By: Sarah Ahdut Source Sheet for מכת ברד
1 א

(כד) וַיְהִ֣י בָרָ֔ד וְאֵ֕שׁ מִתְלַקַּ֖חַת בְּת֣וֹךְ הַבָּרָ֑ד כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹֽא־הָיָ֤ה כָמֹ֙הוּ֙ בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵאָ֖ז הָיְתָ֥ה לְגֽוֹי׃

(24) So there was hail, and fire flashing up amidst the hail, very grievous, such as had not been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
2 ב

(א) מתלקחת בתוך הברד. נס בתוך נס, האש והברד מעורבין, והברד מים הוא, ולעשות רצון קונם עשו שלום ביניהם:

Blazed inside the hail- This was a miracle within a miracle. The fire and hail were intermingled, and although the hail is made of water, and the fire and water by nature do not coexist, yet to perform the will of their creator, they made peace between themselves.

3 ג

(לג) וַיֵּצֵ֨א מֹשֶׁ֜ה מֵעִ֤ם פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וַיִּפְרֹ֥שׂ כַּפָּ֖יו אֶל־ה' וַֽיַּחְדְּל֤וּ הַקֹּלוֹת֙ וְהַבָּרָ֔ד וּמָטָ֖ר לֹא־נִתַּ֥ךְ אָֽרְצָה׃

(33) And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread forth his hands unto the LORD; and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth.
4 ד

(א) לא נתך. לא הגיע, ואף אותן שהיו באויר לא הגיעו לארץ, ודומה לו (דניאל ט יא) ותתך עלינו האלה והשבועה, דעזרא, ותגיע עלינו ומנחם בן סרוק חברו בחלק (יחזקאל כב כב) כהתוך כסף, לשון יציקת מתכת, ורואה אני את דבריו, כתרגומו ויצק (שמות לח ה) ואתיך, (שם כז) לצקת לאתכא, אף זה לא נתך לארץ לא לארץ: הוצק

Did not come down: This means it did not reach. Even those hailstones which were in midair did not reach the ground. And similar to it is the word ותתך in the phrase: "And the oath and curse reached us." (of Ezra) It means "reached us". The grammarian Mencahem ibn Saruk classified the word נתך in the same entry as the word התוך in the phrase "as the melting of silver", in the sense of pouring molten metal. And I see the correctness of his words, as targum onkelos renders the term "to pour" as לאתכא In this case, too, לא נתך לארץ means it did not pour down to the ground.

5 ה

(כג) וַיֵּ֨ט מֹשֶׁ֣ה אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ֮ עַל־הַשָּׁמַיִם֒ ה' נָתַ֤ן קֹלֹת֙ וּבָרָ֔ד וַתִּ֥הֲלַךְ אֵ֖שׁ אָ֑רְצָה וַיַּמְטֵ֧ר ה' בָּרָ֖ד עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃

(23) And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven; and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and fire ran down unto the earth; and the LORD caused to hail upon the land of Egypt.

Rav Hirsch on פסוק כג

God had spoken only of hail, yet thunder and lightening and hail came. This supports the theory that hail, and in fact all precipitation, are generally accompanied by electrical discharge, either as a cause or result. Hail alone, with hailstones raining down on the land, would not have been sufficient; it would not have indicated an upheaval in the atmospheric conditions of the land. God, however, caused the hail to form over Egypt in the same way that it forms over other lands; hail formed and came down in enormous quantities, in a land that had never seen a hailcloud. This threatened a complete change in the country's climate. The use of ותהלך, the שלמים-form , instead of the more common ותלך, signifies the slow and continuous falling of the fire. The lightening was so continuous that no interruption was noticeable. וימטר. God caused hail to rain upon the land of Egypt. The miracle lay in the naturalness of the formation and downpour.

6 ו

(כט) וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ מֹשֶׁ֔ה כְּצֵאתִי֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר אֶפְרֹ֥שׂ אֶת־כַּפַּ֖י אֶל־ה' הַקֹּל֣וֹת יֶחְדָּל֗וּן וְהַבָּרָד֙ לֹ֣א יִֽהְיֶה־ע֔וֹד לְמַ֣עַן תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֥י ה' הָאָֽרֶץ׃

(29) And Moses said unto him: ‘As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread forth my hands unto the LORD; the thunders shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know that the earth is the LORD’s.
7 ז

(א) כצאתי את העיר על דרך הפשט יתכן לומר שהיה משה מתפלל בביתו, רק בפעם הזאת רצה להיות כפיו פרושות השמים ויחדלו הקולות והמטר מיד, ולא יתכן לעשות כן בעיר, על כן אמר כצאתי את העיר וכן נאמר עוד (בפסוק לג) ויצא משה מעם פרעה את העיר, ובראשונה אמר (לעיל ח כה) הנה אנכי יוצא מעמך. ורבותינו אמרו (מכילתא פסחא בפתיחתא) שלא היה מתפלל בתוך העיר לפי שהיא מלאה גלולים, וכל שכן שלא היה נדבר עמו אלא חוץ לכרך. אם כן נאמר כי בעבור שהיה פרעה מבקש עתה שיסור הברד מיד, הוצרך משה לפרש לו כי יצטרך לצאת את העיר, ואחרי כן יפרוש כפיו אל ה' ויסור בתפלתו, והוא האמת:

When I leave the city I shall: According to the plain way of interpretation, it is plausible to say that Moshe would generally pray in his house in the city. But this time he saw fit that his hands should be spread out toward heaven so that the thunder and rain should cease immediately, and it was not feasible to do so inside the city, and therefore he said, "When I leave the city" And so it states further, Moshe went out from Pharaoh, from the city. But the time before he said, "Behold, I leave you and I shall entreat Hashem." Our sages say, however, that Moshe would not pray inside the city because it was filled with idols, and all the more so is it clear that God did not speak with him inside the city, but only outside the city. If so we must say that because Pharaoh requested now that the hail should depart immediately, Moshe had to explain to him that he had to leave the city first, and only after that would he spread out his hands to Hashem. And the hail would depart through his prayer. This explanation is the truth.