David Shatz, "The Jewish Political Tradition"
The Talmud does not stop at interpretive pluralism; it courts an extravagant metaphysical pluralism, according to which all halakhic opinions of sages who join the debate are true, even though they contradict one another. The heavenly voice proclaims that "these and those," that is, both sides of the Bet Hillel-Bet Shammai mahloket, are "the words of the living God." What kind of God says contradictory things? Furthermore, if both teachings are true, wherein lies the superiority of the view that is eventually accepted?
One could retort - and many have - that the elu va-elu ("these and those") principle affirms merely the partial validity of the rejected view, for example, its applicability in other circumstances. Alternatively, "these and those are the words of the living God" may mean that a measure of inspiration is behind both views, or that both views grow out of divinely licensed methods - not that neither view is truer than the other.
Jeremy Schwartz, "The Torah Process: How Jews Make Decision"
We had come to the “productive impasse” that often appears at some point in our consideration of ritual issues. In this case, it could be described as an impasse between the two versions of the Ten Commandments, between the “don’t create” people and the “rest and enjoy yourself” people. This disagreement is often illustrated by the examples of traditionally prohibited activities, such as knitting, gardening or painting. The Deuteronomy people say, “I enjoy it, so I should do it on Shabbat.” But the Exodus people think such a position ignores too much of the teaching of Shabbat about letting the world be. On the other hand, when the Exodus people say these activities should be avoided on Shabbat, the Deuteronomy people think they are ignoring Isaiah’s teaching that “you should call the Sabbath a delight,” and may even suspect them of having an old-fashioned and nostalgic attachment to halakha (rabbinic Jewish law).