat before him, and he said to him: All of the questions that you have to ask, ask them. The man got angry and said to him: Are you Hillel whom they call the Nasi of Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: If it is you, then may there not be many like you in Israel. Hillel said to him: My son, for what reason do you say this? The man said to him: Because I lost four hundred zuz because of you. Hillel said to him: Be vigilant of your spirit and avoid situations of this sort. Hillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred zuz and another four hundred zuz on his account, and Hillel will not get upset. The Sages taught: There was an incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai. The gentile said to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. The gentile said to him: With regard to the Written Torah, I believe you, but with regard to the Oral Torah, I do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach me only the Written Torah. Shammai scolded him and cast him out with reprimand. The same gentile came before Hillel, who converted him and began teaching him Torah. On the first day, he showed him the letters of the alphabet and said to him: Alef, bet, gimmel, dalet. The next day he reversed the order of the letters and told him that an alef is a tav and so on. The convert said to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that. Hillel said to him: You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. Didn’t you rely on me? Therefore, you should also rely on me with regard to the matter of the Oral Torah, and accept the interpretations that it contains. There was another incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai and said to Shammai: Convert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot. Shammai pushed him away with the builder’s cubit in his hand. This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile came before Hillel. He converted him and said to him: That which is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. There was another incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study hall and heard the voice of a teacher who was teaching Torah to his students and saying the verse: “And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an efod, and a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). The gentile said: These garments, for whom are they designated? The students said to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammai and said to him: Convert me on condition that you install me as High Priest. Shammai pushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. Hillel said to him, to the convert: Is it not the way of the world that only one who knows the protocols [takhsisei] of royalty is appointed king? Go and learn the royal protocols by engaging in Torah study. He went and read the Bible. When he reached the verse which says: “And the common man that draws near shall be put to death” (Numbers 1:51), the convert said to Hillel: With regard to whom is the verse speaking? Hillel said to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an a fortiori inference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn” (Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless it is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who came without merit, with nothing more than his staff and traveling bag, all the more so that this applies to him, as well. The convert came before Shammai and told him that he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: Am I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hillel and said to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence. The Gemara relates: Eventually, the three converts gathered together in one place, and they said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence. The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge, the fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6)? Faith; that is the order of Zeraim, Seeds, in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). Your times; that is the order of Moed, Festival, which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. Strength; that is the order of Nashim, Women. Salvations; that is the order of Nezikin, Damages, as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. Wisdom; that is the order of Kodashim, Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of Teharot, Purity, which is particularly difficult to master. And even if a person studies and masters all of these, “the fear of the Lord is his treasure,” it is preeminent. With regard to the same verse, Rava said: After departing from this world, when a person is brought to judgment for the life he lived in this world, they say to him in the order of that verse: Did you conduct business faithfully? Did you designate times for Torah study? Did you engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engage in the dialectics of wisdom or understand one matter from another? And, nevertheless, beyond all these, if the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes, he is worthy, and if not, no, none of these accomplishments have any value. There is a parable that illustrates this. A person who said to his emissary: Bring a kor of wheat up to the attic for me to store there. The messenger went and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary: Did you mix a kav of ḥomton, a preservative to keep away worms, into it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him: If so, it would have been preferable had you not brought it up. Of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value. On a related note, the Gemara cites a halakha that was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: A person who sells wheat may, ab initio, mix a kav of ḥomton into a kor of grain and need not be concerned that by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the kav of ḥomton is essential for the preservation of the wheat. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have
4ד
דיון
  • למה הילל מנסח את הפסוק מספר ויקרא - 'ואהבת לרעך כמוך' - על דרך השלילה?
  • האם אתם מסכימים עם הילל?
  • 5ה
    מדרש ספרא על פרשת קדושים, דף פט, עמוד ב.
    'ואהבת לרעך כמוך' (ויקרא יט, יז). רבי עקיבה אומר זהו כלל גדול בתורה.

    בן עזאי אומר "זה ספר תולדות אדם" (בראשית ה, א) זה כלל גדול מזה.
    6ו
    דיון
  • מה הם ההבדלים בתפיסת היהדות בין רבי עקיבא לבן עזאי?
  • איזו דעה נראית לכם יותר? מדוע?
  • 7ז
    דרש בר קפרא: איזוהי פרשה קטנה? שכל גופי תורה תלוין בה (משלי ג:ו) 'בכל דרכיך דעהו והוא יישר אורחותיך'.
    Bar Kappara taught: Which is a brief passage upon which all fundamental principles of Torah are dependent? “In all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will direct your paths” (Proverbs 3:6). Rava said: One must apply this principle even to acts of transgression, as even then one must adhere to God and refrain from sinning excessively.
    8ח
    דיון
    איך אתם מפרשים את הפסוק מספר משלי?
    9ט
    דרש רבי שמלאי: שש מאות ושלש עשרה מצות נאמרו לו למשה, שלש מאות וששים וחמש לאוין [=מצוות לא תעשה] כמנין ימות החמה, ומאתים וארבעים ושמונה [מצוות] עשה, כנגד איבריו של אדם.

