למה ניתנה תורה במדבר חלק ראשון
1א
הדף מאת: רבקה רוזנבאום / עתיד במידבר
2ב
דף הלימוד בוחן מדוע ניתנה התורה במדבר דווקא, מקום שהוא הפקר
3ג
"מי זאת עולה מן המדבר" (שיר השירים ג פסוק ו), עילויה מן המדבר, סילוקה מן המדבר, מיתתה מן המדבר, (...) תורה מן המדבר, משכן מן המדבר, סנהדרין מן המדבר, כהונה מן המדבר, לויה מן המדבר, מלכות מן המדבר, שנא' (שמות פרק יט) ואתם תהיו לי ממלכת כהנים, וכל מתנות טובות שנתן הקב"ה לישראל מן המדבר...

מושגים
  • שיר השירים רבה - מדרש אגדה ארץ-ישראלי מן המאות 7-6 הבנוי לפי סדר הפסוקים של מגילת שיר השירים. כתוב בלשון המשנה משולבת בארמית.
Another interpretation: "Upon my couch at night": this is the night of Egypt. "I sought the one I love": this is Moses, "I sought, but found him not".
4ד
דיון
שאלות
  • "כל מתנות טובות"- האומנם כולן מתנות טובות? ­
  • למה חשוב לדרשן לקשור את ביטויי הממלכתיות (סנהדרין, מלוכה וכו') במדבר דווקא? ­
  • האם יש עוד מתנות טובות שאפשר לקבל מן המדבר?
5ה

אמר המדבר אני מדבר וחביב אני,
שכל טובות שבעולם חבויין בי...

נתנם לי הקב"ה שיהו שמורים בי.
וכשהקב"ה מבקשם ממני,
אני מחזיר לו פקדונו בלא חסרון.

מושגים
  • שיר השירים רבה - מדרש אגדה ארץ-ישראלי מן המאות 7-6 הבנוי לפי סדר הפסוקים של מגילת שיר השירים. כתוב בלשון המשנה משולבת בארמית.
"As a lily among the thorns so is my love among the maidens (daughters) (Song of Songs 2:2)". Rabbi Yitzchak applied this reading to Rebekah, as it is said: "And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Betuel, the Aramean, from Paddan Aram, the sister of Laban, the Aramean (Genesis 25:20)". If it wants to teach that she was from Paddan Aram, why does the text say "sister of Laban the Aramean"? Rather, it is to tell us that her father was a trickster, her brother was a tricksters and the inhabitants of that place were tricksters and that this righteous one came from their midst. To what can she be compared? "Like a lily among the thorns". Rabbi Pinchas in the name of Rabbi Simon said, "It is written: "And Isaac sent Jacob to Paddan Aram to Laban, son of Betuel, the Aramean (Genesis 28:5)" grouping all of them as tricksters. Rabbi Eliezer opened his reading with the redemption from Egypt: As a "lily" placed "among the thorns" is difficult to find and pick, so the redemption of Israel was difficult before the Holy One, blessed be He. See! It is written: "Or has any god ventured to go and take for himself one nation from the midst of a nation (Deuteronomy 4:34)"". Rabbi Joshua in the name of Rabbi Chanan said: ""A nation from the midst of a people" and "a people from the midst of a nation" are not written there, but rather "a nation from the midst of a nation" because these were uncircumcised and these were uncircumcised; these grew sidelocks and these grew sidelocks; these wore mixed fabrics and these wore mixed fabrics and so from the measure of justice, he should never have redeemed Israel"". Rabbi Samuel son of Nachman said: "If the Holy One, blessed be He, had not bound himself with an oath, Israel would not have ever been redeemed. See! It is written: "Say, therefore, to the Israelite people: I am Hashem. I will free you from the labors of the Egyptians and deliver you from their bondage (Exodus 6:6)" and this is nothing else than an oath. Scripture similarly says: "Therefore, I swear concerning the house of Eli (1 Samuel 3:14)"". Rabbi Berechya said: "By Your arm You redeemed Your people (Psalm 77:18)": with absolute force". Rabbi Yudan said: ""One nation from the midst of a nation" until "awesome power" there are seventy-seven letters there, and if someone says to you "seventy-five", say to him: "Take from them "nation" mentioned a second time from the count"". Rabbi Avin said: "He redeemed them because of his name because the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, has seventy-seven letters". Rabbi Azaria in the name of Rabbi Yehudah son of Rabbi Shimon says: "The matter may be compared to the case of a king who had an