מהו ''אדם'' לפי התורה(באופן כללי לא כהרכבה של כוחות ומידות פרטיים)

(א) זֶ֣ה סֵ֔פֶר תּוֹלְדֹ֖ת אָדָ֑ם בְּי֗וֹם בְּרֹ֤א אֱלֹהִים֙ אָדָ֔ם בִּדְמ֥וּת אֱלֹהִ֖ים עָשָׂ֥ה אֹתֽוֹ׃

(1) This is the record of Adam’s line.—When God created man, He made him in the likeness of God;

(א) זה ספר תולדות אדם וכו' בן עזאי אומר זה ספר תולדות אדם - כלל גדול בתורה

התורה הקדושה מספרת מהו אדם באמת: אדה''ר, נח, האבות השבטים, משה רבנו ע''ה, ואהרון הכהן, אך לעומתם: עשו, לבן, פרעה, ובלעם.

הנביא היחיד שהקב''ה קראו תמיד ובמפורש ''בן אדם'' הוא יחזקאל.

(א) וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֵלָ֑י בֶּן־אָדָם֙ עֲמֹ֣ד עַל־רַגְלֶ֔יךָ וַאֲדַבֵּ֖ר אֹתָֽךְ׃
(1) And He said to me, “O mortal, stand up on your feet that I may speak to you.”
(א) ויאמר אלי בן אדם וגו'. בן אדם קורא ליחזקאל מתוך שראה המרכבה הולך בין עלייה ומשתמש בה כמלאכים לומר אין כאן ילוד אשה אלא זה (וכ"ז הנויגים אי"ש אח"ד לר' והנ"אהו) ול"נ שלא קראו בן אדם אלא בשביל שלא תהא דעתו רחבה עליו מתוך שהיה גס לבו במראה המרכבה ובמלאכת עליונים סא"א:
(1) And He said to me: “Son of man, etc.” He calls Ezekiel “son of man” because he saw the Celestial Chariot while walking among [the denizens of—Malbim ed.] the heavenly heights and involving himself with it like the angels, as if to say “There is no one here of woman born but this one.” (So did a man explain this to my rabbi, and he [thus] pleased him. I hold, however, that He called him “son of man” only so that he should not become haughty from having become familiar with the Celestial Chariot and with workings of the heavenly beings.This [latter remark] does not appear in other editions.

(א) ויאמר אלי בן אדם. פירשו המפרשים כי לפיכך קראו בן אדם כדי שלא יתגאה ויחשוב עצמו כאחד המלאכים לפי שראה המראה הגדולה הזאת והנכון בעיני לפי שראה פני אדם במרכבה הודיעו כי ישר וטוב הוא בעיניו והוא בן אדם לא בן אריה ולא בן שור ולא בן נשר על הדרך שפירשנו לפיכך תרגם יונתן בר אדם לא בר אנשא ואע"פ שתרגם פני אדם אפי אנשא לענין הדמיון אמר זה:

יש כאן שני פירושים המובאים גם ברש''י וגם ברד''ק לשם ''אדם'' א' שאדם יכול להגיע להשגה גבוה מאד המגיעה עד למרכבה העליונה כמו השגות המלאכים, ב' שפלות גדולה, שע''י שקראו אדם לא יהיה גס ליבו במה שראה, ע''י שיזכר ש''אדם'' הוא.

כמו שכתב רש''י ב:

באדם בשכר - שחרפוך וקראוך אדם נוצר מאדמה לשון שפלות:

בספר הכוזרי, כאשר הוא מתאר את גדלותו של הכלל ישראל הניכרת בעוה''ז הוא כותב:

וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ לִי לְעָם וַאֲנִי אֶהְיֶה לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים מַנְהִיג אֶתְכֶם, וְיִהְיֶה מִכֶּם מִי שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד לְפָנַי וּמִי שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר הָיוּ הוֹלְכִים בֵּין הַמַּלְאָכִים,

