Yearning for the Final Redemption and Mashiach
Mashiach will come when we aren’t thinking about him. Just as when the Jews were redeemed from Egypt, it says, “They did not heed Moshe because of shortness of breath and hard work,” before Mashiach’s arrival, people will be so dulled by pain and suffering that they will be incapable of accepting words of comfort and consolation [excerpted from Rav Schwab on Chumash by Rabbi Myer J. Schwab, page 231 (Israel Bookshop Publications)].

This would explain why Rav Yechezkel Levenstein says that when it comes to the arrival of Mashiach and the resurrection of the dead, we are quiet as if we are embarrassed to speak about them as if we have given up them altogether. Before we begin discussing Mashiach in-depth, let me quote to you the words of Rabbi Eliyahu Lopian:

“While in London I heard from the holy Rabbi Elchanan Wasserman, quoting the Chofeitz Chayim, that our Sages say that the War of Gog and Magog will be threefold. After the First World War, the Chofetz Chayim said that it was the first battle of Gog and Magog and that in about 25 years there would be a second world war, which would make the first one seem insignificant. Then there would be the third war” [Leiv Eliyahu by Rabbi Eliyahu Lopian, Shemos, (page 197) אני שמעתי בלונדון מפי הקדוש ר' אלחנן וסרמן זצ"ל, שאמר בשם החפץ חיים זצוק"ל, שחז"ל אומרים שמלחמת גוג ומגוג יהיה שלש פעמים. ואז היה אחרי המלחמה העולמית הראשונה, ואמר החפץ חיים שהמלחמה הזאת - היתה מלחמת גוג ומגוג הראשונה, ובעוד עשרים וחמש שנה בערך - תהיה עוד מלחמה עולמית שניה, שהמלחמה הראשונה תהיה כאפס נגדה, ואח"כ תהיה מלחמת גוג ומגוג שלישית - עת צרה היא ליעקב, אבל ממנה יושע. See also Rav Schwab on Chumash by Rabbi Myer Schwab, pages 240 – 241 (Israel Bookshop Publications)]

There’s a dispute whether World War III will be before the revelation of the Mashiach or after [see Otzrot Acharit HaYamim (Hebrew), (link to view the seifer online) or When Moshiach Comes: Halachic & Aggadic Perspectives (English) by Yehudah Chayoun, part 1, chapter 5, The Battle of Gog and Magog. See also The Future: Guide to Messiah by Rabbi Lawrence Hajioff, Preparing For Redemption by Rabbi Pinchas Winston and Hold On: Surviving Days Before Moshiach by Roy S Neuberger.

True, to the Chofeitz Chayim’s prediction, World War II began in 1939, exactly 25 years later!

How did his prediction materialize so accurately?

כְּשֶׁהַצַּדִּיקִים גּוֹזְרִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵיהֶם...

When the righteous decree, the Holy One, Blessed be He, fulfills their words...

Does there need to be a third world war? It depends on us.

שלשה דברים מבטלין את הגזירה קשה ואלו הן תפלה וצדקה ותשובה...

There are three things that can annul harsh decrees. They are: prayer, returning to G-d and charity...

(יב) שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים מְבַטְּלִים גְּזֵרוֹת רָעוֹת, וְאֵלּוּ הֵם, תְּפִלָּה וּצְדָקָה וּתְשׁוּבָה...

There are three things that can evil decrees. They are: prayer, returning to G-d and charity...

The Hebrew word for return, תְּשׁוּבָה, is derived from תָשׁוּב אֶל-יקוק, [You shall] return to Hashem” [(Devarim 30:10) see also The Wisdom In The Hebrew Alphabet by Rabbi Michael L. Munk, page 87]. In other words, returning to the path G-d set for us when we were born, the path that our souls recognize as home-bound, the path of goodness of becoming a better person, a different person, not a perfect person (The Power of Teshuvah by Rabbi Heshey Kleinman, pages 61-62)

See Yalkut Shimoni, Tehillim 106:865 פעמים ד"ה and Nidchei Yisrael volume 2, chapter 34 ד"ה והנה.

Furthermore, one should involve himself in Torah, doing acts of kindness and eating three meals on the Shabbos.


(ב) בִּזְכוּ אוֹרַיְיתָא יְתוּבוּן לְאַרְעָא קַדִּישָׁא, וְיִתְכַּנְּשׁוּן מִן גָּלוּתָא.

בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה יָשׁוּבוּ לָאָרֶץ הַקְּדוֹשָׁה וְיִתְקַבְּצוּ מִן הַגָּלוּת

In the merit of th Jewish people Torah study they will return to the Holy Land and be ingathered from the exile.

אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: כׇּל הָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה — יִסּוּרִין בְּדֵילִין הֵימֶנּוּ...

Regarding this unclear verse, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: If one engages in Torah study, suffering stays away from him...


שאלו תלמידיו את רבי אלעזר מה יעשה אדם וינצל מחבלו של משיח יעסוק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים...

Rabbi Elazar’s students asked Rabbi Elazar: What shall a person do to be spared from the pains preceding the coming of the Messiah? Rabbi Elazar said to them: They shall engage in Torah study and acts of kindness...

(נא) מגדל [מַגְדִּיל֮] יְשׁוּע֪וֹת מַ֫לְכּ֥וֹ וְעֹ֤שֶׂה חֶ֨סֶד ׀ לִמְשִׁיח֗וֹ לְדָוִ֥ד וּלְזַרְע֗וֹ עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃

(51) He accords great victories to His king, keeps faith with His anointed, with David and his offspring forever.

דרש ר' שמלאי תורה תחלתה גמילות חסדים וסופה גמילות חסדים...

Rabbi Samlai taught: With regard to the Torah, its beginning is an act of kindness and its end is an act of kindness...

קץ האחרון לא תלוי בתשובה אלא בחסד

Even Shleimah, chapter 11, paragraph 13

the last exile is not dependent on returning to G-d but [doing] kindness

What is Redemption?

