Yoma No.5: If I Were a Ritual Man

Impurity and Sin in Ancient Judaism

Jonathan Klawans

Much has been written about ritual impurity in ancient Judaism, but the question of how the ancient Jews understood the relationship between defilement and sin has largely been ignored. This book offers a systematic exploration of the topic. The book takes the results of current research on the Hebrew Bible and applies them to early Jewish and Christian groups. The Bible, it shows, considers the moral impurity generated by sin to be entirely distinct from (but no less real than) the ritual impurity generated by bodily function such as menstruation. The book then traces the relationship between ritual and moral impurity from early Jewish sects through the New Testament and the theology of Saint Paul, and shows how Christian theology arrived at the point where the need for ritual purity was entirely rejected.

Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo

Mary Douglas

Is cleanliness next to godliness? What does such a concept really mean? Why does it recur as a universal theme across all societies? And what are the implications for the unclean?

In Purity and Danger Mary Douglas identifies the concern for purity as a key theme at the heart of every society. In lively and lucid prose she explains its relevance for every reader by revealing its wide-ranging impact on our attitudes to society, values, cosmology and knowledge. This book has been hugely influential in many areas of debate – from religion to social theory. With a specially commissioned preface by the author which assesses the continuing significance of the work, this Routledge Classics edition will ensure that Purity and Danger continues to challenge, question and inspire for many years to come.

"Symbol, Function, Theology, and Morality in the Study of Priestly Ritual"

Jonathan Klawans

Arguing for diverse, contextual, understandings of ancient religions, Jonathan Klawans argues that Israelites themselves put forward symbolic rationales for their practices. Therefore, symbolic interpretations should preside over functional understandings of Israelite ritual. Klawans then notes the importance of prophetic symbolic action: these explicitly figurative performances further demonstrate that symbolic behavior could be understood broadly within ancient Israel and not only by literate specialists. Taking a cue from Roy Rappaport, Klawans suggests that the primary, intended purpose of many Israelite rituals was to serve as communicative “signs”—public reinforcements of communal messages and memories. Israelite rituals will best be understood when scholars draw on both ritual and prophetic texts, recognizing that Israelite culture exhibited a distinctive proclivity for symbolic communication.

(א) ושמרו בני ישראל את השבת, לעשות את השבת לדורותם ברית עולם. ביני ובין בני ישראל אות היא לעולם. כי ששת ימים עשה ה' את השמים ואת הארץ, וביום השביעי שבת וינפש.

(ח) וּקְשַׁרְתָּ֥ם לְא֖וֹת עַל־יָדֶ֑ךָ וְהָי֥וּ לְטֹטָפֹ֖ת בֵּ֥ין עֵינֶֽיךָ׃ (ט) וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם עַל־מְזֻז֥וֹת בֵּיתֶ֖ךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ׃ {ס}
(8) Bind them as a sign on your hand and let them serve as a symbol on your forehead; (9) inscribe them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.
(א) מִזְמ֥וֹר לְדָוִ֑ד יְהֹוָ֥ה רֹ֝עִ֗י לֹ֣א אֶחְסָֽר׃
(1) A psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I lack nothing.
דִּתְנַן, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי מֵאִיר: וַהֲלֹא פַּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וַחֲבִיתֵּי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, וּפֶסַח — דְּקָרְבַּן יָחִיד הוּא, וְדוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטּוּמְאָה. לָאו מִכְּלָל דְּאִיכָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר דְּצִבּוּר? וּלְטַעְמָיךְ, דְּקָתָנֵי: אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב: וַהֲלֹא פַּר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר, וּשְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וַחֲגִיגָה — דְּקָרְבַּן צִבּוּר, וְאֵין דּוֹחִין לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה! מִכְּלָל דְּאִיכָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר דְּיָחִיד! אֶלָּא: לְתַנָּא קַמָּא קָא מַהְדַּר לֵיהּ, דְּשַׁמְעֵיהּ דְּקָאָמַר: קׇרְבַּן צִבּוּר דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטּוּמְאָה, וְקָרְבַּן יָחִיד אֵינוֹ דּוֹחֶה לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי מֵאִיר: קׇרְבַּן יָחִיד כְּלָלָא הוּא? וַהֲלֹא פַּר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וַחֲבִיתֵּי כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, וּפֶסַח — דְּקָרְבַּן יָחִיד הוּא, וְדוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטּוּמְאָה! וְאָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב: קׇרְבַּן צִבּוּר כְּלָלָא הוּא? וַהֲלֹא פַּר הֶעְלֵם דָּבָר שֶׁל צִבּוּר, וּשְׂעִירֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וַחֲגִיגָה — דְּקָרְבַּן צִבּוּר הוּא, וְאֵין דּוֹחִין לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה! אֶלָּא, נְקוֹט הַאי כְּלָלָא בִּידָךְ: כֹּל שֶׁזְּמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ — דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטּוּמְאָה אֲפִילּוּ בְּיָחִיד, וְכֹל שֶׁאֵין זְמַנּוֹ קָבוּעַ — אֵינוֹ דּוֹחֶה לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת הַטּוּמְאָה וַאֲפִילּוּ בְּצִבּוּר.

As we learned in a mishna in tractate Temura that tanna’im debate which offerings override Shabbat and ritual impurity. Rabbi Meir said to him: But consider the Yom Kippur bull, and the meal-offering resembling a wafer brought specially by the High Priest, and the Paschal offering, each of which is an individual offering and overrides Shabbat and ritual impurity. Since Rabbi Meir says that these are individual offerings, is it not correct to say by inference that there is one who says that these offerings are communal? The Gemara rejects this proof. And according to your reasoning, consider that which was taught there: Rabbi Ya’akov said to him: But there are the cases of the bull for an unwitting communal sin, and the goats for a sin of idolatry, and the Festival peace-offering, which are all communal offerings and override neither Shabbat nor ritual impurity. According to the above reasoning, it can be claimed by inference that there is one who says that these are individual offerings, which is incorrect. Rather, Rabbi Meir responded to the first tanna, as he heard him say in the form of a general principle: Communal sacrifices override Shabbat and ritual impurity, but individual sacrifices override neither Shabbat nor ritual impurity. In response to this claim, Rabbi Meir said to him: Is this statement with regard to an individual offering a general principle? But consider the Yom Kippur bull, and the meal-offering resembling a wafer of the High Priest, and the Paschal offering, each of which is an individual offering and overrides Shabbat and ritual impurity. And Rabbi Ya’akov responded to the first tanna from a different perspective: Is this statement with regard to a communal offering a general principle, which overrides ritual impurity? But there are the cases of the bull for an unwitting communal sin, and the goats for a sin of idolatry, and the Festival peace-offering, which are all communal offerings and override neither Shabbat nor ritual impurity. Rather, grasp this principle: Any offering that has a fixed time for its sacrifice overrides Shabbat and ritual impurity even if it is an individual offering; and any offering of no fixed time overrides neither Shabbat nor ritual impurity, and this is the case even if it is a communal offering. With regard to the issue at hand, as the emphasis of both Rabbi Meir’s and Rabbi Ya’akov’s statements is whether the offerings they referred to override Shabbat and ritual impurity, not their classification as individual or communal offerings, nothing can be inferred from their comments in this regard. Consequently, it remains possible that the bull of the High Priest is an individual offering.

Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism

Jonathan Klawans

This book reevaluates modern scholarly approaches to ancient Jewish cultic rituals, arguing that sacrifice in particular has been long misunderstood. Various religious and cultural ideologies (especially supersessionist ones) have frequently prevented scholars from seeing the Jerusalem temple as a powerful source of meaning and symbolism to those ancient Jews who worshiped there. Such approaches are exposed and countered by reviewing the theoretical literature on sacrifice and taking a fresh look at a broad range of evidence concerning ancient Jewish attitudes toward the temple and its sacrificial cult. Starting with the Hebrew Bible, this work argues for a symbolic understanding of a broad range of cultic practices, including both purity rituals and sacrificial acts. The prophetic literature is also reexamined, with an eye toward clarifying the relationship between the prophets and the sacrificial cult. Later ancient Jewish symbolic understandings of the cult are also revealed in sources including Josephus, Philo, Pseudepigrapha, the Dead Sea Scrolls, New Testament, and Rabbinic literature. A number of ancient Jews certainly did believe that the temple was temporarily tainted or defiled in some fashion, including the Dead Sea sectarians and Jesus. But they continued to speak of the temple in metaphorical terms, and — like practically all ancient Jews — believed in the cult, accepted its symbolic significance, and hoped for its ultimate efficacy.

The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion

Sir James George Frazer

A monumental study in comparative folklore, magic and religion, The Golden Bough shows parallels between the rites and beliefs, superstitions and taboos of early cultures and those of Christianity. It had a great impact on psychology and literature and remains an early classic anthropological resource.

Religion of the Semites: The Fundamental Institutions

William Robertson Smith

Scottish Semiticist and Arabist William Robertson Smith was a celebrated biblical critic, theorist of religion, and theorist of myth. His accomplishments were multiple. Smith's German mentors reconstructed the history of Israelite religion from the Bible itself; Smith ventured outside the Bible to Semitic religion and thereby pioneered the comparative study of religion. Where others viewed religion from the standpoint of the individual, Smith approached religion-at least ancient religion-from the standpoint of the group. He asserted that ancient religion was centrally a matter of practice, not creed, and singlehandedly created the ritualist theory of myth. Since Smith's time, the ritualist theory of myth has found adherents not only in biblical studies but in classics, anthropology, and literature as well.Smith's accomplishments are seen most fully in Religion of the Semites, adapted from a number of public lectures he gave at Aberdeen, and first published in 1889. Smith delivered three courses of lectures over three years. It is this set that is reprinted here. Only recently were the notes for the second and third courses of lectures discovered and published.Religion of the Semites combines extraordinary philological erudition with brilliant theorizing. Among the fundamental emphases of the book are the foci on sacrifice as the key ritual and non-ancient sacrifice as communion with God rather than as penance for sin. Most important is Smith's use of the comparative method: he uses cross-cultural examples from other "primitive peoples" to confirm his reconstruction from Semitic sources.Smith combines pioneering sociology and anthropology with a staunchly Christian faith. For him, Christianity is an expression of divine revelation. For Smith, only continuing revelation can account for the leap from the collective, ritualistic, and materialistic nature of ancient Semitic religion to the individualistic, creedal, and spiritualized nature of Christianity. Lectures on the Religion of the Semites manages to meld social science with theology, and remains a classic work in the social scientific study of religion.

Purity and Danger, "Acknowledgements"

Mary Douglas


מַתְנִי׳ הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּהֵיכָל עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְבֵין שְׁתֵּי הַפָּרוֹכֹת הַמַּבְדִּילוֹת בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים, וּבֵינֵיהֶן אַמָּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: לֹא הָיְתָה שָׁם אֶלָּא פָּרוֹכֶת אַחַת בִּלְבַד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְהִבְדִּילָה הַפָּרוֹכֶת לָכֶם בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים״. גְּמָ׳ שַׁפִּיר קָאָמַר לְהוּ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לְרַבָּנַן! וְרַבָּנַן אָמְרִי לְךָ: הָנֵי מִילֵּי בְּמִשְׁכָּן, אֲבָל בְּמִקְדָּשׁ שֵׁנִי כֵּיוָן דְּלָא הֲוַאי אַמָּה טְרַקְסִין, וּבְמִקְדָּשׁ רִאשׁוֹן הוּא דַּהֲוַאי, וְאִיסְתַּפַּקָא לְהוּ לְרַבָּנַן בִּקְדוּשְּׁתֵיהּ, אִי כְּלִפְנִים אִי כְּלַחוּץ, וַעֲבוּד שְׁתֵּי פָּרוֹכֹת.
MISHNA: The High Priest would then walk west through the Sanctuary until he reaches the area between the two curtains that separated the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies, and the space between them was one cubit. Rabbi Yosei says: There was only one curtain there, as it is stated: “And the curtain shall divide for you between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies” (Exodus 26:33). GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Rabbi Yosei is saying well to the Rabbis, i.e., Rabbi Yosei provides solid support for his opinion. And the Rabbis could say to you: This applies only in the Tabernacle, which had but one curtain. However, in the Second Temple, since there was no one-cubit partition [teraksin] separating the Holy of Holies from the Sanctuary of the Temple, as it was only in the First Temple that there was a one-cubit partition, and the Rabbis were uncertain with regard to the sanctity of the space occupied by the one-cubit partition, whether it had the sanctity of the inside of the Holy of Holies, or the sanctity of the outside area of the Sanctuary, therefore the Sages of the time prepared two curtains to enclose this space of uncertain status.
מַתְנִי׳ מִשֶּׁנִּיטַּל אָרוֹן, אֶבֶן הָיְתָה שָׁם מִימוֹת נְבִיאִים רִאשׁוֹנִים, וּשְׁתִיָּיה הָיְתָה נִקְרֵאת, גְּבוֹהָה מִן הָאָרֶץ שָׁלֹשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת וְעָלֶיהָ הָיָה נוֹתֵן. נָטַל אֶת הַדָּם מִמִּי שֶׁהָיָה מְמָרֵס בּוֹ, נִכְנַס לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּכְנַס, וְעָמַד בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁעָמַד, וְהִזָּה מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה. וְלֹא הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּון לְהַזּוֹת לֹא לְמַעְלָה וְלֹא לְמַטָּה אֶלָּא כְּמַצְלִיף. וְכָךְ הָיָה מוֹנֶה: אַחַת, אַחַת וְאַחַת, אַחַת וּשְׁתַּיִם, אַחַת וְשָׁלֹשׁ, אַחַת וְאַרְבַּע, אַחַת וְחָמֵשׁ, אַחַת וְשֵׁשׁ, אַחַת וָשֶׁבַע. יָצָא וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל כַּן הַזָּהָב שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל. הֵבִיאוּ לוֹ אֶת הַשָּׂעִיר, שְׁחָטוֹ, וְקִבֵּל בְּמִזְרָק אֶת דָּמוֹ, נִכְנַס לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּכְנַס, וְעָמַד בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁעָמַד, וְהִזָּה מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה, וְכָךְ הָיָה מוֹנֶה: אַחַת, אַחַת וְאַחַת, אַחַת וּשְׁתַּיִם וְכוּ׳. יָצָא וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל כַּן הַזָּהָב הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבַּהֵיכָל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: לֹא הָיָה שָׁם אֶלָּא כֵּן אֶחָד בִּלְבַד. נָטַל דַּם הַפָּר וְהִנִּיחַ דַּם הַשָּׂעִיר,
MISHNA: After the Ark was taken into exile, there was a rock in the Holy of Holies from the days of the early prophets, David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, and this stone was called the foundation rock. It was three fingerbreadths higher than the ground, and the High Priest would place the incense on it. After the High Priest left the Holy of Holies, he took the blood of the bull sacrificed as a sin-offering from the one who was stirring it, so it would not coagulate. He entered into the place that he had previously entered, the Holy of Holies, and stood at the place where he had previously stood to offer the incense, between the staves. And he sprinkled from the blood, one time upward and seven times downward. And he would neither intend to sprinkle the blood upward nor to sprinkle it downward, but rather like one who whips, with the blood sprinkled in a single column, one drop below the other. And this is how he would count as he sprinkled, to avoid error: One; one and one; one and two; one and three; one and four; one and five; one and six; one and seven. The High Priest then emerged from there and placed the bowl with the remaining blood on the golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. They brought him the goat to be sacrificed as a sin-offering to God. He slaughtered it and received its blood in the bowl. He again entered into the place that he had previously entered, the Holy of Holies, and stood at the place that he previously stood, and sprinkled from the blood of the goat one time upward and seven times downward. And this is how he would count, just as he counted when sprinkling the blood of the bull: One; one and one; one and two; etc. The High Priest then emerged from the Holy of Holies and placed the bowl with the remaining blood on the second golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. Rabbi Yehuda says: There was only one pedestal there, and he took the blood of the bull from the pedestal and placed the blood of the goat in its place.
וּשְׁתִיָּה הָיְתָה נִקְרֵאת. תָּנָא: שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה הוּשְׁתַּת הָעוֹלָם. תְּנַן כְּמַאן דְּאָמַר מִצִּיּוֹן נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, דְּתַנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: עוֹלָם מֵאֶמְצָעִיתוֹ נִבְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״בְּצֶקֶת עָפָר לַמּוּצָק וּרְגָבִים יְדוּבָּקוּ״.
§ The mishna taught that a stone sat in the Holy of Holies and it was called the foundation [shetiyya] rock. A Sage taught in the Tosefta: Why was it called shetiyya? It is because the world was created [hushtat] from it. The Gemara comments: We learned the mishna in accordance with the opinion of the one who said that the world was created from Zion. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The world was created from its center, as it is stated: “When the dust runs into a mass, and the clods cleave fast together” (Job 38:38). The world was created by adding matter to the center, like the formation of clumps of earth.