(115) 109. The Rabbi: Now all that our promises imply is that we shall become connected with the divine influence by means of prophecy, or something nearly approaching it, and also through our relation to the divine influence, as displayed to us in grand and awe-inspiring miracles. Therefore we do not find in the Bible: 'If you keep this law, I will bring you after death into beautiful gardens and great pleasures.' On the contrary it is said: 'You shall be my chosen people, and I will be a God unto you, who will guide you. Whoever of you comes to me, and ascends to heaven, is as those who, themselves, dwell among the angels, and my angels shall dwell among them on earth. You shall see them singly or in hosts, watching you and fighting for you without your joining in the fight. You shall remain in the country which forms a stepping-stone to this degree, viz. the Holy Land. Its fertility or barrenness, its happiness or misfortune, depend upon the divine influence which your conduct will merit, whilst the rest of the world would continue its natural course. For if the divine presence is among you, you will perceive by the fertility of your country, by the regularity with which your rainfalls appear in their due seasons, by your victories over your enemies in spite of your inferior numbers, that your affairs are not managed by simple laws of nature, but by the divine Will. You also see that drought, death, and wild beasts pursue you as a result of disobedience, although the whole world lives in peace. This shows you that your concerns are arranged by a higher power than mere nature.' All this, the laws included, is closely connected with the promises, and no disappointment is feared. All these promises have one basis, viz. the anticipation of being near God and His hosts. He who attains this degree need not fear death, as is clearly demonstrated in our Law. The following parable will illustrate this: One of a company of friends who sought solicitude in a remote spot, once journeyed to India, and had honour and rank bestowed on him by her king, who knew that he was one of these friends, and who had also known their fathers, former comrades of his own. The king loaded him with presents for his friends, gave him costly raiment for himself, and then dismissed him, sending members of his own retinue to accompany him on his return journey. No one knew that they belonged to the court, nor that they travelled into the desert. He had received commissions and treaties, and in return he had to swear fealty to the king. Then he and his Indian escort returned to his companions, and received a hearty welcome from them. They took pains to accommodate them and to show them honour. They also built a castle and allowed them to dwell in it. Henceforth they frequently sent ambassadors to India to wait upon the king, which was now more easy of accomplishment, as the first messengers guided them the shortest and straightest route. All knew that travelling in that country was rendered easier by swearing allegiance to his king and respecting his ambassadors. There was no occasion to inquire why this homage was necessary, because it was patent that by this means he came into connexion with the monarch--a most pleasing circumstance. Now these companions are the Children of Israel, the first traveller is Moses, the later travellers are the prophets, whilst the Indian messengers are the Shekinah and the angels. The precious garments are the spiritual light which dwelt in the soul of Moses on account of his prophetship, whilst the visible light appeared on his countenance. The presents are the two tables with the Ten Commandments. Those in possession of other laws saw nothing of this, but were told: 'Continue in obedience to the King of India as this company of friends, and you will after death become the associates of the king, otherwise he will turn you away, and punish you after death.' Some might say: No one ever returned to inform us whether, after death, he dwelt in paradise or in hell. The majority were satisfied with the arrangement, which coincided with their views. They obeyed willingly, and allowed themselves to entertain a faint hope, which to all appearance was a very strong one, as they commenced to be proud and to behave haughtily towards other people. But how can they boast of expectations after death to those who enjoy the fulfilment already in life? Is not the nature of the prophets and godly men nearer to immortality than the nature of him who never reached that degree?

הכוונה למשה רבנו ויחזקאל (עיין בקול יהודה שם)

כמו הפירוש הראשון של רש''י

נראה שבאמת ב''אדם'' יש את שני הקוטבים האלה גם ההשגה הגבוהה המגיעה עד המרכבה, וגם השפלות של גוף גשמי מהאדמה, זהו מהותו של האדם, הוא נמתח בין שני הקוטבים האלה, ביכולתו להשיג את ההשגות הכי גבוהות, וככל שיתעלה יותר יהיה נכנע יותר, כמו משה רבנו אשר ''תמונת ה' יביט במראה ולא בחידות'' והוא היה ''ענו בכל האדם אשר על פני האדמה'' ולכך יחזקאל נקרא ''בן אדם'' בשתי המובנים.

יחזקאל הוא אשר גילה לנו ש:

(לא) וְאַתֵּ֥ן צֹאנִ֛י צֹ֥אן מַרְעִיתִ֖י אָדָ֣ם אַתֶּ֑ם אֲנִי֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה׃ {פ}
(31) For you, My flock, flock that I tend, are men; and I am your God—declares the Lord GOD.