דלמא רבי חייא רבא ורבי שמעון בן חלפתא הוו מהלכין בהדא בקעת ארבל בקריצתה וראו איילת השחר שבקע אורה. אמר רבי חייא רבה לר' שמעון בן חלפתא בי רבי כך היא גאולתן של ישראל בתחילה קימאה קימאה כל מה שהיא הולכת היא רבה והולכת...

It happened that Rabbi Chiyah Rabbah and Rabbi Shimon Ben Chalafta were walking in the Arbel Valley at the break of the morning before the light of day. They witnessed the rising of the dawn as it spread out its light. Rabbi Chiyah Rabbah said to Rabbi Shimon Ben Chalafta, “Rabbi, this is the Redemption of Israel - in the beginning, it comes slowly, slowly and then afterward it increases and grows.”

(לג) א"ר יודן לפי שאין הגאולה של אומה זו באה בבת אחת אלא קימעא קימעא. ומהו מגדיל שהיא מתגדלת והולכת לפני ישראל. לפי שהן עכשיו שרויין בצרות גדולות ואם תבוא הגאולה בבת אחת אינן יכולין לסבול ישועה גדולה שהיא באה מתוך צרות גדולות. לכך הוא באה קימעא קימעא ומתגדלת והולכת.

Rav Yodan says, “For this nation’s redemption does not happen all at one time, but rather bit by bit. So, what does the verse, ‘He gives great salvations,’ mean? That [the redemption] grows continuously before Israel. Since Israel currently endures great tribulations, should the Redemption arrive all at once, they would be unable to withstand the great salvation following directly after [a period of] great affliction. It, therefore, comes bit by bit and grows continuously.”

How did our nation’s servitude in Egypt end?

(א) ויהי בימים הרבים ההם... ותעל שועתם אל האלקים מן העבודה. כי אע"פ שהגיע הקץ כבר לא היו ראוים לגאולה אלא מרוב שצעקו אל יקוק מן העבודה קבל תפלתם... ללמדך שאין תפלתו של אדם שלמה כאותה שהוא מתפלל מתוך הצרה והדוחק שהיא יותר מקובלת והיא העולה לפניו יתברך...

Even though the time of the redemption had arrived, they weren’t worthy of being redeemed. However, once they all cried out in unison from the work that they were undergoing, their prayers were accepted… This teaches that no prayer is as complete as one submitted with anguish and stress, for that [prayer] is accepted and ascends before the Creator.

(ה) וְאָמַר רִבִּי יִצְחָק, פּוּרְקָנָא דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לָא תַּלְיָא אֶלָּא בִּבְכִי...

ְאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק, הַגְּאֻלָּה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְלוּיָה אֶלָּא רַק בִּבְכִי

R’ Yitzchak said that the salvation of Yisrael depends only on crying.

The Chofeitz Chayim states:

“All the many troubles that have fallen upon us, from which we have still not been saved, are because we don’t scream and increase our prayers in response to them. If we had prayed properly, we would not have returned empty-handed… several times daily he must pour out his requests in solitude, in his house, from the depths of his heart… if each person would contemplate in solitude his own plight... then he would pour out his heart like water to Hashem. Such a prayer would emerge with very deep intent with a broken heart and with great humility. Such a prayer will certainly not go unanswered…!” (see Redemption Unfolding by Alexander Aryeh Mandelbaum, page 82)

When an infant wants his parents to give him attention, he cries. If they don’t hear him or choose to ignore him, he cries, screams even louder or throws a tantrum, until his parents come and attend to his needs.

(ג) וְעוזֵר דַּלִּים. וְעונֶה לְעַמּו בְּעֵת שַׁוְּעָם אֵלָיו...

(3) He responds to His people at the time they cry out to Him...

(ה) כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם הָיוּ נוֹשְׂאִין עֵינֵיהֶן וְהָיוּ הַמִּצְרִים רוֹדְפִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם... כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיוּ מֻקָּפִין מִשָּׁלשׁ רוּחוֹת, הַיָּם סוֹגֵר, וְהַשֹּׂוֹנֵא רוֹדֵף וְהַחַיּוֹת מִן הַמִּדְבָּר, תָּלוּ עֵינֵיהֶם לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וְצָעֲקוּ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא... וְלָמָּה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לָהֶם כָּךְ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְאַוֶּה לִתְפִלָּתָן.

When Yisrael went out of Egypt, they looked back and saw the Egyptians chasing after them… When Yisrael saw, they were surrounded on all sides – the sea in front of them blocking their path, their enemy chasing after them, and wild animals on both sides in the desert – they lifted their eyes up to their Father in Heaven, and cried out to the Holy One Blessed be He, as it is written: “…and Bnei Yisroel cried out to Hashem.” Why did the Holy One Blessed be He, do this to them? Because Holy One Blessed be He yearned for their prayers

(ד) וְלָמָּה נִתְעַקְּרוּ הָאִמָּהוֹת.. שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְאַוֶּה לִתְפִלָּתָן וּמִתְאַוֶּה לְשִׂיחָתָן...

(4) Why were the Matriarchs made barren? …It is because the Holy One, blessed is He, yearned for their prayer and their supplication...

מפני מה היו אבותינו עקורים מפני שהקב"ה מתאוה לתפלתן של צדיקים...

For what reason were our forefathers initially infertile? Because the Holy One, Blessed be He, desires the prayers of the righteous, and He therefore wanted them to pray for children...

א"ר אלעזר מיום שנחרב בית המקדש ננעלו שערי תפלה... ואע"פ ששערי תפלה ננעלו שערי דמעות לא ננעלו...

Rabbi Elazar says: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were locked, and prayer is not accepted as it once was... Yet, despite the fact that the gates of prayer were locked with the destruction of the Temple, the gates of tears were not locked, and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered...