    אמר רב המנונא: מאי קרא [=מה פירוש הפסוק] (דברים לג, ד) 'תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה [קהילת יעקב'] - תורה בגימטריא שית מאה וחד סרי הוי [=שש מאות ואחד עשרה הן]; אנכי [ה' אלקיך] ולא יהיה לך [שמות כ, ב-ג], מפי הגבורה [=מפי ה' עצמו] שמענום [=הרי מניין שש מאות ושלש עשרה].

    בא דוד והעמידן [את המצוות החשובות ביותר] על אחת עשרה, דכתיב (תהילים טו) 'מזמור לדוד [ה'] מי יגור באהלך מי ישכון בהר קדשך הולך תמים ופועל צדק ודובר אמת בלבבו לא רגל על לשונו לא עשה לרעהו רעה וחרפה לא נשא על קרובו נבזה בעיניו נמאס ואת יראי ה' יכבד נשבע להרע ולא ימיר כספו לא נתן בנשך ושוחד על נקי לא לקח עושה אלה לא ימוט לעולם'. 'הולך תמים', זה אברהם דכתיב (בראשית יז) 'התהלך לפני והיה תמים'; 'פועל צדק' כגון אבא חלקיהו, ו'דובר אמת בלבבו' כגון רב ספרא. 'לא רגל על לשונו' זה יעקב אבינו, דכתיב (בראשית כז) 'אולי ימושני אבי והייתי בעיניו כמתעתע'. 'לא עשה לרעהו רעה', שלא ירד לאומנות חבירו. 'וחרפה לא נשא על קרובו', זה המקרב את קרוביו. 'נבזה בעיניו נמאס' זה חזקיהו המלך, שגירר עצמות אביו במטה של חבלים. 'ואת יראי ה' יכבד', זה יהושפט מלך יהודה שבשעה שהיה רואה תלמיד חכם היה עומד מכסאו ומחבקו ומנשקו וקורא לו <אבי אבי> רבי רבי מרי מרי. 'נשבע להרע ולא ימיר' כרבי יוחנן, דאמר רבי יוחנן אהא בתענית עד שאבוא לביתי. 'כספו לא נתן בנשך' אפילו ברבית <עובד כוכבים> {גוי} 'ושוחד על נקי לא לקח' כגון ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי. כתיב 'עושה אלה לא ימוט לעולם' - כשהיה רבן גמליאל מגיע למקרא זה היה בוכה. אמר מאן דעביד להו לכולהו [=מי שעושה את כל אלה] הוא דלא ימוט הא [=אבל] חדא מינייהו [=אחד מהן] ימוט. אמרו ליה [=לו] מי כתיב [=האם נאמר] עושה כל אלה? עושה אלה כתיב [=נאמר], אפילו בחדא מינייהו [=אחת מהן], דאי לא תימא הכי [=שאם לא תאמר כך], כתיב קרא אחרינא [=נאמר כתוב אחר] (ויקרא יח) 'אל תטמאו בכל אלה'. התם נמי [=שם גם כן] הנוגע בכל אלה הוא דמטמא בחדא מינייהו [=אחת מהן] לא אלא לאו [=האם אין] באחת מכל אלה הכא נמי [=כאן גם כן] באחת מכל אלו.

    בא ישעיהו והעמידן על שש [מצוות עיקריות]. דכתיב [=שנאמר] (ישעיהו לג) 'הולך צדקות ודובר מישרים מואס בבצע מעשקות נוער כפיו מתמוך בשוחד אוטם אזנו משמוע דמים ועוצם עיניו מראות ברע'. 'הולך צדקות' זה אברהם אבינו דכתיב [=שנאמר] (בראשית יח) 'כי ידעתיו למען אשר יצוה וגו''. 'ודובר מישרים' זה שאינו מקניט [=מעליב] פני חבירו ברבים. 'מואס בבצע מעשקות' כגון ר' ישמעאל בן אלישע. 'נוער כפיו מתמוך בשוחד' כגון ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי. 'אוטם אזנו משמוע דמים' דלא שמע בזילותא דצורבא מרבנן ושתיק [=שאינו שומע בזלזולו של תלמיד חכם ושותק] כגון רבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון. 'ועוצם עיניו מראות ברע' כדרבי חייא בר אבא, דאמר ר' חייא בר אבא זה שאינו מסתכל בנשים בשעה שעומדות על הכביסה, וכתיב [=ונאמר] (ישעיהו לג) הוא מרומים ישכון [וגו'].