"Temple as Cosmos or Temple in the Cosmos"

Jonathan Klawans

This chapter analyzes two distinct symbolic understandings of the Jerusalem temple and its rituals. It finds evidence for a belief in the temple as representing the cosmos in Josephus, Philo and rabbinic literature, and evidence for a belief that the earthly temple represents a heavenly sanctuary in the Pseudepigrapha, Dead Sea Scrolls, and other rabbinic sources. It attempts to identify one or another of these two symbolic understandings as the precursor of the other are rejected.

Antiquities of the Jews, 8, 95-98

Flavius Josephus, William Whiston, A.M., Ed.

"The central panel of the ancient mosaic floor of the synagogue in Hamat Tiberias National Park depicts the twelve signs of the zodiac with a Hebrew inscription for each."


The Myth of the Eternal Return: Cosmos and History
Mircea Eliade

First published in English in 1954, this founding work of the history of religions secured the North American reputation of the Romanian émigré-scholar Mircea Eliade. Making reference to an astonishing number of cultures and drawing on scholarship published in no fewer than half a dozen European languages, The Myth of the Eternal Return illuminates the religious beliefs and rituals of a wide variety of archaic religious cultures. While acknowledging that a return to their practices is impossible, Eliade passionately insists on the value of understanding their views to enrich the contemporary imagination of what it is to be human. This book includes an introduction from Jonathan Z. Smith that provides essential context and encourages readers to engage in an informed way with this classic text.