If that’s the case, then why “don’t” we cry to G-d? Both children and adults, want to think of themselves as macho. Even if they’re undergoing mental anguish, they’d rather bottle themselves up, then express their emotions to others or even our Creator! They believe crying is showing a sign of weakness or maybe that’s what America has brainwashed us to think. In the words Rav Shimon Schwab zt”l: “Most of us are – and forgive my expression - emotionally constipated.” See Rav Schwab on Chumash by Rabbi Myer J. Schwab, pages 47 – 48 (Israel Bookshop Publications)]

כל כתבי חפץ חיים השלם, שיחות החפץ חיים, דף עב, מספר יד

אנו צריכים לבקש על הגאולה. כמו שפעולת שכר שכיר ביומו, אם אינו תובע אין החיוב לתת כמו כן אנו צריכים לתבוע את הגאולה.

Kol Kisvei Chofeitz Chayim HaSholeim, Sichos Chofeitz Chayim, page 72, #14

Even though we pray for the redemption several times every day, requesting by itself is not enough. One must demand the redemption, just as with the wages of a hired worker (Mishnah Bava Metzia 9:12 and Meseches Bava Metzia 111a). Failure to do so shows that this matter is not that urgent to us!

(א) א"ר סימון בבר מנסיא אין ישראל רואין סימן גאולה לעולם עד שיחזרו ויבקשו שלשתם, הדא הוא דכתיב אחר ישובו בני ישראל ובקשו את יקוק אלהיהים זו מלכות שמיים, ואת דוד מלכם זו מלכות בית דוד, ופחדו אל יקוק ואל טובו זה בית המקדש:

Rabbi Shimon ben Menassia teaches that the redemption will not come until the Jewish people pray for the return of the three things it had rejected in the days of Yeravam: *the rule of G-d, the kingship of Dovid and the rebuilding of the Beis HaMikdash.

When should a person pray for these three things? Perhaps when reciting וְתֶחֱזֶינָה עֵינֵינוּ בְּשׁוּבְךָ לְצִיּון בְּרַחֲמִים in shemonah esrei; before they say בָּרוּךְ, they should have in mind these three things* or verbalize it in their own words [this is just my opinion].

Besides crying, how does one merit to be included in the Final Redemption?

(ב) ויהי חשך אפלה: שלשת ימים. חֹשֶׁךְ שֶׁל אֹפֶל, שֶׁלֹּא רָאוּ אִישׁ אֶת אָחִיו אוֹתָן ג' יָמִים. וְעוֹד שְׁלוֹשֶׁת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים חֹשֶׁךְ מֻכְפָּל עַל זֶה, שֶׁלֹּא קָמוּ אִישׁ מִתַּחְתָּיו – יוֹשֵׁב אֵין יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד, וְעוֹמֵד אֵין יָכוֹל לֵישֵׁב; וְלָמָּה הֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם חֹשֶׁךְ? שֶׁהָיוּ בְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאוֹתוֹ הַדּוֹר רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא הָיוּ רוֹצִים לָצֵאת, וּמֵתוּ בִשְׁלוֹשֶׁת יְמֵי אֲפֵלָה...

(2) ויהי חשך אפלה … שלשת ימים — there was darkness of gloom when no man saw another during those three days, and there was moreover another period of three days’ darkness... And why did He bring darkness upon them? Because there were wicked people amongst the Israelites of that generation who had no desire to leave Egypt, and these died during the three days of darkness...

What made them wicked?

(ג) וְהָיָה לָהֶן שָׁם עשֶׁר וְכָבוֹד וְלֹא הָיוּ רוֹצִים לָצֵאת, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם אָבִיא עֲלֵיהֶן מַכָּה בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא וְיָמוּתוּ...

They had favored positions among the Egyptians and could not dream of giving up their wealth. Therefore, they died in the plague of darkness.

הקב"ה ליבא בעי...

The Holy One, Blessed be He, seeks the heart, and the barometer of greatness is devotion of the heart and not the amount of Torah that one studies...

What did G-d “see” in their hearts?

(ד) עֲשֵׂה רְצוֹנוֹ כִרְצוֹנְךָ...

(4) Do His will as though it were your will...

They weren’t interested in making G-d’s will like their will – to leave Egypt.

תניא רבי סימאי אומר... מקיש יציאתן ממצרים לביאתן לארץ מה ביאתן לארץ שנים מס' ריבוא אף יציאתן ממצרים שנים מס' ריבוא אמר רבא וכן לימות המשיח...

It is taught in a baraita with regard to the few that are destined to be redeemed: Rav Simai says... The Torah compares their exodus from Egypt to their entry into the land; just as during their entry into the land only two of six hundred thousand entered the land, as they all died in the wilderness except for Caleb and Joshua, so too, during their exodus from Egypt, in terms of the ratio, only two of six hundred thousand left Egypt and the rest died there. Rava says: And likewise, that will be situation in the messianic era... The ultimate redemption and the exodus from Egypt are juxtaposed, indicating that in the messianic era too, only few will survive.

Rashi explains that the number of Jews who left Egypt at the time was but a tiny fraction 1/300,000 - of the original Jewish population in Egypt. The rest perished during the plague of darkness when the Egyptians would not be able to witness the downfall of the sinners of our nation (ArtScroll Sanhedrin 111a, note 23). The same will be in the Messianic Era (see note 27). Only 1/300,000 of the Jews will remain at that time (ArtScroll Sanhedrin 111a, note 24).