''וְאַתֵּן צֹאנִי צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי אָדָם אַתֶּם'' אַתֶּם קְרוּיִין אָדָם וְאֵין הַגּוֹיִם קְרוּיִין אָדָם

The graves of gentiles do not render items impure though a tent, as it is stated: “And you My sheep, the sheep of My pasture, are men [adam]” (Ezekiel 34:31), from which it is derived that you, the Jewish people, are called men [adam] but gentiles are not called men [adam]. Since the Torah introduces the halakha of ritual impurity of a tent with the words: “When a man [adam] dies in a tent” (Numbers 19:14), this halakha applies only to corpses of Jews but not those of gentiles.

לפי הדרך שהוצג כאן במהות ה''אדם'' אפשר להבין שבמהות, זה ההבדל בין כלל ישראל לאומות העולם:

גם אוה''ע יכולים להגיע להשגות גבוהות (כמו בלעם), אבל אין זה מביא אותם להכנעה וענווה.

וזה מה שאמרו חז''ל:

(דברים ז, ז) לא מרבכם מכל העמים חשק ה' בכם וגו' אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל חושקני בכם שאפילו בשעה שאני משפיע לכם גדולה אתם ממעטין עצמכם לפני נתתי גדולה לאברהם - אמר לפני (בראשית יח, כז) ''ואנכי עפר ואפר'' למשה ואהרן - אמר (שמות טז, ז,) ''ונחנו מה'' לדוד - אמר (תהלים כב, כז,) ''ואנכי תולעת ולא איש'' אבל עובדי כוכבים אינן כן נתתי גדולה לנמרוד - אמר (בראשית יא, ד) ''הבה נבנה לנו עיר'' לפרעה - אמר (שמות ה, ב) ''מי ה' '' לסנחריב - אמר (מלכים ב יח, לה) ''מי בכל אלהי הארצות'' וגו' לנבוכדנצר - אמר (ישעיהו יד, יד) ''אעלה על במתי עב'' לחירם מלך צור - אמר (יחזקאל כח, ב) ''מושב אלהים ישבתי בלב ימים''