orchard planted with one row of fig trees, one of vines, one of pomegranates, and one of apples. He entrusted it to a tenant and went away. After a time, the king came and looked in at the orchard to ascertain what it had yielded. He found it full of "thorns" and briars, so he brought woodcutters to raze it. He looked closely at the thorns and noticed among them a single "lily"-colored flower. He smelled it, and his spirits calmed down. The king said: "The whole orchard shall be saved because of this flower." In a similar manner, the whole world was created only for the sake of the Torah and after twenty six generations the Holy One, blessed be He, looked at the world to ascertain what it yielded. He found water on top of water, the generation of Enosh was wiped out from the water, the generation of the flood was wiped out from the water, the generation of the separation in water. He brought woodcutters to raise it, as it is said: "Hashem sat enthroned at the Flood (Psalm 29:10)". God saw a single "lily"-colored flower, to wit, Israel. God took it and smelled it when God gave them [the Israelites] the Ten Commandments, and God's spirits were calmed when they said: "We will do, and we will hear (Exodus 24:7)". Said the Holy One, "The orchard shall be saved on account of this flower. For the sake of the Torah and of Israel the world shall be saved." Rabbi Chanan of Sepphoris opened his interpretation with acts of kindness: "By custom in the world ten men gathered at a house of mourning and not one from them was able to open his mouth to recite the blessing of mourners, and one man came and opened his mouth and recited the blessing of mourners. Was he not like to a "lily among the thorns"? And further, by custom in the world ten men gathered at a house of feasting and not one from them was able to open his mouth to recite the blessing of grooms, and one man came and opened his mouth and recited the blessing of grooms. Was he not like to a "lily among the thorns"? By custom in the world ten men gathered at a synagogue and not one from them was able to open his mouth to recite the Shema and pass before the ark, and one man from them recited the Shema and passed before the ark. Was he not like to a "lily among the thorns"? Rabbi Eleazar came to a certain place and they said to him: "Recite the Shema!" He said to them: "I am not wise enough to pass before the ark". They said: "This is the famous Rabbi Eleazar? This is he whom people buzz about? For nothing do they call him rabbi!". He was white on his face and he went to Rabbi Akiba his rabbi. He said to him: "Why is your face sickly? Tell me what is wrong with you". He said to him "Do you want to learn?" And Eleazar said: "I will learn it". Later he came to the same place and people said to him: "Recite the Shema!" and he recited it, "Pass before the ark" and he passed before it. They said: "Rabbi Eleazer is able to speak ('itchasam) and they called him thus Rabbi Eleazar Chisma. Rabbi Jonah used to teach his students the blessing of the groom and the blessing of mourners for he said they must be accomplished in every detail. Rabbi Huna explained the verse as referring to the kingdoms. "Just as a "lily placed among the thorns", when a north wind blows and bends it to the north and the thorn pricks it, nevertheless its heart remains aligned upward, so too Israel - even though they are sucked dry by crop taxes and monetary taxes their heart is still aligned toward their Father in Heaven, as it says “My eyes are always to God (Psalms 25:15)". Rabbi Ayvu explained the verse as referring to the future redemption: "Just as this "rose placed among the thorns" is hard for its owner to pick, and what does he do? He brings fire, burns all around it and afterwards picks it. So too “Hashem has commanded concerning Jacob [that] his adversaries shall be round about him (Lamentations 1:17)". Like