Approximately 130 years ago, Rabbeinu Tzidkiyah zt”l wrote in the name of his brother R’ Binyamin zt”l, ואפילו אם יהיה בעקב הגאולה והרי הוא נכתב בכת הרשעים שאינן מאמינים ואינן ראויין לגאולה כמו שמצינו במצרים שכל אותן שלא האמינו בגאולה מתו בשלשה ימי אפילת, even if a person will be alive when the redemption arrives, one will be written in the group of the wicked who do not believe and are not fit for the redemption, as we find by [the redemption from] Egypt that all those who did not believe in the redemption (i.e. yearn for it) died during the three days of darkness and did not merit to leave Egypt” [Shebolei HaLeket HaSholeim, chapter 274]

(ח) וְיִתְגְּלֵי לְבָתַר מָשִׁיחַ, וְיִתְכַּנְּשׁוּן לְגַבֵּיהּ עַמִּין סַגִּיאִין, וְיִתְּעַר קְרָבִין בְּכָל עָלְמָא. וּבְהַהוּא זִמְנָא יִתְּעַר קוּדְשָׁא בְּרִיךְ הוּא גְּבוּרְתֵּיהּ לְכָל עַמִּין דְּעָלְמָא, וּמַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא יִתְיְדַע בְּכָל עָלְמָא, וְכָל מַלְכִין דְּעָלְמָא יִתְעָרוּן לְאִתְחַבְּרָא לְאַגָּחָא קְרָבָא בֵּיהּ.

יִתְגַּלֶּה הַמָּשִׁיחַ, וְיִתְכַּנְּסוּ אֵלָיו עַמִּים רַבִּים, וִיעוֹרֵר קְרָבוֹת בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם. וּבְאוֹתוֹ זְמַן יְעוֹרֵר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת גְּבוּרָתוֹ לְכָל עַמֵּי הָעוֹלָם, וּמֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ יִוָּדַע בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם, וְכָל מַלְכֵי הָעוֹלָם יִתְעוֹרְרוּ לְהִתְחַבֵּר לַעֲרֹךְ בּוֹ קְרָב.

(ט) וְכַמָּה (עמין) מִפְּרִיצֵי יְהוּדָאִין יִתְהַפְּכוּ לְאָהַדְּרָא לְגַבַּיְיהוּ, וְיֵיתוּן עִמְּהוֹן, לְאַגָּחָא קְרָבָא עַל מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא. כְּדֵין יִתְחָשַּׁךְ כָּל עָלְמָא חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה יוֹמִין, וְסַגִּיאִין מֵעַמָּא דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוֹן מֵתִין בְּהַהוּא חֲשׁוֹכָא...

וְכַמָּה [עמים] מִפָּרִיצֵי הַיְּהוּדִים יִתְהַפְּכוּ לַחֲזֹר אֲלֵיהֶם, וְיָבֹאוּ עִמָּהֶם לַעֲרֹךְ קְרָב עַל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, וְאָז יֶחְשַׁךְ כָּל הָעוֹלָם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם, וְרַבִּים מֵעַם יִשְׂרָאֵל יָמוּתוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ חֹשֶׁךְ...

At that time the Holy One, Blessed be He, shall show forth his power before all the nations of the earth, and the Mashiach shall be manifested throughout the whole universe, and all the kings will unite to fight against him, and even in Israel there will be found some wicked ones – wayward Jews [any Jew that is open-minded or not strict in the observance of orthodox, traditional, or established forms or ways] - who shall join them in the fight against the Mashiach. Then there will be darkness over all the world, and for fifteen days shall it continue, and many in Israel shall perish in that darkness…

Why? One reason is that they didn’t fulfill the prerequisite of what we say every day in davening:

(א) יִשְׁלַח לְקֵץ הַיָּמִין מְשִׁיחֵנוּ, לִפְדּות מְחַכֵּי קֵץ יְשׁוּעָתו.

(1) He will send at the End of Days our Mashiach, to redeem those longing for His - Hashem’s - final salvation.

Not only didn’t they look forward to G-d’s salvation; on the contrary, they had the brazenness like Amaleik and attempted to fight Mashiach! The second merit is through faith. This entails keeping Shabbos. Why? Because Shabbos is the basis of faith.

The second merit is through faith. This entails keeping Shabbos. Why? Because Shabbos is the basis of faith (see Seifer HaChinuch, mitzvah #32; Rashi on Chullin 5a ד"ה אלא לאו הכי קאמר).

רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אלמלי משמרין ישראל שתי שבתות כהלכתן מיד נגאלים...

Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: If only the Jewish people would keep two Shabbatot in accordance with their halakhot, they would be immediately redeemed...

היו ישראל משמרין שבת אחת כתיקנה מיד היה בן דוד בא...

If only the Jewish people would keep one Shabbos in accordance with their halakhot, Ben David would come, i.e. they would redeemed immediately...

(יב) אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי, אִם מְשַׁמְּרִים יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת כָּרָאוּי אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם אֶחָד בֶּן דָּוִד בָּא, לָמָּה, שֶׁהִיא שְׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַמִּצְווֹת...

(12) According to Rabbi Levi: If all of Israel were to keep Shabbat properly for even a single day, the Messiah ben David would come. Why? because it is equivalent to all of the commandments...

Rav Chaim Kanievsky said that we hold like the Yerushalmi.

(ב) דְּכַד יֵיתֵי קוּדְשָׁא בְּרִיךְ הוּא לְפַקְדָּא לְאַיַּילְתָּא, יִסְתָּכַּל מַאן אִינּוּן דְּקַיְימִין בַּהֲדָהּ, בְּכָל אִינּוּן דְּמִשְׁתַּכְּחֵי עִמָּהּ, בְּכָל עוֹבָדוֹי דְּכָל חַד וְחָד, וְלָא יִשְׁתְּכַּח זַכָּאי... וְכַמָּה עַקְתִּין עַל עַקְתִּין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל.

שֶׁכְּשֶׁיָּבֹא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִפְקֹד אֶת הָאַיָּלָה, יִסְתַּכֵּל מִי הֵם אוֹתָם שֶׁעָמְדוּ עִמָּהּ, בְּכָל אוֹתָם שֶׁנִּמְצָאִים עִמָּהּ, בְּכָל מַעֲשֵׂי כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, וְלֹא יִמָּצֵא צַדִּיק... וְכַמָּה צָרוֹת עַל צָרוֹת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל.