“That I will not take a thread nor a shoe strap nor anything that is yours” (Genesis 14:23), distancing himself from anything not rightfully his, his children merited two mitzvot: The thread of sky-blue wool worn on ritual fringes and the strap of phylacteries. The Gemara asks: Granted, the strap of the phylacteries imparts benefit, as it is written: “And all the peoples of the earth shall see that the name of the Lord is called upon you; and they shall be afraid of you” (Deuteronomy 28:10). And it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: This is a reference to the phylacteries of the head, upon which the name of God is written. Phylacteries therefore impart the splendor and grandeur of God and are a fit reward. But what is the benefit imparted by the thread of sky-blue wool? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: What is different about sky-blue from all other colors such that it was specified for the mitzva of ritual fringes? It is because sky-blue dye is similar in its color to the sea, and the sea is similar to the sky, and the sky is similar to the sapphire stone, and the sapphire stone is similar to the Throne of Glory, as it is stated: “And they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness” (Exodus 24:10). This verse shows that the heavens are similar to sapphire, and it is written: “And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone” (Ezekiel 1:26). Therefore, the throne is similar to the heavens. The color of sky blue dye acts as an indication of the bond between the Jewish people and the Divine Presence. The Gemara above mentioned that Abraham refused to accept property that did not belong to him. With regard to this, Rabbi Abba says: Difficult is the return of theft that has been consumed, as even the perfectly righteous are unable to return it, as it is stated: “That I will not take a thread nor a shoe strap nor anything that is yours…except only that which the young men have eaten with me” (Genesis 14:23–24). Even the righteous Abraham was unable to return that which the young men had already consumed. § Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: Any place where you find the statements of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, in reference to aggada, make your ears like a funnel [ka’afarkeset], i.e., be receptive to his words. As Rabbi Eliezer interpreted the verse: “Not because you are more in number than any people did the Lord desire you and choose you, for you were the fewest of all peoples” (Deuteronomy 7:7), as follows: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: I desire you, since even at a time that I bestow greatness upon you, you diminish, i.e., humble, yourselves before Me. I granted greatness to Abraham, yet he said before Me: “And I am but dust and ashes” (Genesis 18:27). I granted greatness to Moses and Aaron, yet Moses said of the two of them: “And what are we” (Exodus 16:7). I granted greatness to David, yet he said: “But I am a worm, and no man” (Psalms 22:7). But the gentile nations of the world are not so. I granted greatness to Nimrod, yet he said: “Come, let us build a city and a tower, with its top in heaven, and let us make for ourselves a name” (Genesis 11:4). I granted greatness to Pharaoh, yet he said: “Who is the Lord” (Exodus 5:2). I granted greatness to Sennacherib, yet he said: “Who are they among all the gods of the countries that have delivered their country out of my hand, that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand” (II Kings 18:35). I granted greatness to Nebuchadnezzar, yet he said: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds” (Isaiah 14:14). I granted greatness to Ḥiram, king of Tyre, yet he said: “I sit in the seat of God, in the heart of the seas” (Ezekiel 28:2). The Gemara relates: Rava says, and some say Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Greater is that which is stated with regard to Moses and Aaron than that which is stated with regard to Abraham. As with regard to Abraham it is written: “And I am but dust and ashes,” while with regard to Moses and Aaron it is written: “And what are we,” i.e., we are not even dust and ashes. And Rava says, and some say Rabbi Yoḥanan says: The world endures only in the merit of Moses and Aaron. It is written here: “And what are we,” and it written elsewhere: “He hangs the earth upon nothing” (Job 26:7). That is, the earth endures in the merit of those who said of themselves that they are nothing, i.e., Moses and Aaron. With regard to that verse, Rabbi Ile’a says: The world endures only in the merit of one who restrains [shebolem] himself during a quarrel, as it is stated: “He hangs the earth upon nothing [belima]. Rabbi Abbahu says: The world endures only in the merit of one who renders himself as if he were non-existent, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms” (Deuteronomy 33:27), i.e., one who considers himself to be underneath everything else is the everlasting arm that upholds the world. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Do you indeed [ha’umnam] speak as a righteous company [elem]? Do you judge with equity [meisharim] the sons of men” (Psalms 58:2)? The verse is interpreted as follows: What should be a person’s occupation [umanut] in this world? He should render himself silent as a mute [ilem]. If so, one might have thought that he should render himself as a mute even with regard to words of Torah. Therefore, the verse states: “Speak as a righteous company,” indicating that one should speak the righteous words of Torah. If so, he might have thought that one who speaks words of Torah has the right to become arrogant. Therefore, the verse states: “Judge with equity [meisharim] the sons of men.” Even a learned judge must take extra care to judge with equity, and not assume that he will immediately arrive at the correct understanding. § The Gemara returns to discuss the mitzva of covering the blood: Rabbi Zeira says, and some say Rabba bar Yirmeya says: One may cover the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird with the dust of an idolatrous city. The Torah states that the city and anything contained therein must be burned (see Deuteronomy 13:17). The Gemara, assuming the statement of Rabbi Zeira refers to the ashes of a burned idolatrous city, asks: But why may one use these ashes to cover the blood? These ashes are items from which deriving benefit is prohibited, as the verse states: “And there shall cleave none of the banned property to your hand” (Deuteronomy 13:18). Ze’eiri said: Rabbi Zeira is not referring to the ashes of the burned city, which may not be used. Rather, his statement is necessary only concerning the dust of its dust, i.e., the dust of the ground of the idolatrous city, from which deriving benefit is not prohibited, as it is written: “And you shall gather all its spoil into the midst of the broad place thereof, and shall burn with fire the city” (Deuteronomy 13:17). Accordingly, items lacking only the acts of gathering and burning must be burned. This serves to exclude this dust of the ground, which lacks the acts of removal from the ground, gathering, and burning. The dust must also be removed from the ground before it can be gathered and burned. And Rava says: One can even use the ashes from the idolatrous city to cover the blood, despite the fact that it is prohibited to derive any benefit from them. This is because mitzvot were not given for benefit, that is, the fulfillment of a mitzva is not considered deriving benefit, but the fulfillment of a divine decree. The Gemara relates that Ravina was sitting and saying this halakha, that one may use the ashes of an idolatrous city to cover the blood. Rav Reḥumi raised an objection to Ravina from a baraita: With regard to a shofar of idol worship, from which it is prohibited to derive benefit, one may not blow with it. What, is it not that the baraita means to say that if one blew with it he has not fulfilled his obligation? The Gemara responds: No, the baraita means that one should not use such a shofar ab initio, but if one blew with it he has fulfilled his obligation. Rav Reḥumi persists: It is taught in another baraita that with regard to a lulav of idol worship, one may not take it to perform the mitzva. What, is it not that the baraita means to say that if one took such a lulav he has not fulfilled his obligation? The Gemara responds: No, the baraita means that one should not use such a lulav ab initio, but if one took it he has fulfilled his obligation. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita that if one blew a shofar of idolatry he has not fulfilled his obligation? And isn’t it taught in another baraita that if one took a lulav of idolatry to perform the mitzva he has not fulfilled his obligation? Rav Ashi said in response: How can these cases be compared to the case of covering the blood? There, with regard to a shofar and lulav of idol worship, although the use of such items for a mitzva does not constitute benefit, one cannot fulfill his obligation with them, because