    בא מיכה והעמידן על שלש [מצוות עיקריות]. דכתיב [=שנאמר] (מיכה ו) 'הגיד לך אדם מה טוב ומה ה' דורש ממך, כי אם עשות משפט ואהבת חסד והצנע לכת עם ה' אלהיך'. 'עשות משפט' זה הדין; 'אהבת חסד' זה גמילות חסדים; 'והצנע לכת' זה הוצאת המת והכנסת כלה. והלא דברים קל וחומר, ומה דברים שאין דרכן לעשותן בצנעא אמרה תורה והצנע לכת, דברים שדרכן לעשותן בצנעא על אחת כמה וכמה.

    חזר ישעיהו והעמידן על שתים שנאמר (ישעיהו נו) 'כה אמר ה' שמרו משפט ועשו צדקה'.

    בא עמוס והעמידן על אחת שנאמר (עמוס ה) 'כה אמר ה' לבית ישראל דרשוני וחיו'.

    מתקיף לה [=מקשה על כך] רב נחמן בר יצחק. אימא [=אמור, פרש] 'דרשוני' בכל התורה כולה.

    אלא בא חבקוק והעמידן על אחת שנאמר (חבקוק ב) 'וצדיק באמונתו יחיה'.
    § Rabbi Simlai taught: There were 613 mitzvot stated to Moses in the Torah, consisting of 365 prohibitions corresponding to the number of days in the solar year, and 248 positive mitzvot corresponding to the number of a person’s limbs. Rav Hamnuna said: What is the verse that alludes to this? It is written: “Moses commanded to us the Torah, an inheritance of the congregation of Jacob” (Deuteronomy 34:4). The word Torah, in terms of its numerical value [gimatriyya], is 611, the number of mitzvot that were received and taught by Moses our teacher. In addition, there are two mitzvot: “I am the Lord your God” and: “You shall have no other gods” (Exodus 20:2, 3), the first two of the Ten Commandments, that we heard from the mouth of the Almighty, for a total of 613. The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the biblical figures cited in the course of the discussion that follows: Dalet, mem, shin, mem, kuf; samekh, kuf; representing David, Micah, Isaiah, Amos, Habakkuk, Amos, and Ezekiel. Rabbi Simlai continued: King David came and established the 613 mitzvot upon eleven mitzvot, as it is written: “A Psalm of David. Lord, who shall sojourn in Your Tabernacle? Who shall dwell upon Your sacred mountain? He who walks wholeheartedly, and works righteousness, and speaks truth in his heart. Who has no slander upon his tongue, nor does evil to his neighbor, nor takes up reproach against his relative. In whose eyes a vile person is despised, and he honors those who fear the Lord; he takes an oath to his own detriment, and changes not. He neither gives his money with interest, nor takes a bribe against the innocent. He who performs these shall never be moved” (Psalms, chapter 15). Eleven attributes that facilitate one’s entry into the World-to-Come appear on this list. The Gemara analyzes these verses: “He who walks wholeheartedly”; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Abraham, as it is written concerning him: “Walk before Me and be wholehearted” (Genesis 17:1). “Works righteousness”; this is referring to one such as Abba Ḥilkiyyahu, a laborer who would not pause from his labor even to greet people; he righteously continued working. “And speaks truth in his heart”; this is referring to one such as Rav Safra, who was reciting Shema when a person approached him to purchase an item. He intended to accept the man’s offer, but he was unable to respond because it is prohibited to interrupt the recitation of Shema. The buyer misinterpreted Rav Safra’s silence and concluded that Rav Safra demanded a higher price, so he raised his offer. Rav Safra insisted on selling him the item for the sum that he was offered initially. “Who has no slander upon his tongue”; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Jacob, who did not want to mislead his father in order to receive his blessings, as it is written: “Perhaps my father will feel me, and I will be in his eyes like a fraud” (Genesis 27:12). “Nor does evil to his neighbor”; this is referring to one who did not infringe upon another’s trade, constituting illegal competition. “Nor takes up reproach against his relative”; this is referring to one who draws his relatives near, and does not distance them when they embarrass him. “In whose eyes a vile person is despised”; this is referring to one who conducts himself like King Hezekiah, who dragged the bones of his evil father, King Ahaz, in a bed of ropes, because he despised those considered vile by God. “And he honors those who fear the Lord”; this is referring to one who conducts himself like Jehoshaphat, king of Judea, who when he would see a Torah scholar would arise from his throne and hug him and kiss him, and call him: My father, my father, my teacher, my teacher, my master, my master. “He takes an oath to his own detriment, and changes not”; this is in accordance with the conduct of Rabbi Yoḥanan, as Rabbi Yoḥanan would say in the form of a vow when seeking to refrain from eating in another’s home: I shall fast until I will come to my house. He would fulfill that vow and refrain from eating, even though he took the vow only to avoid eating in that place. “He neither gives his money with interest”; meaning he does not lend money with interest even to a gentile, which is permitted by Torah law. “Nor takes a bribe against the innocent”; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who refused