(ג) זַכָּאָה מַאן דְּיִזְדָּמַן וְיִשְׁתְּכַּח בְּהַהוּא זִמְנָא, בְּגִין דְּהַהוּא דְּיִתְקָיָּים בְּהַהוּא זִמְנָא בִּמְהֵימָנוּתָא, יִזְכֶּה לְהַהוּא נְהִירוּ דְּחֶדְוָה דְּמַלְכָּא...

אַשְׁרֵי מִי שֶׁיִּזְדַּמֵּן וְיִמָּצֵא בְּאוֹתוֹ הַזְּמַן - מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאוֹתוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד בְּאוֹתוֹ זְמַן בֶּאֱמוּנָה, יִזְכֶּה לְאוֹתוֹ אוֹר שֶׁל שִׂמְחַת הַמֶּלֶךְ...

When the Holy One, Blessed be He decides to bring the Final Redemption, He will look down on the world and see if there is a righteous person who is worthy of bringing the redemption. [He] will see that no one has sufficient merit for this and He will need to bring great tribulations on the Jewish people so that the Final Redemption should take place. At the same time, fortunate is this generation, for someone who passes the tests of this trying period with strong faith will merit to see the light of happiness of the King

How does one yearn for the Final Redemption on a practical level?

The Chofeitz Chayim (Torah Ohr, chapter 12) says:

“If we were truly yearning for the Final Redemption and waiting each day for its arrival, then we would be preparing ourselves by learning the relevant halachos, for there are many halachos to be learned and they cannot all be covered in a short time… For if it would be revealed that in a short time the final Redemption would arrive, then certainly millions of Jews would quickly learn the halachos to the Beis HaMikdash, since at that time all of these halachos will be applicable, not only for kohanim but for all Jews, for instance, the halachos regarding eating karbonos and visiting the Mikdash… Therefore, if we are truly waiting and yearning for the Final Redemption… we too should arouse ourselves and learn these halachos with all our strength.”

(א) כל מצוה שאין לה דורש ואין מי שיבקש אותה תדרשנה לפי שהיא כמת מצוה...

It’s imperative to adopt a mitzvah that society generally ignores...

(ז) וַיָּ֣בֹא נֹ֗חַ... אֶל־הַתֵּבָ֑ה מִפְּנֵ֖י מֵ֥י הַמַּבּֽוּל׃

(7) Noah... went into the ark because of the waters of the Flood.

(ב) מפני מי המבול. אַף נֹחַ מִקְּטַנֵּי אֲמָנָה הָיָה, מַאֲמִין וְאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִין שֶׁיָבֹא הַמַּבּוּל...

(2) מפני מי המבול BECAUSE OF THE WATERS OF THE FLOOD — (מפני properly means ‘‘from before”) — Noah, also, was of those people who are wanting in faith: he believed and he did not believe that the Flood would come... (Genesis Rabbah 32:6).

If Noach didn’t believe that the Flood would come, then we certainly need ask ourselves, “Do I really believe that the Final Redemption will come or is it just a ‘concept’ that is in the subconscious part of my mind?”

The Chofeitz Chayim says:

קשה לי על כלל ישראל למה לא נראית שום הכנה אצלינו, הלא אנו רואים שנתקיימו הסימנים, ואם כן יש לכל אחד לירא לעצמו ולהיות אצלו על כל פנים ספק שמא יבוא משיח בזמנינו, ואיזה פנים יהיה לו אם לא יהיה מוכן ומזומן מקודם ליום בואו

Seifer U’Va L’Tzion Go’el by Yosef Rubenstein, sha’ar 1, chapter 1, page 120

It is difficult for me why in Klal Yisroel we don’t see any preparations, notwithstanding that we see that the signs are being fulfilled. If so, each individual should be fearing for himself and at least consider the possibility that Mashiach will come in our times. How would it look if we weren’t ready and prepared beforehand for the day of Mashiach’s arrival?”

כמה אנשים תמהים על אריכת הגלות בעת שאנו רואים שכמעט כל הסימנים שנאמרו בגמרא שצריכים להיות לפני ביאת המשיח נתקיימו כולם, ועדיין לא נראה שום התעוררות לביאתו ועקבותיו לא נודעו. והשבתי להם שהסיבה לכך היא כיון שעדיין אין אנו מוכנים בידיעת הלכות המקדש והקרבנות!

Seifer U’Va L’Tzion Go’el by Yosef Rubenstein, sha’ar 1, chapter 3, page 128

Many people wonder about the length of the exile at a time when we see that nearly all the signs mentioned in the Gemara for before Mashiach’s coming have been fulfilled, yet there is no arousal of his coming and no more trees of his footsteps. I answered them that the reason for this is that we are still unprepared in the knowledge of the laws of the mikdash and the karbonos!”

Is there any sefer that exists nowadays which has relevant halachos regarding the Beis HaMikdash? Yes! It’s called Days Are Coming by Rabbi Moshe Silberstein.

What is the sefer about? It’s an In-Depth Analysis of the Practical Halachos Relevant to Visiting the Bais HaMikdash. By studying this sefer, one is imbuing himself with faith that G-d will redeem us. The Chofeitz Chayim had a special morning coat that he planned to wear to greet Mashiach and from time to time he put it on and sit in anticipation (The Chafetz Chaim volume 2 by Rabbi Moses M. Yoshor, pages 621 – 622).

Therefore, a person should designate some type of article of clothing – i.e. suit, shirt, hat, belt or shoes, etc., that he/ she has designated to wear when Mashiach reveals himself.

(ב) שכל האדם נפעל כפי פעלותיו...

(2) You must know, that a man is acted upon according to his actions...

(א) וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲמִין בּוֹ. אוֹ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחַכֶּה לְבִיאָתוֹ. לֹא בִּשְׁאָר נְבִיאִים בִּלְבַד הוּא כּוֹפֵר. אֶלָּא בַּתּוֹרָה וּבְמשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ:

(1) Anyone who does not believe in him or one who does not anticipate his coming not only denies the Prophets, but also the Torah and Moses our Teacher.