הרי גם לגויים יש ''צלם אלוקים'' ''שכל ודיבור'' אך אצלם ההשגות נפרדות מהמידות שבלב, שכל לחוד - ומידות לחוד, אך בישראל יש איחוד בין השכל למידות, שההשגה העילאית מביאה להכנעה והבנה שאין הוא אלא כלי לקבלת אותם השגות, ואין כוחו ועוצם ידו עושים לו את החיל.

''אדם אתם - אתם ''קרויין'' אדם'' כלומר: אצל ישראל צורת האדם יצאה אל הפועל בשלמות, ולכך הם ''קרויין'' אדם, אך אצל אוה''ע צורת האדם היא רק בכח, כיון שאינם מאחדים ''צלם'' ''שכל'' ''ומידות''.

*****

העומק של תורה זו נעוצה במעשה המרכבה עצמה, שהרי יחזקאל ראה:

(כו) וּמִמַּ֗עַל לָרָקִ֙יעַ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־רֹאשָׁ֔ם כְּמַרְאֵ֥ה אֶבֶן־סַפִּ֖יר דְּמ֣וּת כִּסֵּ֑א וְעַל֙ דְּמ֣וּת הַכִּסֵּ֔א דְּמ֞וּת כְּמַרְאֵ֥ה ''אָדָ֛ם'' עָלָ֖יו מִלְמָֽעְלָה׃

(26) Above the expanse over their heads was the semblance of a throne, in appearance like sapphire; and on top, upon this semblance of a throne, there was the semblance of a human form.

(וכאן המקום להעיר שכל מה שראו הנביאים אינו עצמותו של ה' יתברך, כי בעצמותו אין תפיסה כלל וכלל, וגם שם אין לעצמותו יתברך, ואפילו שם הוי' ב''ה אינו שם עצמי אלא שם שמתייחס למידותיו יתברך,​​​​​​ שאותן רצה לגלות לנבראים, ובודאי שמידותיו יתברך ועצמותו יתברך הם אחדות גמורה, ואסוך להפריד ביניהם, מ''מ את עצמותו יתברך לא ראו הנבראים מעולם.)

אולם דבר גדול מאד נתגלה ליחזקאל במהות האדם:

אם על דמות הכסא יש ''דמות כמראה אדם מלמעלה'' הרי מהותו של האדם מלמטה שהוא דומה ומתדמה לאדם שלמעלה!

וזהו שאמרו חז''ל:

(ב) זה אלי, ר' אליעזר אומר מנין אתה אומר שראתה שפחה על הים מה שלא ראו ישעיה ויחזקאל שנ' וביד הנביאים אדמה (הושע יב) וכתיב נפתחו השמים ואראה מראות אלהים (יחזקאל א).