(יב) אָ֖ז אָמַ֣ר שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה יְהֹוָ֣ה אָמַ֔ר לִשְׁכֹּ֖ן בָּעֲרָפֶֽל׃ (יג) בָּנֹ֥ה בָנִ֛יתִי בֵּ֥ית זְבֻ֖ל לָ֑ךְ מָכ֥וֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ֖ עוֹלָמִֽים׃
(12) then Solomon declared: “The LORD has chosen To abide in a thick cloud: (13) I have now built for You A stately House, A place where You May dwell forever.”
וְכַךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר. אָֽנָּא הַשֵּׁם, חָטָֽאתִי. עָוִֽיתִי. פָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי: אָנָּא בַשֵּׁם. כַּפֶּר נָא. לַחֲטָאִים. וְלַעֲו‍ֹנוֹת. וּלַפְּשָׁעִים. שֶׁחָטָֽאתִי. וְשֶׁעָוִֽיתִי. וְשֶׁפָּשַֽׁעְתִּי לְפָנֶֽיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי. כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ מִפִּי כְבוֹדֶֽךָ. כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה:
And this was his confession: I beg of You Hashem; I have sinned, acted wickedly and rebelled against You, I and my household. I beg of You, with Your Name, atone the sins, iniquities, and rebellions that I have sinned, acted wickedly, and rebelled against You, I and my household; as is written in the Torah of Moshe, Your servant, from the mouth of Your glory: “For on this day He will make atonement for you, to cleanse you from all your sins, before Adonoy.”
יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵֽינוּ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַשָּׁנָה הַזֹּאת הַבָּאָה עָלֵֽינוּ וְעַל כָּל עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל: שְׁנַת אוֹצָרְךָ הַטּוֹב תִּפְתַּח לָֽנוּ. שְׁנַת אֹֽסֶם. שְׁנַת בְּרָכָה. שְׁנַת גְּזֵרוֹת טוֹבוֹת מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ. שְׁנַת דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר. שְׁנַת הַרְוָחָה וְהַצְלָחָה וְקַיָּמִים. שְׁנַת וִעוּד בֵּית מִקְדָּשֶֽׁךָ. שְׁנַת זוֹל. שְׁנַת חַיִּים טוֹבִים מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ. שְׁנַת טְלוּלָה וּגְשׁוּמָה אִם שְׁחוּנָה. שְׁנַת יַמְתִּֽיקוּ מְגָדִים אֶת תְּנוּבָתָם. שְׁנַת כַּפָּרָה עַל כָּל עֲו‍ֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ. שְׁנַת לַחְמֵֽנוּ וּמֵימֵֽינוּ תְּבָרֵךְ. שְׁנַת מַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן. שְׁנַת נָבוֹא לְבֵית מִקְדָּשֵֽׁנוּ. שְׁנַת שֽׂבַע. שְׁנַת עֹֽנֶג. שְׁנַת פְּרִי בִטְנֵֽנוּ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֵֽנוּ תְּבָרֵךְ. שְׁנַת צֵאתֵֽנוּ וּבוֹאֵֽנוּ תְּבָרֵךְ. שְׁנַת קְהָלֵֽנוּ תוֹשִֽׁיעַ. שְׁנַת רַחֲמֶֽיךָ יִכְמְרוּ עָלֵֽינוּ. שְׁנַת שָׁלוֹם וְשַׁלְוָה. שָׁנָה שֶׁתּוֹלִיכֵֽנוּ קוֹמְמִיּוּת לְאַרְצֵֽנוּ. שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא תַפִּיל אִשָּׁה אֶת פְּרִי בִטְנָהּ. שְׁנַת תַּעֲלֵֽנוּ שְׂמֵחִים לְאַרְצֵֽנוּ: שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרְכוּ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה לָזֶה וְלֹא לְעַם אַחֵר בְּתִתְּךָ בְּרָכָה בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיהֶם: וְעַל אַנְשֵׁי הַשָּׁרוֹן הָיָה אוֹמֵר יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיּנוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יֵעָשׂוּ בָתֵּיהֶם קִבְרֵיהֶם:
May it be Your Will Adonoy, our God, and God of our fathers, that this year approaching us and all Your people, the House of Yisrael, be a year in which Your good treasure will be opened for us, a year of plenty, a year of blessing, a year of good decrees declared by You, a year of grain, wine and oil, a year of profit and success, a year of Your Divine Presence in Your Temple, a year of economic stability, a year of good life, in Your presence, a year of dew and rain, and warmth, a year of deliciously sweet fruits, a year of atonement for all our iniquity, a year in which our food and drink will be blessed, a year of [prosperity in] business, a year of attending our Holy Temple, a year of abundance, a year of delight, a year in which our offspring and the fruit of our land will be blessed, a year in which our going and coming will be blessed, a year in which our community will be delivered, a year in which Your mercy will be aroused upon us, a year of peace and tranquility, a year in which You lead us upright to our land, a year in which no woman will suffer a miscarriage, a year in which You bring us [all] joyfully to our land, a year in which Your people Yisrael will not be in need of one another's [help], nor the help of any other people, for You will bless the work of their hands. And for the people of Sharon, he would pray: May it be Your will, Adonoy, our God, and God of our fathers, that their homes shall not become their graves.
(א) בְּעֶשְׂרִ֣ים וְחָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנָ֣ה לְ֠גָלוּתֵ֠נוּ בְּרֹ֨אשׁ הַשָּׁנָ֜ה בֶּעָשׂ֣וֹר לַחֹ֗דֶשׁ בְּאַרְבַּ֤ע עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה אַחַ֕ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֻכְּתָ֖ה הָעִ֑יר בְּעֶ֣צֶם ׀ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה הָיְתָ֤ה עָלַי֙ יַד־יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיָּבֵ֥א אֹתִ֖י שָֽׁמָּה׃ (ב) בְּמַרְא֣וֹת אֱלֹהִ֔ים הֱבִיאַ֖נִי אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיְנִיחֵ֗נִי אֶל־הַ֤ר גָּבֹ֙הַּ֙ מְאֹ֔ד וְעָלָ֥יו כְּמִבְנֵה־עִ֖יר מִנֶּֽגֶב׃ (ג) וַיָּבֵ֨יא אוֹתִ֜י שָׁ֗מָּה וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ֙ מַרְאֵ֙הוּ֙ כְּמַרְאֵ֣ה נְחֹ֔שֶׁת וּפְתִיל־פִּשְׁתִּ֥ים בְּיָד֖וֹ וּקְנֵ֣ה הַמִּדָּ֑ה וְה֥וּא עֹמֵ֖ד בַּשָּֽׁעַר׃ (ד) וַיְדַבֵּ֨ר אֵלַ֜י הָאִ֗ישׁ בֶּן־אָדָ֡ם רְאֵ֣ה בְעֵינֶ֩יךָ֩ וּבְאׇזְנֶ֨יךָ שְּׁמָ֜ע וְשִׂ֣ים לִבְּךָ֗ לְכֹ֤ל אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי֙ מַרְאֶ֣ה אוֹתָ֔ךְ כִּ֛י לְמַ֥עַן הַרְאוֹתְכָ֖ה הֻבָ֣אתָה הֵ֑נָּה הַגֵּ֛ד אֶת־כׇּל־אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה רֹאֶ֖ה לְבֵ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ה) וְהִנֵּ֥ה חוֹמָ֛ה מִח֥וּץ לַבַּ֖יִת סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב וּבְיַ֨ד הָאִ֜ישׁ קְנֵ֣ה הַמִּדָּ֗ה שֵׁשׁ־אַמּ֤וֹת בָּֽאַמָּה֙ וָטֹ֔פַח וַיָּ֜מׇד אֶת־רֹ֤חַב הַבִּנְיָן֙ קָנֶ֣ה אֶחָ֔ד וְקוֹמָ֖ה קָנֶ֥ה אֶחָֽד׃ (ו) וַיָּב֗וֹא אֶל־שַׁ֙עַר֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר פָּנָיו֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַקָּדִ֔ימָה וַיַּ֖עַל בְּמַעֲלוֹתָ֑ו וַיָּ֣מׇד ׀ אֶת־סַ֣ף הַשַּׁ֗עַר