Hilchos G'Neivoh U'G'Zeiloh

(א) אָסוּר לִגְזוֹל אוֹ לִגְנוֹב אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, בֵּין מִיִשְֹרָאֵל בֵּין מִגּוֹי. אִיתָא בְּתַנָּא דְבֵי אֵלִיָהוּ, מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁסִּפֵּר לִי, שֶׁעָשָׂה עַוְלָה לַגּוֹי בִּמְדִידַת הַתְּמָרִים שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ קָנָה בְּכָל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁמֶן, וְנִשְׁבַּר הַכַּד וְנִשְׁפַּךְ הַשֶׁמֶן. וְאָמַרְתִּי, בָּרוךְ הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵין לְפָנָיו מַשּׂוֹא פָּנִים. הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר, לֹא תַעֲשׂק אֶת רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל. וְגֵזֶל הַנָכְרִי, גָּזֵל.

(1) It is forbidden to rob or to steal even an article of trivial value from a Jew or from a non-Jew. It is recorded in Tanna Devei Eliyohu: It happened that a man told me [Eliyah] that he had wronged a non-Jew in measuring dates that he sold to him. Thereafter, he bought oil with all that money and the jug broke and the oil spilled. I said, "Blessed is the Omnipotent that shows no favoritism." The Torah says, "Do not cheat your fellow, nor rob him," and robbery of a non-Jew also constitutes robbery.

(ה) כָּל הַחוֹמֵד בֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כֵּילָיו שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, אוֹ כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בְּדַעַת חֲבֵרוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ, וְהוּא הִרְבָּה עָלָיו רֵעִים אוֹ שֶׁהִפְצִיר בּוֹ בְעַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ לוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַחְמֹד. וּמִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְתָּה בְּלִבּוֹ וְחָשַׁב אֵיךְ יִקְנֶה חֵפֶץ זֶה, עָבַר בְּלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה, כִּי אֵין תַּאֲוָה אֶלָּא בַלֵּב בִּלְבָד, וְהַתַּאֲוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּד. וְהַקּוֹנֶה אֶת הַדָּבָר שֶׁהִתְאַוָּה לוֹ, עוֹבֵר בִּשְׁנֵי לָאוִין. וּלְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר, לֹא תַחְמֹד וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה.

(5) If you covet the house or the vessels of your neighbor, or anything which your neighbor has no intention of selling, and you ask his friends to influence him, or if you, yourself, pressure him until he agrees to sell it to you, you have violated the injunction, "You shall not covet." From the moment you were tempted, and began to think, how will you acquire this item, you have violated the command, "You shall not desire"; for desire is only in the heart, and desire leads one to covet. If you ultimately buy that which you had desired, you will have transgressed two negative commands. That is why it is said, "You shall not covet" and "You shall not desire."

(ו) מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה עַל הַגּוֹזֵל לְהַחֲזִיר אֶת הַגְּזֵלָה עַצְמָהּ אִם הִיא בְעֵינָהּ וְלֹא נִשְּׁתַּנֵית, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל. וְהוּא הַדִין לְגַנָּב. וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּנְתִינַת דָּמִים, אֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּבָר נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ הַבְּעָלִים. אֲבָל אִם אָבְדָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנִית בְּשִׁנוּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר לִבְרִיָתוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשִקְעָהּ בַּבִנְיָן, שֶׁיִהְיֶה לוֹ הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל לִסְתֹּר אֶת הַבִּנְיָן, יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּנְתִינַת דָּמִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה שָוֶה בִּשְׁעַת הַגְּזֵלָּה. וְאִם הַנִּגְזָה הוּא בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִשְׁלוֹחַ אֶת הַמָּעוֹת לִמְקוֹמוֹ, אֶלָּא מוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁיָבוֹא וִישַׁלֵּם לוֹ. אִם מֵת הַנִּגְזָל, יַחֲזִיר לְיוֹרְשָׁיו.

(6) The robber is enjoined by a positive command, to return the stolen article if it is in its original state, and has not been altered. As it is said, "He shall return that which he robbed." The same law applies to a thief. This obligation cannot be fulfilled merely with the return of money to the owner, even when he had already given up hope of getting it back. However, if the stolen article was lost or altered in such a way that it cannot be restored to its original state, or it was sunk into a building, and will cause him a great loss to tear down the building, the obligation may be fulfilled by paying a sum of money equivalent to its worth at the time of the robbery. If the victim of the robbery is in another town, the robber is not required to send the money to him, but he should notify him to come and get it. If the victim died, the robber must pay the restitution to his heirs.