You’ll tell me, “But I’m not the Chofeitz Chayim.” That’s true. Here’s the following story:

On Wednesday, Mrs. Leah Rubashkin got a call that her husband summoned to the warden’s office. She got into the car and headed off to Otisville. She arrived with a change of clothing for her husband, but the guard said no, he couldn’t change on the premises – one last display of power on the part of the warden’s office. I wondered how she’d had the presence of mind to grab a change of clothing after having received the most exhilarating phone call of her life.”

I didn’t,” Mrs. Rubashkin answered. “I’ve been driving around with that change of clothing in my car for the last eight years” [See Never Shackled by Yisroel Besser - Mishpacha, Issue 691 (December 27, 2017, page 64)]. Mrs. Leah Rubashkin is the opposite of someone who speaks one way with their mouth and another with their heart (see Pesachim 113b).

How many people does it take to bring the Final Redemption?

Hashem Himself answers this question (see Days Are Coming by Rabbi Moshe Silberstein, page 80):

“I searched for someone who would stand before Me and daven on behalf of Klal Yisroel, that I should not destroy them, but I did not find anyone, so therefore I will pour out My wrath against them and consume them with the flame of My fury.”

One person could have saved all of Klal Yisroel - one person could have prevented the churban. If even one person would have stood up and prayed on behalf of Klal Yisroel.

G-d would have rescinded His decree. This is a message of G-d which is repeated by another one of His prophets as well:

“Go in the streets of Yerushalayim… and seek in its plazas if you will find a just man if there is one who dispenses Justice and seeks emunah if you find even a lone man like this then I will forgive the whole city.”

If there would have been even one person in all of Yerushalayim who was just, Hashem would have forgiven the entire city [(see Days Are Coming by Rabbi Moshe Silberstein, page 80). See ArtScroll Sotah 37a, note 60 and Bamidbar Rabbah 13:4].

There’s a poster which has a picture of Uncle Sam pointing his finger at you, saying, I want YOU for U.S. army.”

Similarly, our Creator says to each and every one of us, “I want YOU to have a part in hastening the redemption.” As Rabbi Pinchas of Koretz said, “Every person may change the course of history; it is in the power of every individual to shorten the exile” (Four Hasidic Masters and Their Struggle Against Melancholy by Elie Wiesel, page 19). If you think Rabbi Pinchas of Koretz is exaggerating, here are the words of the Rambam:

(ד) לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ כָּל אָדָם שֶׁיִּרְאֶה עַצְמוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה כֻּלָּהּ כְּאִלּוּ חֶצְיוֹ זַכַּאי וְחֶצְיוֹ חַיָּב. וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹלָם חֶצְיוֹ זַכַּאי וְחֶצְיוֹ חַיָּב. חָטָא חֵטְא אֶחָד הֲרֵי הִכְרִיעַ אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ לְכַף חוֹבָה וְגָרַם לוֹ הַשְׁחָתָה. עָשָׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת הֲרֵי הִכְרִיעַ אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ לְכַף זְכוּת וְגָרַם לוֹ וְלָהֶם תְּשׁוּעָה וְהַצָּלָה...

(4) It is, therefore, necessary for every man to behold himself throughout the whole year in a light of being evenly balanced between innocence and guilt, and look upon the entire world as if evenly balanced between innocence and guilt; thus, if he commit one sin, he will overbalance himself and the whole world to the side of guilt, and be a cause of its destruction; but if he perform one duty, behold, he will overbalance himself and the whole world to the side of virtue, and bring about his own and their salvation.., escape5Kiddushin, 39b–40a. C.

(קכ) ואם יאמר אדם מי אני ומה אני ספון שאתפלל על הגלות ועל ירושלים וכו', המפני תפלתי יכנסו הגליות ותצמח הישועה?

(קכא) תשובתו בצדו, כאותה ששנינו (סנהדרין ל"ח): לפיכך נברא אדם יחידי כדי שכל אחד יאמר בשבילי נברא העולם, וכבר נחת רוח הוא לפניו יתברך שיהיו בניו מבקשים ומתפללים על זאת, ואף שלא תעשה בקשתם מפני שלא הגיע הזמן או מאיזה טעם שיהיה, הנה הם עשו את שלהם והקב"ה שמח בזה.

(קכב) ועל העדר זה הדבר התרעם הנביא (ישעיהו נ״ט:ט״ז): וירא כי אין איש וישתומם כי אין מפגיע, ואמר (שם ס"ג): ואביט ואין עוזר ואשתומם ואין סומך, ואמר (ירמיהו ל׳:י״ז): ציון היא דורש אין לה, ופי' ז"ל (סוכה מ"א): מכלל דבעיא דרישה.

(קכג) הרי כאן שחייבים אנחנו בזה, ואין לנו ליפטר מפני מיעוט כחנו, כי על כיוצא בזה שנינו (אבות פ"ג): לא עליך המלאכה לגמור ואי אתה בן חורין ליבטל הימנה.

(120) If one will say: "who am I, and what importance am I that I should pray on the exile and Jerusalem? Will the exiles be ingathered and the salvation sprout because of my prayers?!

(121) The answer to him is near [his question], as we learned: "Thus man was created alone, so that each person should say: 'for my sake the world was created' " (Sanhedrin 37a). Already it brings gratification to G-d, that His children desire and pray for this. And even though their request may not be fulfilled, because the proper time has not yet come or for some other reason, nevertheless, they have done their part and the Holy One, blessed be He, rejoices in this.

(122) On the absence of this, the prophets complained saying: "And He saw that there was no man, and He was astounded for there was no intercessor"(Yeshaya 59:16) and "I looked, and there was none to help; and I was astonished that there was no one to uphold" (Yeshaya 63:5). And it is stated: "it is Zion; no one inquires after her" (Yirmiyahu 30:17), which our sages expounded: "this implies it needs inquiring after" (Sukkah 41a).