קָנֶ֤ה אֶחָד֙ רֹ֔חַב וְאֵת֙ סַ֣ף אֶחָ֔ד קָנֶ֥ה אֶחָ֖ד רֹֽחַב׃ (ז) וְהַתָּ֗א קָנֶ֨ה אֶחָ֥ד אֹ֙רֶךְ֙ וְקָנֶ֤ה אֶחָד֙ רֹ֔חַב וּבֵ֥ין הַתָּאִ֖ים חָמֵ֣שׁ אַמּ֑וֹת וְסַ֣ף הַ֠שַּׁ֠עַר מֵאֵ֨צֶל אֻלָ֥ם הַשַּׁ֛עַר מֵהַבַּ֖יִת קָנֶ֥ה אֶחָֽד׃ (ח) וַיָּ֜מׇד אֶת־אֻלָ֥ם הַשַּׁ֛עַר מֵהַבַּ֖יִת קָנֶ֥ה אֶחָֽד׃ (ט) וַיָּ֜מׇד אֶת־אֻלָ֤ם הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ שְׁמֹנֶ֣ה אַמּ֔וֹת וְאֵילָ֖ו שְׁתַּ֣יִם אַמּ֑וֹת וְאֻלָ֥ם הַשַּׁ֖עַר מֵהַבָּֽיִת׃ (י) וְתָאֵ֨י הַשַּׁ֜עַר דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַקָּדִ֗ים שְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה מִפֹּה֙ וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה מִפֹּ֔ה מִדָּ֥ה אַחַ֖ת לִשְׁלׇשְׁתָּ֑ם וּמִדָּ֥ה אַחַ֛ת לָאֵילִ֖ם מִפֹּ֥ה וּמִפּֽוֹ׃ (יא) וַיָּ֛מׇד אֶת־רֹ֥חַב פֶּתַח־הַשַּׁ֖עַר עֶ֣שֶׂר אַמּ֑וֹת אֹ֣רֶךְ הַשַּׁ֔עַר שְׁל֥וֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה אַמּֽוֹת׃ (יב) וּגְב֞וּל לִפְנֵ֤י הַתָּאוֹת֙ אַמָּ֣ה אֶחָ֔ת וְאַמָּֽה־אַחַ֥ת גְּב֖וּל מִפֹּ֑ה וְהַתָּ֕א שֵׁשׁ־אַמּ֣וֹת מִפּ֔וֹ וְשֵׁ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת מִפּֽוֹ׃ (יג) וַיָּ֣מׇד אֶת־הַשַּׁ֗עַר מִגַּ֤ג הַתָּא֙ לְגַגּ֔וֹ רֹ֕חַב עֶשְׂרִ֥ים וְחָמֵ֖שׁ אַמּ֑וֹת פֶּ֖תַח נֶ֥גֶד פָּֽתַח׃ (יד) וַיַּ֥עַשׂ אֶת־אֵילִ֖ים שִׁשִּׁ֣ים אַמָּ֑ה וְאֶל־אֵיל֙ הֶחָצֵ֔ר הַשַּׁ֖עַר סָבִ֥יב ׀ סָבִֽיב׃ (טו) וְעַ֗ל פְּנֵי֙ הַשַּׁ֣עַר (היאתון) [הָאִית֔וֹן] עַל־לִפְנֵ֕י אֻלָ֥ם הַשַּׁ֖עַר הַפְּנִימִ֑י חֲמִשִּׁ֖ים אַמָּֽה׃ (טז) וְחַלּוֹנ֣וֹת אֲטֻמ֣וֹת אֶֽל־הַתָּאִ֡ים וְאֶל֩ אֵלֵיהֵ֨מָה לִפְנִ֤ימָה לַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֔יב וְכֵ֖ן לָאֵֽלַמּ֑וֹת וְחַלּוֹנ֞וֹת סָבִ֤יב ׀ סָבִיב֙ לִפְנִ֔ימָה וְאֶל־אַ֖יִל תִּמֹרִֽים׃ (יז) וַיְבִיאֵ֗נִי אֶל־הֶחָצֵר֙ הַחִ֣יצוֹנָ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֤ה לְשָׁכוֹת֙ וְרִֽצְפָ֔ה עָשׂ֥וּי לֶחָצֵ֖ר סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים לְשָׁכ֖וֹת אֶל־הָרִֽצְפָֽה׃ (יח) וְהָרִֽצְפָה֙ אֶל־כֶּ֣תֶף הַשְּׁעָרִ֔ים לְעֻמַּ֖ת אֹ֣רֶךְ הַשְּׁעָרִ֑ים הָרִֽצְפָ֖ה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָֽה׃ (יט) וַיָּ֣מׇד רֹ֡חַב מִלִּפְנֵי֩ הַשַּׁ֨עַר הַתַּחְתּ֜וֹנָה לִפְנֵ֨י הֶחָצֵ֧ר הַפְּנִימִ֛י מִח֖וּץ מֵאָ֣ה אַמָּ֑ה הַקָּדִ֖ים וְהַצָּפֽוֹן׃ (כ) וְהַשַּׁ֗עַר אֲשֶׁ֤ר פָּנָיו֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַצָּפ֔וֹן לֶחָצֵ֖ר הַחִיצוֹנָ֑ה מָדַ֥ד אׇרְכּ֖וֹ וְרׇחְבּֽוֹ׃ (כא) וְתָאָ֗ו שְׁלוֹשָׁ֤ה מִפּוֹ֙ וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה מִפּ֔וֹ וְאֵילָ֤ו וְאֵֽלַמָּו֙ הָיָ֔ה כְּמִדַּ֖ת הַשַּׁ֣עַר הָרִאשׁ֑וֹן חֲמִשִּׁ֤ים אַמָּה֙ אׇרְכּ֔וֹ וְרֹ֕חַב חָמֵ֥שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים בָּאַמָּֽה׃ (כב) וְחַלּוֹנָ֤ו וְאֵֽילַמָּו֙ וְתִ֣ימֹרָ֔ו כְּמִדַּ֣ת הַשַּׁ֔עַר אֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּנָ֖יו דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַקָּדִ֑ים וּבְמַעֲל֥וֹת שֶׁ֙בַע֙ יַעֲלוּ־ב֔וֹ וְאֵילַמָּ֖ו לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃ (כג) וְשַׁ֙עַר֙ לֶחָצֵ֣ר הַפְּנִימִ֔י נֶ֣גֶד הַשַּׁ֔עַר לַצָּפ֖וֹן וְלַקָּדִ֑ים וַיָּ֧מׇד מִשַּׁ֛עַר אֶל־שַׁ֖עַר מֵאָ֥ה אַמָּֽה׃ (כד) וַיּוֹלִכֵ֙נִי֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַדָּר֔וֹם וְהִנֵּה־שַׁ֖עַר דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַדָּר֑וֹם וּמָדַ֤ד אֵילָו֙ וְאֵ֣ילַמָּ֔ו כַּמִּדּ֖וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה׃ (כה) וְחַלּוֹנִ֨ים ל֤וֹ וּלְאֵֽילַמָּו֙ סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֔יב כְּהַחַלֹּנ֖וֹת הָאֵ֑לֶּה חֲמִשִּׁ֤ים אַמָּה֙ אֹ֔רֶךְ וְרֹ֕חַב חָמֵ֥שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים אַמָּֽה׃ (כו) וּמַעֲל֤וֹת שִׁבְעָה֙ עֹֽלוֹתָ֔ו וְאֵלַמָּ֖ו לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם וְתִמֹרִ֣ים ל֗וֹ אֶחָ֥ד מִפּ֛וֹ וְאֶחָ֥ד מִפּ֖וֹ אֶל־אֵילָֽו׃ (כז) וְשַׁ֛עַר לֶחָצֵ֥ר הַפְּנִימִ֖י דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַדָּר֑וֹם וַיָּ֨מׇד מִשַּׁ֧עַר אֶל־הַשַּׁ֛עַר דֶּ֥רֶךְ הַדָּר֖וֹם מֵאָ֥ה אַמּֽוֹת׃ (כח) וַיְבִיאֵ֛נִי אֶל־חָצֵ֥ר הַפְּנִימִ֖י בְּשַׁ֣עַר הַדָּר֑וֹם וַיָּ֙מׇד֙ אֶת־הַשַּׁ֣עַר הַדָּר֔וֹם כַּמִּדּ֖וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה׃ (כט) וְתָאָ֞ו וְאֵילָ֤ו וְאֵֽלַמָּו֙ כַּמִּדּ֣וֹת הָאֵ֔לֶּה וְחַלּוֹנ֥וֹת ל֛וֹ וּלְאֵלַמָּ֖ו סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב חֲמִשִּׁ֤ים אַמָּה֙ אֹ֔רֶךְ וְרֹ֕חַב עֶשְׂרִ֥ים וְחָמֵ֖שׁ אַמּֽוֹת׃ (ל) וְאֵלַמּ֖וֹת סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב אֹ֗רֶךְ חָמֵ֤שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִים֙ אַמָּ֔ה וְרֹ֖חַב חָמֵ֥שׁ אַמּֽוֹת׃ (לא) וְאֵלַמָּ֗ו אֶל־חָצֵר֙ הַחִ֣צוֹנָ֔ה וְתִמֹרִ֖ים אֶל־אֵילָ֑ו וּמַעֲל֥וֹת שְׁמוֹנֶ֖ה מַעֲלָֽו׃ (לב) וַיְבִיאֵ֛נִי אֶל־הֶחָצֵ֥ר הַפְּנִימִ֖י דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַקָּדִ֑ים וַיָּ֣מׇד אֶת־הַשַּׁ֔עַר כַּמִּדּ֖וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה׃ (לג) וְתָאָ֞ו וְאֵלָ֤ו וְאֵֽלַמָּו֙ כַּמִּדּ֣וֹת הָאֵ֔לֶּה וְחַלּוֹנ֥וֹת ל֛וֹ וּלְאֵלַמָּ֖ו סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב אֹ֚רֶךְ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים אַמָּ֔ה וְרֹ֕חַב חָמֵ֥שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים אַמָּֽה׃ (לד) וְאֵלַמָּ֗ו לֶחָצֵר֙ הַחִ֣יצוֹנָ֔ה וְתִמֹרִ֥ים אֶל־אֵלָ֖ו מִפּ֣וֹ וּמִפּ֑וֹ וּשְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מַעֲל֖וֹת מַעֲלָֽו׃ (לה) וַיְבִיאֵ֖נִי אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר הַצָּפ֑וֹן וּמָדַ֖ד כַּמִּדּ֥וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה׃ (לו) תָּאָו֙ אֵלָ֣ו וְאֵלַמָּ֔ו וְחַלּוֹנ֥וֹת ל֖וֹ סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב אֹ֚רֶךְ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים אַמָּ֔ה וְרֹ֕חַב חָמֵ֥שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִ֖ים אַמָּֽה׃ (לז) וְאֵילָ֗ו לֶחָצֵר֙ הַחִ֣יצוֹנָ֔ה וְתִמֹרִ֥ים אֶל־אֵילָ֖ו מִפּ֣וֹ וּמִפּ֑וֹ וּשְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מַעֲל֖וֹת מַעֲלָֽו׃ (לח) וְלִשְׁכָּ֣ה וּפִתְחָ֔הּ בְּאֵילִ֖ים הַשְּׁעָרִ֑ים שָׁ֖ם יָדִ֥יחוּ אֶת־הָעֹלָֽה׃ (לט) וּבְאֻלָ֣ם הַשַּׁ֗עַר שְׁנַ֤יִם שֻׁלְחָנוֹת֙ מִפּ֔וֹ וּשְׁנַ֥יִם שֻׁלְחָנ֖וֹת מִפֹּ֑ה לִשְׁח֤וֹט אֲלֵיהֶם֙ הָעוֹלָ֔ה וְהַחַטָּ֖את וְהָאָשָֽׁם׃ (מ) וְאֶל־הַכָּתֵ֣ף מִח֗וּצָה לָֽעוֹלֶה֙ לְפֶ֙תַח֙ הַשַּׁ֣עַר הַצָּפ֔וֹנָה שְׁנַ֖יִם שֻׁלְחָנ֑וֹת וְאֶל־הַכָּתֵ֣ף הָאַחֶ֗רֶת אֲשֶׁר֙ לְאֻלָ֣ם הַשַּׁ֔עַר שְׁנַ֖יִם שֻׁלְחָנֽוֹת׃ (מא) אַרְבָּעָ֨ה שֻׁלְחָנ֜וֹת מִפֹּ֗ה