(2) "This is my G d and I will extol Him": R. Eliezer says: Whence is it derived that a maid-servant beheld at the Red Sea what was not beheld by Ezekiel and the other prophets, of whom it is written (Hoshea 12:11) "And to the prophets I appeared (in various) guises," and (Ezekiel 1:1) "The heavens opened and I saw visions of G d"? An analogy: A king of flesh and blood comes to a province, a circle of guards around him, warriors at his right and at his left, armies before him and behind him — and all asking "Who is the king?" For he is flesh and blood as they are. But when the Holy One was revealed at the sea, there was no need for anyone to ask "Who is the King?" For when they saw Him, they knew Him, and they all opened and said "This is my G d, and I will extol Him ("ve'anvehu," lit.: "I will 'host' Him")!" R. Yishmael says: Is it possible to "host" one's Master? Rather, (read "ve'anvehu" as) "I shall beautify myself (from the root "na'eh") before Him with mitzvoth — with a beautiful lulav, beautiful tzitzith, a beautiful shofar, beautiful prayer. Abba Shaul says: "I will liken myself to Him" (i.e., "ve'anvehu" = ani vehu ["I and He"]) Just as He is merciful and gracious, you, too, be merciful and gracious. R. Yossi Haglili says; "Beautify and praise the Holy One Blessed be He before all the peoples of the world." R. Yossi b. Dormaskith says: "I shall make a Temple before Him," "navth" being the Temple, as in (Psalms 79:7) "and they have destroyed navehu" (His Temple)", and (Isaiah 33:20) "But you will regard (with deference) Zion, the city of our assemblies. Your eyes will see Jerusalem, the peaceful habitation" (neveh sha'anan). R. Akiva says: "I shall speak of His beauty" — of the praise of the Holy One Blessed be He, who spoke and brought the world into being. The peoples of the world ask Israel (Song of Songs 5:9) "How is your Beloved (different) from the beloved (of all the other nations) that you have thus besworn us? (see Ibid. 8) that you thus die for Him and are thus murdered for Him, viz. (Ibid. 1:3) "alamoth have loved You" — they have loved You "al maveth" ("above death"), and (Psalms 44:23) "for over You we are slain all the day"? You are comely, you are strong. Come and join us. And Israel says to them: Do you know Him? Let us tell you part of His praise (Song of Songs 5:10) "My Beloved is white and ruddy, distinguished among legions." When they hear this, they say to Israel: Let us go with you, viz. (Ibid. 6:1) "Where did your Beloved go, you loveliest among the women? Whither has your Beloved turned? Let us seek Him with you." And Israel says to them (Ibid. 2:16) "My Beloved is mine, and I am His," and (Ibid. 6:3) "I am my Beloved's, and my Beloved is mine, who grazes His flock among the lilies." And the sages say (on "ve'anvehu"): "I shall accompany Him ("alavenhu") until I come with Him to His Temple. An analogy: A king's son goes abroad — he goes after him and attends upon him. He goes to a different city — he goes after him and attends upon him. Thus with Israel. When they went down to Egypt, the Shechinah was with them, viz. (Genesis 46:4) "I shall go down with you to Egypt." When they went up, the Shechinah went up with them, viz. (Ibid.) "and I shall also bring you up." When they went down to the sea, the Shechinah was with them, viz. (Exodus 14:19) "And the angel of G d, who went before the camp of Israel, etc." When they went out to the desert, the Shechinah was with them, viz. (Ibid. 13:21) "And the L rd went before them by day, etc." — until they brought Him with them to His holy Temple, viz. (Song of Songs 3: "I had almost passed them (Moses and Aaron) by, when I found Him whom my soul loved. I held onto Him and did not let go of Him until I had brought Him to the house of my mother and the chamber of my conception." "my G d" (Keli): With me He manifested the attribute of mercy, and with my fathers, the attribute of justice. And whence is it derived that "keli" connotes the attribute of mercy? From (Psalms 22:2) "Keli, Keli, why have You forsaken me?" and (Numbers 12:13) "Kel, I pray You, heal her, I pray You," and (Psalms 118:27) "The L rd is 'Kel,' and He has lighted (the way) for us." And whence is it derived that "Elokim" (as in [Exodus, Ibid] "the G d ['Elokei'] of my father") connotes justice? From (Devarim 1:17) "For the judgment is to 'Elokim.'" "the G d of my father, and I will exalt Him": I am a queen, the daughter of kings; a beloved one, the daughter of beloved ones; a holy one, the daughter of holy ones; a pure one, the daughter of pure ones. An analogy: A man goes to betroth a woman. Sometimes he is embarrassed in her; sometimes, in her kin. But I am not so, but a queen, the daughter of kings, etc. R. Shimon b. Elazar says: When Israel do the will of the L rd, His name is exalted in the world, as it is written (Joshua 5:1) "And it was, when all the kings of the Emori heard, etc." And thus did Rachav say to Joshuah's emissaries, (Ibid. 2:10) "for we heard how the L rd dried up, etc.", and (Ibid. 17) "and we heard and our hearts melted, and no man's spirit endured within him before you. For the L rd, He is G d in the heavens above, etc." And when they do not do His will, His name, as it were, is demeaned in the world, viz. (Ezekiel 36:20) "And they came to the nations … and they profaned My holy name when it was said of them: These are the peoples of the L rd, and from His land did they go forth …" and (Ibid. 23) "And I shall sanctify My great name which has been profaned among the nations, etc." "the G d of my father, and I will exalt Him": The congregation of Israel said before the Holy One Blessed be He: L rd of the world, it is not for the miracles that You performed with Me that I chant song before You, but for the miracles that You performed with my fathers and with me in all of the generations — thus: "This is my G d and I will extol Him; the G d of my father, and I will exalt Him."

