Monetary or physical gifts feature in a variety of contexts in Jewish sources. The Torah instructs Israelites to give donations of goods to the Temple and donations of produce and crops to priests and the needy. Giving gifts is also associated with holidays: The biblical book of Esther describes an exchange of gifts on the holiday of Purim. Later rabbinic sources also discuss the the giving of gifts as a way to fulfill the obligation to rejoice on the holidays.
Ritual sacrifice is a central focus of many texts in the Jewish canon. The bulk of the book of Leviticus discusses sacrifice in the Mishkan, and the order of Kodashim, one of six sections that make up the Mishnah and Talmud, is devoted to analyzing the topic. In the Mishkan and Temple, sacrifices could be brought as atonement, to give thanks, as part of daily service, or in a variety of other contexts.