וְאַרְבָּעָ֧ה שֻׁלְחָנ֛וֹת מִפֹּ֖ה לְכֶ֣תֶף הַשָּׁ֑עַר שְׁמוֹנָ֥ה שֻׁלְחָנ֖וֹת אֲלֵיהֶ֥ם יִשְׁחָֽטוּ׃ (מב) וְאַרְבָּעָה֩ שֻׁלְחָנ֨וֹת לָעוֹלָ֜ה אַבְנֵ֣י גָזִ֗ית אֹ֩רֶךְ֩ אַמָּ֨ה אַחַ֤ת וָחֵ֙צִי֙ וְרֹ֨חַב אַמָּ֤ה אַחַת֙ וָחֵ֔צִי וְגֹ֖בַהּ אַמָּ֣ה אֶחָ֑ת אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם וְיַנִּ֤יחוּ אֶת־הַכֵּלִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁחֲט֧וּ אֶת־הָעוֹלָ֛ה בָּ֖ם וְהַזָּֽבַח׃ (מג) וְהַֽשְׁפַתַּ֗יִם טֹ֧פַח אֶחָ֛ד מוּכָנִ֥ים בַּבַּ֖יִת סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב וְאֶל־הַשֻּׁלְחָנ֖וֹת בְּשַׂ֥ר הַקׇּרְבָֽן׃ (מד) וּמִח֩וּצָה֩ לַשַּׁ֨עַר הַפְּנִימִ֜י לִֽשְׁכ֣וֹת שָׁרִ֗ים בֶּחָצֵ֤ר הַפְּנִימִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֗ר אֶל־כֶּ֙תֶף֙ שַׁ֣עַר הַצָּפ֔וֹן וּפְנֵיהֶ֖ם דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַדָּר֑וֹם אֶחָ֗ד אֶל־כֶּ֙תֶף֙ שַׁ֣עַר הַקָּדִ֔ים פְּנֵ֖י דֶּ֥רֶךְ הַצָּפֹֽן׃ (מה) וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר אֵלָ֑י זֹ֣ה הַלִּשְׁכָּ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר פָּנֶ֙יהָ֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַדָּר֔וֹם לַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים שֹׁמְרֵ֖י מִשְׁמֶ֥רֶת הַבָּֽיִת׃ (מו) וְהַלִּשְׁכָּ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר פָּנֶ֙יהָ֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַצָּפ֔וֹן לַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים שֹׁמְרֵ֖י מִשְׁמֶ֣רֶת הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ הֵ֣מָּה בְנֵֽי־צָד֗וֹק הַקְּרֵבִ֧ים מִבְּנֵֽי־לֵוִ֛י אֶל־יְהֹוָ֖ה לְשָׁרְתֽוֹ׃ (מז) וַיָּ֨מׇד אֶת־הֶחָצֵ֜ר אֹ֣רֶךְ ׀ מֵאָ֣ה אַמָּ֗ה וְרֹ֛חַב מֵאָ֥ה אַמָּ֖ה מְרֻבָּ֑עַת וְהַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ לִפְנֵ֥י הַבָּֽיִת׃ (מח) וַיְבִאֵ֘נִי֮ אֶל־אֻלָ֣ם הַבַּ֒יִת֒ וַיָּ֙מָד֙ אֵ֣ל אֻלָ֔ם חָמֵ֤שׁ אַמּוֹת֙ מִפֹּ֔ה וְחָמֵ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת מִפֹּ֑ה וְרֹ֣חַב הַשַּׁ֔עַר שָׁלֹ֤שׁ אַמּוֹת֙ מִפּ֔וֹ וְשָׁלֹ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת מִפּֽוֹ׃ (מט) אֹ֣רֶךְ הָאֻלָ֞ם עֶשְׂרִ֣ים אַמָּ֗ה וְרֹ֙חַב֙ עַשְׁתֵּ֣י עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה אַמָּ֔ה וּבַֽמַּעֲל֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַעֲל֖וּ אֵלָ֑יו וְעַמֻּדִים֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֵילִ֔ים אֶחָ֥ד מִפֹּ֖ה וְאֶחָ֥ד מִפֹּֽה׃
(1) In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, the fourteenth year after the city had fallen, at the beginning of the year, the tenth day of the month—on that very day—the hand of the LORD came upon me, and He brought me there. (2) He brought me, in visions of God, to the Land of Israel, and He set me down on a very high mountain on which there seemed to be the outline of a city on the south. (3) He brought me over to it, and there, standing at the gate, was a man who shone like copper. In his hand were a cord of linen and a measuring rod. (4) The man spoke to me: “Mortal, look closely and listen attentively and note well everything I am going to show you—for you have been brought here in order to be shown—and report everything you see to the House of Israel.” (5) Along the outside of the Temple [area] ran a wall on every side. The rod that the man held was six cubits long, plus one handbreadth for each cubit; and when he applied it to that structure, it measured one rod deep and one rod high. (6) He went up to the gate that faced eastward and mounted its steps. He measured the threshold of the gate; it was one rod deepthe one threshold was one rod deep. (7) Each recess was one rod wide and one rod deep, with [a partition of] 5 cubits between recesses; and the threshold of the gate, at the inner vestibule of the gate, was one rod deep. (8) For when he measured it at the inner vestibule of the gate, it was one rod [deep]. (9) Next he measured the vestibule of the gate, and it measured 8 cubits and its supports 2 cubits; the vestibule of the gate was at its inner end. (10) On either side of this eastern gate there were three recesses, all three of the same size; of identical sizes were also the supports on either side. (11) He measured the opening of the gate and found it 10 cubits wide, while the gate itself measured 13 cubits across. (12) At the fronts of the recesses on either side were barriers of one cubit; the recesses on either side were 6 cubits [deep]. (13) Their openings faced each other directly across the gate passage, so that when he measured from rear of recess to rear of recess he obtained a width of 25 cubits. (14) He made the vestibule—60 cubits—and the gate next to the support on every side of the court. (15) And [the distance] from the front of the outer gate to the front of the inner vestibule of the gate was 50 cubits. (16) The recesses—and their supports—had windows with frames on the interior of the gate complex on both sides, and the interiors of the vestibules also had windows on both sides; and the supports were adorned with palms. (17) He took me into the outer court. There were chambers there, and there was a pavement laid out all around the court. There were 30 chambers on the pavement. (18) The pavements flanked the gates; the depth of the lower pavements paralleled that of the gates. (19) Then he measured the width of the lower court, from in front of the inner gate to in front of the outer gate—100 cubits. After the east [gate], the north [gate]. (20) Next he measured the gate of the outer court that faced north: its length and its width, (21) its three recesses on either side and its supports, as also its vestibule. It measured, like the first gate, 50 cubits in length and 25 cubits in width. (22) Its windows and [those of] its vestibule, as also its palm trees, corresponded to those of the gate that faced east. [From the outside] one had to climb 7 steps to reach it, and its vestibule was ahead of them. (23) Like the east gate, the north gate faced a gate leading into the inner forecourt; and when he measured the distance from gate to gate, it was 100 cubits. (24) Then he took me to the south side. There was also a gate on the south side, and he got the same measurements as before for its supports and its vestibule. (25) Both it and its vestibule had windows like the