מה ראו?

(ב) זה אלי. בִּכְבוֹדוֹ נִגְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ מַרְאִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאֶצְבַּע, רָאֲתָה שִׁפְחָה עַל הַיָּם מַה שֶּׁלֹּא רָאוּ נְבִיאִים (מכילתא):
(2) זה אלי THIS IS MY GOD — In His glory did He reveal Himself to them and they pointed to Him — as it were — with the finger exclaiming “This is my God!” (Shir HaShirim Rabbah 3:15) A maid servant beheld at the Red Sea what even the prophets never saw (Mekhilta d'Rabbi Yishmael 15:2:2).

ויצא להם מאותו ראיה:

״וְאַנְוֵהוּ״ — הֱוֵי דּוֹמֶה לוֹ, מָה הוּא חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם — אַף אַתָּה הֱיֵה חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם.

Abba Shaul says: Ve’anveihu should be interpreted as if it were written in two words: Ani vaHu, me and Him [God]. Be similar, as it were, to Him, the Almighty: Just as He is compassionate and merciful, so too should you be compassionate and merciful. In any case, there is no proof from Rabbi Yishmael’s statement with regard to the Paschal lamb that he would say the same with regard to circumcision, as in that case, he might agree that fulfilling the mitzva beautifully justifies overriding Shabbat.
הוי דומה לו - ולשון אנוהו אני והוא אעשה עצמי כמותו לדבק בדרכיו:
Be similar to him: And the expression, "I will adorn Him" (anvehu), [signifies], "I and He" (ani ve'Hu) - I will make myself like Him, to cling to His ways.

לא במקרא נקטו חז''ל כאן דווקא את הנביא יחזקאל, שהרי הוא גילה את ה''דמות כמראה אדם עליו מלמעלה'' וראתה שם שפחה על הים, שהתכלית של הבריאה זה להדמות לה', כי אם ה' מתגלה בדמות אדם, יבין האדם שבכוחו להדמות אליו.

וכשהסתכל במראה ראה שעל הכסא דמות כמראה אדם עליו מלמעלה, וכו' וכ''ז דייק ואמר דמות כמראה אדם, שהוא רק דמיון, כי נסבור את האזן לדמות הנהגתו המחשביית בחכמה בינה דעת ובהוצאת המדות כחסד דין ורחמים, הכל כתפארת אדם, וכ''ז לא ראה למעלה בעולם האצילות בעצמו רק ראה במראה, וכו'

המלבי''ם מגלה כאן טפח ממה שראה יחזקאל בדמות ''אדם'' חכמה בינה ודעת שבהם נברא העולם כמו שנאמר ב:

(יט) יְֽהֹוָ֗ה בְּחׇכְמָ֥ה יָסַד־אָ֑רֶץ כּוֹנֵ֥ן שָׁ֝מַ֗יִם בִּתְבוּנָֽה׃
(19) The LORD founded the earth by wisdom;
He established the heavens by understanding;
(כ) בְּ֭דַעְתּוֹ תְּהוֹמ֣וֹת נִבְקָ֑עוּ וּ֝שְׁחָקִ֗ים יִרְעֲפוּ־טָֽל׃
(20) By His knowledge the depths burst apart,
And the skies distilled dew.