Chalamish in relation to Gavoh, Yericho in relation to No’adan, Susitan in relation to Tiberias, Castera in relation to Haifa, Lod in relation to Ono, this is what is written: “This is Jerusalem; in the midst of the nations I have placed it (Ezekiel 5:5)". In the future when the end comes, what will the Holy One, blessed be He, do? He will bring fire and burn everything outside of it, as it is written “And the peoples shall be as the burnings of lime (Isaiah 33:12)" What is written there? “Hashem alone guided them (Deuteronomy 32:12)". Rabbi Avun said: As this lily, the dry period comes upon it and it is withered, so when the dew comes to it is blossoms. And so, at the time that the shadow of Esau has risen and appears powerful in the world Israel withers, and when the shadow of Esau passes on, Israel will blossom and thrive. See! It is written: "I will be to Israel like dew (kattal); He shall blossom like the lily (Hosea 14:6)". When does the lily cease to exist (betelah) in the world except when its fragrance ceases? So Israel does not cease to exist except when its mitzvot and good deeds cease. What is a lily except for its fragrance? So the righteous were created for no reason but the redemption of Israel. Is not the lily picked for the table of kings at the beginning and the end? So Israel, they, they are in this world, they, they are in the world to come. Is not the the lily distinguishable among the grasses? So Israel is distinguishable among the nations of the world, as it is written: "All who see them shall recognize (Isaiah 61:9)". Is not this lily prepared for Sabbaths and holidays? So Israel is prepared for future redemption". Rabbi Berechya said: "The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Moses: "Go and speak to them, to Israel, my sons: "When you were in Egypt, you were like "a lily among the thorns" and now that you have arrived in the land of Canaan, be like "a lily among the thorns". It is taught be wise that you do not act according to the actions of these people, the actions of those people. See! It is written: "You shall not copy the practices of the land of Egypt where you dwelt, or of the land of Canaan to which I am taking you (Leviticus 18:3)".
6ו
והייתם כאלוהים, אריך פרום, הוצאת א' רובינשטיין, תשל"ה, עמ' 95-96
...המערכה השלישית כוללת את נדידת העברים במדבר. במצריים סבלו; מעבדות יצאו; אך לאן הובאו? למדבר שממה, שבו סבלו תכופות מרעב וצמא. הם אינם מרוצים ומתלוננים, לדבריהם, מפני שאין להם מספיק מזון. אך האם אפשר לפסוח על העובדה שפחדם היה לא רק מפני הרעב? הם פחדו גם מפני החופש. הם פחדו כיוון שאיבדו את מסגרת הקיום המוסדרת כהלכה שהייתה להם במצריים - הגם שהיו אלה חיי עבדים - כיוון שלא היה עליהם משגיח, מלך ואלילים שאפשר לסגוד להם. הם פחדו כיוון שהיו עם שאין לו אלא נביא המשמש כמנהיג, אוהלים-של-ארעי למגורים, ושום משימה פרט להליכה לפנים לקראת יעד בלתי-נודע.
הבטחון שהיה להם כעבדים במצריים דומה שהוא עדיף לדידם בהרבה על אי-הבטחון שבחירות. הם אומרים: "מי יתן מותנו ביד ה' בארץ מצריים, בשבתנו על סיר הבשר באכלנו לחם לשובע; כי הוצאתם אותנו אל המדבר הזה להמית את כל הקהל הזה ברעב" (שמות ט"ז, 3). נראה שה' מבין שעבדים, גם לאחר שהשתחררו, נשארים בליבם עבדים, ועל כן אין סיבה לכעוס. הוא מספק להם מזון המן שהם מוצאים בכל בוקר. שתי מצוות קשורות בליקוט המן, ולשתיהן חשיבות רבה. האחת אוסרת עליהם לקחת יותר משיוכלו לאכול ביום אחד (הללו שמלקטים יותר מוצאים למחרת היום שהעודף מלא תולעים). משמעות המצווה הזו ברורה: מזון נועד לאכילה, לא לחיסכון; החיים נועדו כדי לחיותם, לא לצבור אותם. במידבר אין בתים ובאותה מידה אין בו קניין. באקלים של חירות כל הדברים משרתים את החיים, אולם אין החיים משרתים את הקניין.
7ז
דיון
שאלות
  • איך קיבלו בני ישראל את היציאה למדבר על פי אריך פרום?
  • ­האם לדעתכם קניין משחרר או כובל? ומה חושב פרום? ­
  • מה מטרת החופש שהיהודים מקבלים ממצרים? ­
  • האם אין בכך משום המרה של עבדות אחת בעבדות אחרת? ­
  • מהו החופש שאריך פרום מדבר עליו?
9 ט
11יא
דף מספר 1 בסדרה למה ניתנה תורה במדבר, דפים נוספים בסדרה:
2