aforementioned ones. It was 50 cubits long and 25 cubits wide. (26) Its staircase consisted of 7 steps; its vestibule was ahead of them, and its supports were decorated on both sides with palm trees. (27) The inner court likewise had a gate facing south; and on the south side, too, he measured a distance of 100 cubits from the [outer] gate to the [inner] gate. (28) He now took me into the inner forecourt through its south gate. When he measured this south gate, it had the same measurements as the foregoing. (29) Its recesses, its supports, and its vestibule had the same measurements. Both it and its vestibule had windows on both sides; it was 50 cubits long and 25 cubits wide— (30) vestibules on both sides, 25 cubits long, 5 cubits wide. (31) Its vestibule, however, gave on the outer court. Its supports were adorned on either side with palms, and its staircase consisted of 8 steps. (32) Then he took me to the eastern side of the inner forecourt; and when he measured the gate there, he got the same measurements: (33) its recesses, supports, and vestibule had the above measurements. Both it and its vestibule had windows on both sides; it was 50 cubits long and 25 cubits wide, (34) and its vestibule gave on the outer court. Its supports were decorated on both sides with palm trees, and its staircase consisted of 8 steps. (35) Then he took me to the north gate, and found its measurements to be identical, (36) with the same recesses, supports, vestibule, windows on both sides, and a length of 50 cubits and a width of 25 cubits. (37) Its supports gave on the outer court; its supports were decorated on both sides with palm trees; and its staircase consisted of eight steps. (38) A chamber opened into the gate; there the burnt offering would be washed. (39) And inside the vestibule of the gate, there were two tables on each side, at which the burnt offering, the sin offering, and the guilt offering were to be slaughtered; (40) while outside—as one goes up toward the opening of the north gate—there were two tables on one side, and there were two tables on the other side of the gate’s vestibule. (41) Thus there were four tables on either flank of the gate—eight tables in all—at which [the sacrifices] were to be slaughtered. (42) As for the four tables for the burnt offering—they were of hewn stone, one and a half cubits long, one and a half cubits wide, and one cubit high—on them were laid out the instruments with which burnt offerings and sacrifices were slaughtered. (43) Shelves, one handbreadth wide, were attached all around the inside; and the sacrificial flesh was [laid] on the tables. (44) There were chambers for singers in the inner forecourt: [one] beside the north gate facing south, and one beside the east gate facing north. (45) [The man] explained to me: “The chamber that faces south is for the priests who perform the duties of the Temple; (46) and the chamber that faces north is for the priests who perform the duties of the altar—they are the descendants of Zadok, who alone of the descendants of Levi may approach the LORD to minister to Him.” (47) He then measured the forecourt: 100 cubits long and 100 cubits broad—foursquare. In front of the Temple stood the altar. (48) He took me into the portico of the Temple and measured it. The jambs of the portico were 5 cubits deep on either side. The width of the gate-opening was [14 cubits, and the flanking wall of the gate was] 3 cubits on either side. (49) The portico was 20 cubits wide and 11 cubits deep, and it was by steps that it was reached. There were columns by the jambs on either side.
מָה לִפְנַי לִפְנִים, אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה מִדַּם הַפָּר — כָּךְ מַזֶּה בַּהֵיכָל. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁלִּפְנַי לִפְנִים, אַחַת לְמַעְלָה וְשֶׁבַע לְמַטָּה מִדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר — כָּךְ מַזֶּה בַּהֵיכָל. ״הַשּׁוֹכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טוּמְאֹתָם״, אֲפִילּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שֶׁהֵן טְמֵאִים — שְׁכִינָה עִמָּהֶם.
Furthermore: Just as in the innermost sanctum he sprinkles once upward and seven times downward from the blood of the bull, so he sprinkles in the Sanctuary. And just as in the innermost sanctum he sprinkles once upward and seven times downward from the blood of the goat, so he sprinkles in the Sanctuary. The last part of the verse: “That dwells with them in the midst of their impurity,” teaches that even when the Jewish people are impure, the Divine Presence is with them.
(ח) וְאֶת־הַ֠חֲזִ֠יר כִּֽי־מַפְרִ֨יס פַּרְסָ֥ה הוּא֙ וְלֹ֣א גֵרָ֔ה טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶ֑ם מִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָ֖ם לֹ֥א תִגָּֽעוּ׃ {ס}
(8) also the swine—for although it has true hoofs, it does not bring up the cud—is unclean for you. You shall not eat of their flesh or touch their carcasses.
(יא) הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּמֵ֖ת לְכׇל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם וְטָמֵ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃ (יב) ה֣וּא יִתְחַטָּא־ב֞וֹ בַּיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י יִטְהָ֑ר וְאִם־לֹ֨א יִתְחַטָּ֜א בַּיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֛י וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י לֹ֥א יִטְהָֽר׃ (יג) כׇּֽל־הַנֹּגֵ֡עַ בְּמֵ֣ת בְּנֶ֩פֶשׁ֩ הָאָדָ֨ם אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֜וּת וְלֹ֣א יִתְחַטָּ֗א אֶת־מִשְׁכַּ֤ן יְהֹוָה֙ טִמֵּ֔א וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּי֩ מֵ֨י נִדָּ֜ה לֹא־זֹרַ֤ק עָלָיו֙ טָמֵ֣א יִהְיֶ֔ה ע֖וֹד טֻמְאָת֥וֹ בֽוֹ׃
(11) He who touches the corpse of any human being shall be unclean for seven days. (12) He shall cleanse himself with it on the third day and on the seventh day, and then be clean; if he fails to cleanse himself on the third and seventh days, he shall not be clean. (13) Whoever touches a corpse, the body of a person who has died, and does not cleanse himself, defiles the LORD’s Tabernacle; that person shall be cut off from Israel. Since the water of lustration was not dashed on him, he remains unclean; his uncleanness is still upon him.

כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם.

All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands.

(ו) וַיְהִ֣י אֲנָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָי֤וּ טְמֵאִים֙ לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֔ם וְלֹא־יָכְל֥וּ לַעֲשֹׂת־הַפֶּ֖סַח בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַֽיִּקְרְב֞וּ לִפְנֵ֥י מֹשֶׁ֛ה וְלִפְנֵ֥י אַהֲרֹ֖ן בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃ (ז) וַ֠יֹּאמְר֠וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֤ים הָהֵ֙מָּה֙ אֵלָ֔יו אֲנַ֥חְנוּ טְמֵאִ֖ים לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם לָ֣מָּה נִגָּרַ֗ע לְבִלְתִּ֨י הַקְרִ֜יב אֶת־קׇרְבַּ֤ן יְהֹוָה֙ בְּמֹ֣עֲד֔וֹ בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (ח) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֖ם מֹשֶׁ֑ה עִמְד֣וּ וְאֶשְׁמְעָ֔ה מַה־יְצַוֶּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה לָכֶֽם׃ {פ}
(ט) וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ (י) דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר אִ֣ישׁ אִ֣ישׁ כִּי־יִהְיֶֽה־טָמֵ֣א ׀ לָנֶ֡פֶשׁ אוֹ֩ בְדֶ֨רֶךְ רְחֹקָ֜הׄ לָכֶ֗ם א֚וֹ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְעָ֥שָׂה פֶ֖סַח לַיהֹוָֽה׃
(6) But there were some men who were unclean by reason of a corpse and could not offer the passover sacrifice on that day. Appearing that same day before Moses and Aaron, (7) those men said to them, “Unclean though we are by reason of a corpse, why must we be debarred from presenting the LORD’s offering at its set time with the rest of the Israelites?” (8) Moses said to them, “Stand by, and let me hear what instructions the LORD gives about you.” (9) And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying: (10) Speak to the Israelite people, saying: When any of you or of your posterity who are defiled by a corpse or are on a long journey would offer a passover sacrifice to the LORD,
גְּמָ׳ תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל טְמֵאִין וְכֹהֲנִים וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת טְהוֹרִין, אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל טְהוֹרִין וְכֹהֲנִים וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת טְמֵאִין, וַאֲפִילּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכֹהֲנִים טְהוֹרִין וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת טְמֵאִין — יַעֲשׂוּ בְּטוּמְאָה, שֶׁאֵין קׇרְבַּן צִיבּוּר חָלוּק.
GEMARA: The Sages taught: If most or all of the Jewish people were impure and the priests and sacred vessels used in the Temple service were pure; or, conversely, if the Jewish people were pure and the priests and sacred vessels were impure; and even in a situation in which the Jewish people and the priests were pure and the sacred vessels were impure, they may perform any part of the ritual of the Paschal lamb in ritual impurity. The reason for this is that a communal offering, which is sacrificed even in a state of ritual impurity, is not divided. Therefore, since some of the service must be performed in a state of ritual impurity, it may all be performed in a state of ritual impurity.
(י) וְהֶעָנָ֗ן סָ֚ר מֵעַ֣ל הָאֹ֔הֶל וְהִנֵּ֥ה מִרְיָ֖ם מְצֹרַ֣עַת כַּשָּׁ֑לֶג וַיִּ֧פֶן אַהֲרֹ֛ן אֶל־מִרְיָ֖ם וְהִנֵּ֥ה מְצֹרָֽעַת׃
(10) As the cloud withdrew from the Tent, there was Miriam stricken with snow-white scales! When Aaron turned toward Miriam, he saw that she was stricken with scales.