(123) Thus we learn from here that we are obligated in this matter, and cannot exempt ourselves due to our lack of power. For on all such matters, we learned: "It is not incumbent upon you to complete the task, but neither are you free to abstain from it" (Avot 2:16).

(א) ‏[קנד] כשם שצריך אדם להאמין בהש"י כך צריך אח"כ להאמין בעצמו. ר"ל שיש להש"י עסק עמו ‏ושאיננו פועל בטל שבין לילה כו' וכחיתו שדה שלאחר מיתתם נאבדו ואינם. רק צריך להאמין כי ‏נפשו ממקור החיים ית"ש והש"י מתענג ומשתעשע בה כשעושת רצונו.

Just as one is required to trust in Hashem, so, too, he must believe in himself. That is to say, [one must recognize] that Hashem is concerned with him, and that he is not like a useless worker ‘who lived [one] night and perished after one night’ (Yonah 4:10) - [that is, he is not] like the animals in the field, who upon their death are gone and are no longer [relevant]. Rather, he must believe that his soul is from the Source of Life, Hashem, and that Hashem derives pleasure and delights in [his soul], when he performs His will.

Where will Mashiach reveal himself from?

(ו) כַּד יְקוּם וְיִתְגְּלֵי בְּאַרְעָא (וירא קי''ט ע''א, רכ''א) דְּגָלִיל, בְּגִין דְּאִיהוּ הוּא אֲתָר קַדְמָאָה דְּאִתְחָרְבָא בְּאַרְעָא קַדִּישָׁא, וּבְגִין כָּךְ, יִתְגְּלֵי תַּמָּן קַדְמָאָה...

כְּשֶׁיָּקוּם וְיִתְגַּלֶּה בְּאֶרֶץ הַגָּלִיל, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנֶּחֱרַב בָּאָרֶץ הַקְּדוֹשָׁה, וְלָכֵן יִתְגַּלֶּה שָׁם רִאשׁוֹן...

He shall reveal himself in the land of Galilee because in this part of the Holy Land the desolation (Babylonian exile) first began, therefore he will manifest himself there first

(א) ומל יקוק אלקיך את לבבך אבל לימות המשיח תהיה הבחירה בטוב להם טבע לא יתאוה להם הלב למה שאינו ראוי ולא יחפוץ בו כלל... ימות המשיח שאין בהם לא זכות ולא חובה כי בימי המשיח לא יהיה באדם חפץ אבל יעשה בטבעו המעשה הראוי ולפיכך אין בהם לא זכות ולא חובה כי הזכות והחובה תלויים בחפץ:

Summary: teshuvah is no longer a possibility.

Is he superhuman?

The Jewish Mashiach is truly human in origin, He is born of ordinary human parents and is of flesh and blood like all mortals (ee Aryeh Kaplan Anthology Volume I, The Real Messiah, pages 274 – 276 and Rav Schwab on Prayer, pages 495-497).

How would one describe him?

He is a leader of the Jews, strong in wisdom, power and spirit. Also, he will bring eternal peace, love, prosperity and moral perfection to the entire world (see Aryeh Kaplan Anthology Volume I, The Real Messiah, pages 274 – 276 and Rav Schwab on Prayer, pages 495-497).

Why should I yearn for Mashiach?

Rav Chaim Kanievsky emphasizes, “The primary reason why we should anticipate Mashiach’s coming is so that G-d’s Name and glory will be widespread and recognized throughout the world - as we said on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, “All shall come to serve You... they shall bless Your glorious Name... and shall accept the yoke of Your Kingship upon themselves” (Rav Chaim Kanievsky on the Three Weeks by Rabbi Avraham Yeshayahu Shteinman, page 225). Mashiach will correct the entire world to worship G-d together, as it says, “For then I [G-d] will turn to the peoples a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of the Hashem, to serve Him with one consent.”

The Chofeitz Chayim was once quoted as saying, “Why do we wait for Mashiach? Because we need a livelihood, a cure for a disease, someone in our family needs a shidduch? No! Hashem knows our innermost thoughts, and He says to us, ‘I can send you those things without sending you Mashiach!’ Instead, each one of us must cry for the lack of כבוד שמים, honor of Heaven and for the ‘pain’ of the Divine Presence which is in exile (see Tikkunei Zohar, page 37a) and then Mashiach will surely come” [see Sefer Mekadshei Shemecha HameKutzor by Rabbi Shraga Freedman, page 85 ד"ה ציפייה לגאולה בשביל כבוד שמים for the original text].

[see also Kol HaTor by Rabbi Hillel Rivlin of Shklov, chapter 1, page 53 #2; chapter 4, pages 75 – 76. In addition, see What to Expect from the Transition Phase of the Messianic Era, The Final Showdown and Michtav M’Eliyahu volume 3, Golus v’Geulah, pages 204 – 205 ד"ה ירידתה של מלכות אדום].

What’s the main emphasis of this blessing?

(א) הָשִׁיבָה שׁופְטֵינוּ כְּבָרִאשׁונָה וְיועֲצֵינוּ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה. וְהָסֵר מִמֶּנּוּ יָגון וַאֲנָחָה. וּמְלךְ עָלֵינוּ אַתָּה יקוק לְבַדְּךָ בְּחֶסֶד וּבְרַחֲמִים. וְצַדְּקֵנוּ בַּמִשְׁפָּט. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יקוק, מֶלֶךְ אוהֵב צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט: בעשי"ת - הַמֶּלֶךְ הַמִשְׁפָּט:

(1) Restore our judges as in the beginning, and our counsellors as in the beginning times, remove from us sorrow and groaning, and reign over us, You, O Lord alone, and in loving kindness and mercy, justify us in judgment. Blessed are You, O Lord, * the King Who loves righteousness and judgment. (From Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur replace the conclusion with the following: King of Justice.)