וחסד, דין, ורחמים, שבהם הקב''ה מנהיג את העולם.

וכיון שהאדם שלמטה יכול וחייב להדמות לאדם שלמעלה, מוטל עלינו לבנות את עולמנו בחכמה, בינה, ודעת, ולהנהיגו בחסד, דין, ורחמים, וזהו ה''אדם'' האמיתי, השגה עילאית, ושלימות במידות!

*****

''כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבוֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה שִּׂיחוֹ'' מַאי מַה שִּׂיחוֹ אָמַר רַב אֲפִילּוּ שִׂיחָה יְתֵירָה שֶׁבֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ מַגִּידִים לוֹ לְאָדָם בִּשְׁעַת מִיתָה

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ila was ascending the stairs in the house of Rabba bar Sheila, a children’s teacher. He heard a child who was reading a verse out loud: “For, lo, He Who forms the mountains, and creates the wind, and declares to man what is his speech” (Amos 4:13). Rabbi Ila said: With regard to a servant whose master declares to him what is his proper speech, is there a remedy for him? The Gemara asks. What is the meaning of the phrase: “What is his speech”? Rav said: Even frivolous speech that is between a man and his wife before engaging in relations is declared to a person at the time of death, and he will have to account for it.

ר' חיים מואלוז'ין בספרו נפש החיים, מאריך לבאר את זה העינין, שמגלים לאדם עד היכן מגיע דיבורו, שכל העולמות תלוים בו, שכל הנהגתם הם לפי מעשה האדם, עיין שם.

(1) And similarly with the subject of the arousal above via the quality of “speech”—the Prophet Amos (peace be upon him) said (4:13): “For lo, He that forms the mountains and creates the wind[*], and tells man what his words... .” For they stated in the Zohar (Lekh L’kha, 6:2; Va-y’khi 234:4 and 249:1; Yitro 80a; Tazria 50b; Sh’lakh 161:1; and in Idra Zoota 293; and in Zohar Chaddash, Shir Hashirim 55d) that the term “ha-ga-da” relates to the secret of language.

לפעמים כשאנו עושים חשבון נפש ומתחרטים על המעשים שלנו, אנו רואים את מעשנו הפרטיים (בדרך פרט), אך את רוממות האדם אנו שוכחים ואיננו רואים, (כמו מי שלא רואה יער מרוב עצים).

הנה, הדרך היחידה שבא נוכל ללמוד כבר כאן מהו ''אדם'' זה ע''י שימוש תלמידי חכמים, כי:

גְּדוֹלָה שִׁמּוּשָׁהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה יוֹתֵר מִלִּמּוּדָהּ

And Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Service of Torah is greater than its study, i.e., serving a Torah scholar and spending time in his company is greater than learning Torah from him. Torah study is one component of a Torah life, but one who serves a Torah scholar learns about every aspect of life from his actions. This is derived from the verse that speaks in praise of Elisha, as it is stated: “Here is Elisha son of Shafat, who poured water over Elijah’s hands” (II Kings 3:11). The verse does not say that he learned from Elijah, rather that he poured water, which teaches that the service of Torah represented by Elisha pouring water over Elijah’s hands is greater than its study.

ו:

אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מַאי דִּכְתִיב כִּי שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ ה׳ צְבָאוֹת הוּא אִם דּוֹמֶה הָרַב לְמַלְאַךְ ה׳ יְבַקְּשׁוּ תּוֹרָה מִפִּיו וְאִם לָאו אַל יְבַקְּשׁוּ תּוֹרָה מִפִּיו

Rav Yehuda said to Rabba bar bar Ḥana: Have you heard anything with regard to this issue? He said to him: Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek Torah at his mouth; for he is a messenger [malakh] of the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 2:7)? This verse teaches: If the teacher is similar to an angel [malakh] of the Lord, then seek Torah from his mouth, but if he is not pure and upright, then do not seek Torah from his mouth; even if he is knowledgeable about Torah, do not learn from him.

מי שזכה לשמש ת''ח כזה שדומה למלאך ה', הוא היודע מהו ''אדם''.