to sit in judgment in a case involving his sharecropper. Since the latter would bring him a basket of fruit, he was concerned that he might unconsciously favor him. At the conclusion of the verses, it is written: “He who performs these shall never be moved.” The Gemara relates: When Rabban Gamliel would reach this verse he would cry, and he said: It is one who performed all these actions who shall never be moved; but if he performed only one of them, he shall be moved. The Sages said to him: Is it written: He who performs all these? Rather, the phrase “he who performs these” is written, indicating that one is blessed even in a case where he performed one of them. As if you do not say so, compare that to a different verse that is written with regard to severe transgressions punishable by karet: “Do not impurify yourselves with all these” (Leviticus 18:24). Would you say that there too it means that it is one who comes into contact with all these who becomes impure, but one who comes into contact with one of these, no, he does not become impure? Rather, is it not that the phrase “with all these” means: With one of all these? Here too it means that one who performs one of all these has a place in the World-to-Come. Rabbi Simlai’s exposition continues: Isaiah came and established the 613 mitzvot upon six, as it is written: “He who walks righteously, and speaks uprightly; he who despises the gain of oppressions, who shakes his hands from holding of bribes, who stops his ears from hearing blood, and shuts his eyes from looking upon evil” (Isaiah 33:15). The Gemara elaborates: “He who walks righteously”; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Abraham, as it is written concerning him: “For I have known him, that he will command his children…to perform righteousness and justice” (Genesis 18:19). “And speaks uprightly”; this is referring to one who does not shame another in public. “He who despises the gain of oppressions”; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha, who refused to sit in judgment in a case involving one who gave him priestly gifts, to avoid the appearance of impropriety. “Who shakes his hands from holding of bribes”; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who, as explained above, refused to sit in judgment in a case involving his sharecropper. “Who stops his ears from hearing blood”; this is referring to one who would not hear derision of a Torah scholar and remain silent, such as Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, who was well known for this. “And shuts his eyes from looking upon evil” is to be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: This is referring to one who does not look at women when they stand over the laundry at the river. The women would lift the garments they were wearing to keep them out of the water, and thereby expose part of their bodies. And it is written with regard to one who performs these matters: “He shall dwell on high; his fortress shall be the munitions of rocks; his bread shall be given, his waters shall be sure” (Isaiah 33:16). Micah came and established the 613 mitzvot upon three, as it is written: “It has been told to you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord does require of you; only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God” (Micah 6:8). The Gemara elaborates: “To do justly,” this is justice; “to love mercy,” this is an allusion to acts of loving-kindness; “and to walk humbly with your God,” this is an allusion to taking the indigent dead out for burial and accompanying a poor bride to her wedding canopy, both of which are to be performed without fanfare glorifying the doer. The Gemara notes: And are these matters not inferred a fortiori? If, with regard to matters that tend to be conducted in public, e.g., funerals and weddings, the Torah states “walk humbly” when doing them, then in matters that tend to be conducted in private, e.g., charity and Torah study, all the more so should they be conducted in private. Isaiah then established the 613 mitzvot upon two, as it is stated: “So says the Lord: Observe justice and perform righteous-ness” (Isaiah 56:1). Amos came and established the 613 mitzvot upon one, as it is stated: “So says the Lord to the house of Israel: Seek Me and live” (Amos 5:4). Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak objects to this: There is no proof that the verse in Amos is establishing all the mitzvot upon one; say that Amos is saying: Seek Me throughout the entire Torah, as the verse does not specify the manner in which one should seek the Lord. Rather, say: Habakkuk came and established the 613 mitzvot upon one, as it is stated: “But the righteous person shall live by his faith” (Habakkuk 2:4).
    10י
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  • מה היה תהליך צמצום המצוות מ-613 עד מצווה אחת?
  • למה בוכה רבן גמליאל?
  • למה רב נחמן בר יצחק חולק על הצמצום של עמוס?
  • בעקבות המקורות, האם אתם חושבים שניתן לצמצם את היהדות למהות או לעיקרון יחיד?
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