(כד) השיבה שופטינו ...ומלוך עלינו אתה יקוק לבדך שנאמר והיה יקוק למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה יקוק אחד ושמו אחד...


(א) כָּל גּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ יָבוֹאוּ וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְפָנֶיךָ אדושם וִיכַבְּדוּ לִשְׁמֶךָ.

All the nations that You have made will come and bow down before You, O L-rd, and they will give glory to Your Name.

Sometimes, a person needs to ask themselves, “Am I in this world to sanctify G-d’s Name or my name?” The prophet gives us the proper mindset:

(ג) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לִ֖י עַבְדִּי־אָ֑תָּה יִשְׂרָאֵ֕ל אֲשֶׁר־בְּךָ֖ אֶתְפָּאָֽר׃

(3) And He said to me, “You are My servant, Israel in whom I glory.”
As an American, how does Mashiach benefit me?

(א) כל ישראל יש להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר ועמך כו': ...וזהו לשון החכמים (ברכות לד:) אין בין העוה"ז לימות המשיח אלא שעבוד מלכיות בלבד ויהיו בימיו עשירים ואביונים גבורים וחלשים כנגד זולתם אבל באותם הימים יהיה נקל מאד על בני האדם למצוא מחייתם עד שבעמל מעט שיעמול אדם יגיע לתועלת גדול...

(1) All Jews have a share in the world to come: ..."There is no difference between this world and the days of the Messiah except for the subjugation by the nations alone." And there will be in his days rich and poor, strong and weak, in relation to each other. But it will be very easy in those days for people to find their sustenance; to the point that with a little effort that a person exerts, a great output will result...

Why will it be much easier for people to earn a livelihood?

(יט) בְּזֵעַ֤ת אַפֶּ֙יךָ֙ תֹּ֣אכַל לֶ֔חֶם עַ֤ד שֽׁוּבְךָ֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה כִּ֥י מִמֶּ֖נָּה לֻקָּ֑חְתָּ כִּֽי־עָפָ֣ר אַ֔תָּה וְאֶל־עָפָ֖ר תָּשֽׁוּב׃

(19) By the sweat of your brow Shall you get bread to eat, Until you return to the ground— For from it you were taken. For dust you are, And to dust you shall return.”

This curse will be removed from upon mankind. We will still have to put in some effort to succeed.

(ב) אם עשה הרי הוא מתברך ואם לאו אינו מתברך...

If you have done something, then it will be blessed; if not, it will not be blessed...

The reason we will still have an interest in having a livelihood is spelled out in the Gemara:

שהבטלה מביאה לידי שיעמום:

Idleness leads to idiocy.

The good news is that our life won’t be one big rush of getting up early to daven, going home afterward to eat breakfast and then zooming off to work. We will have more time to amass in learning Torah, as our livelihood will not be a means to an end anymore.

(ד) לֹא נִתְאַוּוּ הַחֲכָמִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים יְמוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ. לֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁלְטוּ עַל כָּל הָעוֹלָם. וְלֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּרְדּוּ בָּעַכּוּ''ם. וְלֹא כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּנַשְּׂאוּ אוֹתָם הָעַמִּים. וְלֹא כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִשְׂמֹחַ. אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ פְּנוּיִין בַּתּוֹרָה וְחָכְמָתָהּ. וְלֹא יִהְיֶה לָהֶם נוֹגֵשׂ וּמְבַטֵּל. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְכּוּ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא...

(4) The Sages and the Prophets did not long for the days of the Messiah because they wanted to rule the world or because they wanted to have dominion over the non-Jews or because they wanted the nations to exalt them or because they wanted to eat, drink and be merry. Rather, they desired this so that they would have time for Torah and its Wisdom. And there would be no one who would oppress them or force them to be idle (from Torah). This, in order that they may merit the World to Come...

(ה) וְעָמְד֣וּ זָרִ֔ים וְרָע֖וּ צֹאנְכֶ֑ם וּבְנֵ֣י נֵכָ֔ר אִכָּרֵיכֶ֖ם וְכֹרְמֵיכֶֽם׃
(5) Strangers shall stand and pasture your flocks, Aliens shall be your plowmen and vine-trimmers;

What this means in the 21st century, is that on Motzei Shabbos these people will clean your dishes. On Sunday and throughout the week, they’ll be doing your laundry or other errands that you need to be done. Besides the prophet prophesying this, why on earth would strangers or gentiles have a remote interest in taking care of all of our needs?

(כג) כֹּ֥ה אָמַר֮ יקוק צְבָאוֹת֒ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔מָּה אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַחֲזִ֙יקוּ֙ עֲשָׂרָ֣ה אֲנָשִׁ֔ים מִכֹּ֖ל לְשֹׁנ֣וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְֽהֶחֱזִ֡יקוּ בִּכְנַף֩ אִ֨ישׁ יְהוּדִ֜י לֵאמֹ֗ר נֵֽלְכָה֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם כִּ֥י שָׁמַ֖עְנוּ אֱלֹקִ֥ים עִמָּכֶֽם׃ (ס)
(23) Thus said the LORD of Hosts: In those days, ten men from nations of every tongue will take hold—they will take hold of every Jew by a corner of his cloak and say, “Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.”

The Radak says that at the dawn of redemption, all the nations will realize that we indeed are the cornerstone of the world – they understand who we are and what we represent. This is not slavery like in Uncle Tom’s Cabin. They desire to serve us as we would desire to serve a Talmid Chacham if we would be offered the opportunity.

By following these guidelines may we merit to be among the “Exile Survivors” that witness Mashiach’s revelation - who will erect for us the Beis HaMikdash and lead us straight to our Land, very soon!

Dedicated in memory of: Rav Yisrael Meir ben R’ Aryeh Zev HaKohein, Menachem Mendel ben Levi Yitzchak, Elchonon Bunem ben Naftali Beinish Hy”d, Yisroel ben Yeshayah and Elisheva Basyah bas Yechiel Ephraim.