Goat-Demons and Night-Wraiths

This reflection is part of the ongoing Forest Hills Haftorah Series. The rest of the content can be found here: https://www.sefaria.org/groups/FHJC-Haftorah-Series .

If you've been with us for awhile, then you probably know who the Herald of Zion is; the mysterious author of the oracles that make up chapters 40-66 of the book of Isaiah, commonly referred to as "Deutero-Isaiah".

Some people subdivide these chapters even further, and claim that chapters 55-66 are yet another prophet, called Trito-Isaiah!

You might be wondering, Where do they get these ideas from???

For the most part, this comes down to three points:

  1. Chapters 40-55 seem to presuppose that Jerusalem is already destroyed with the Judahites in Babylonian exile, then 56-66 seems to presuppose that those exiled have already returned and since begun to rebuild;
  2. Isaiah's name ceases being used in chapter 40 and onwards;
  3. Sudden changes in style and theology.

Those who reject the existence of a "Trito-Isaiah" can plausibly claim that the same prophet lived through the period of return. The situation changed, the person remained the same. Similar to Jeremiah speaking out oracles before, during, and after the Judahite defeat at the hands of Bavel.

But of course, there is a counter-model to the above, one that seeks to break up the book of Isaiah quite differently. Instead of focusing on authorship, some prefer to look at the oracles' literary and formal characteristics and see 2-parts, with part 2 beginning as early as chapter 34!

According to this model, the pattern that emerges is that the first 33 chapters focus on rebuke and warnings of judgement. From 34 and onwards, the shift is towards a forthcoming restoration.

With that, I want to turn to chapter 34 together, keeping in mind that this might be the very start of a whole, new section.

Listen up!

(א) קִרְב֤וּ גוֹיִם֙ לִשְׁמֹ֔עַ וּלְאֻמִּ֖ים הַקְשִׁ֑יבוּ תִּשְׁמַ֤ע הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ וּמְלֹאָ֔הּ תֵּבֵ֖ל וְכָל־צֶאֱצָאֶֽיהָ׃ (ב) כִּ֣י קֶ֤צֶף לַֽיהוָה֙ עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְחֵמָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־צְבָאָ֑ם הֶחֱרִימָ֖ם נְתָנָ֥ם לַטָּֽבַח׃

(1) Approach, O nations, and listen, Give heed, O peoples! Let the earth and those in it hear; The world, and what it brings forth.

(2) For YHWH is angry at all the nations, Furious at all their host; He has doomed them, consigned them to slaughter.

Not quite what I was expecting when I heard that beginning with chapter 34, we would get to start reading about "restoration." This sounds like kind of the opposite, if you ask me!

And that's true; Chapter 34 is all about retribution and destruction. Don't forget, the land and people of Judah have suffered terribly, at the hands of some of their own neighbors as well as the Big Bad Baylonians out east. We explored this in such places as Sibling Rivalry

https://www.sefaria.org/sheets/283219?lang=en ) as well as Glory! Glory Hallelu-YAH! (https://www.sefaria.org/sheets/260717?lang=en)

And so, while we might be uncomfortable with this idea, before this prophet can begin to speak of things taking a turn for the better for Judah, they must take a turn for the worse for those who did Zion wrong:

(ח) כִּ֛י י֥וֹם נָקָ֖ם לַֽיהוָ֑ה שְׁנַ֥ת שִׁלּוּמִ֖ים לְרִ֥יב צִיּֽוֹן׃

(8) For it is YHWH's day of retribution, The year of vindication for Zion’s cause.

In verse 5, it is revealed that this prophet is picking on Edom specifically, resulting in many wanting to date this as a late text, given that prophetic rage towards Edom was a result of their collaboration with the Babylonians in Judah's downfall in 586 (see the two links above). Given this, let's just go ahead and assume we are reading oracles composed by our fried the Herald of Zion, as we've been doing for the later chapters in the scroll of Isaiah.

There's something pretty neat that the Herald does here that I want to show you.

In verse 9, the Herald starts to describe a despoiled Edom, such that it is now completely devoid of all signs of human civilization.

Let's take a look at this section, which is shocking in its vividness:


(ט) וְנֶהֶפְכ֤וּ נְחָלֶ֙יהָ֙ לְזֶ֔פֶת וַעֲפָרָ֖הּ לְגָפְרִ֑ית וְהָיְתָ֣ה אַרְצָ֔הּ לְזֶ֖פֶת בֹּעֵרָֽה׃ (י) לַ֤יְלָה וְיוֹמָם֙ לֹ֣א תִכְבֶּ֔ה לְעוֹלָ֖ם יַעֲלֶ֣ה עֲשָׁנָ֑הּ מִדּ֤וֹר לָדוֹר֙ תֶּחֱרָ֔ב לְנֵ֣צַח נְצָחִ֔ים אֵ֥ין עֹבֵ֖ר בָּֽהּ׃ (יא) וִירֵשׁ֙וּהָ֙ קָאַ֣ת וְקִפּ֔וֹד וְיַנְשׁ֥וֹף וְעֹרֵ֖ב יִשְׁכְּנוּ־בָ֑הּ וְנָטָ֥ה עָלֶ֛יהָ קַֽו־תֹ֖הוּ וְאַבְנֵי־בֹֽהוּ׃ (יב) חֹרֶ֥יהָ וְאֵֽין־שָׁ֖ם מְלוּכָ֣ה יִקְרָ֑אוּ וְכָל־שָׂרֶ֖יהָ יִ֥הְיוּ אָֽפֶס׃ (יג) וְעָלְתָ֤ה אַרְמְנֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ סִירִ֔ים קִמּ֥וֹשׂ וָח֖וֹחַ בְּמִבְצָרֶ֑יהָ וְהָיְתָה֙ נְוֵ֣ה תַנִּ֔ים חָצִ֖יר לִבְנ֥וֹת יַעֲנָֽה׃ (יד) וּפָגְשׁ֤וּ צִיִּים֙ אֶת־אִיִּ֔ים וְשָׂעִ֖יר עַל־רֵעֵ֣הוּ יִקְרָ֑א אַךְ־שָׁם֙ הִרְגִּ֣יעָה לִּילִ֔ית וּמָצְאָ֥ה לָ֖הּ מָנֽוֹחַ׃ (טו) שָׁ֣מָּה קִנְּנָ֤ה קִפּוֹז֙ וַתְּמַלֵּ֔ט וּבָקְעָ֖ה וְדָגְרָ֣ה בְצִלָּ֑הּ אַךְ־שָׁ֛ם נִקְבְּצ֥וּ דַיּ֖וֹת אִשָּׁ֥ה רְעוּתָֽהּ׃

(9) Its streams shall be turned to pitch And its soil to sulfur. Its land shall become burning pitch.

(10) Night and day it shall never go out; Its smoke shall rise for all time. Through the ages it shall lie in ruins; Through the aeons none shall traverse it.

(11) The hawk (?) and hedgehog(?) shall possess it; Great owls and ravens shall dwell there. He shall measure it with a line of chaos And with weights of emptiness.

(12) It shall be called, “No-kingdom-there,” Its nobles and all its lords shall be nothing.

(13) Thorns shall grow up in its palaces, Nettles and briers in its strongholds. It shall be a home of jackals, An abode of ostriches. (14) Wildcats shall meet hyenas, Goat-demons shall greet each other; There too the night-one shall repose And find herself a resting place.

(15) There the arrow-snake shall nest and lay eggs, And shall brood and hatch in its shade. There too the buzzards shall gather With one another.

As I was reading through in the Hebrew, there was a particular phrase that jumped out at me in verse 11. Here it is translated as line of chaos And with weights of emptiness.

This is something that is missed in translation; In the Hebrew, it says kav tohu we'avnei vohu, which I think is a deliberate attempt to allude to the primordial, chaotic state of the cosmos before YHWH started to impose order on everything:

In the beginning...

(א) בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃ (ב) וְהָאָ֗רֶץ הָיְתָ֥ה תֹ֙הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ וְחֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י תְה֑וֹם וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם׃

(1) When Elohim began to create heaven and earth— (2) the earth being chaos and emtpiness, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind from Elohim sweeping over the water—

What I think our Herald is doing is deliberately using the language which was used to describe the primordial mess, to drive the point home that that is the fate that awaits Edom. It's an ironic twist that in describing the constructive efforts of wild animals such as hedgehogs and ravens, the result is destruction from the humanistic perspective.

Once I picked up on this, I couldn't help but notice that there are possibly a few other references to the Genesis 1 creation narrative here. "Night and day" of verse 10, for example, possibly echo the creation of the luminaries to rule over "day and night."

Also, the term used for stretching (na-tah) out the measuring line from verse 11 reminds me of the following:

(ד) אֵיפֹ֣ה הָ֭יִיתָ בְּיָסְדִי־אָ֑רֶץ הַ֝גֵּ֗ד אִם־יָדַ֥עְתָּ בִינָֽה׃ (ה) מִי־שָׂ֣ם מְ֭מַדֶּיהָ כִּ֣י תֵדָ֑ע א֤וֹ מִֽי־נָטָ֖ה עָלֶ֣יהָ קָּֽו׃

(4) Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundations? Speak if you have understanding. (5) Do you know who fixed its dimensions Or who measured it with a line?

In the passage above, a character named Job finds himself in the presence of YHWH, after Job had accused YHWH of not treating him fairly. YHWH accepts the challenge, and begins by reminding Job that he is picking a fight with the Creator, Himself.

To demonstrate the futility, YHWH starts off at the beginning. Where were you when, in beginning of Creation, I laid the Earth's very foundations? When I measured it with a line!

Yet again, the Herald's language in Isaiah 34 is reminiscent of a creation-passage.

I'll show you something else interesting; The word for line, i.e., kaw, has the same root for the word for the gathering together of water, which appears - you guessed it, in Genesis 1!

(ט) וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים יִקָּו֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם מִתַּ֤חַת הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ אֶל־מָק֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד וְתֵרָאֶ֖ה הַיַּבָּשָׁ֑ה וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן׃ (י) וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ לַיַּבָּשָׁה֙ אֶ֔רֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵ֥ה הַמַּ֖יִם קָרָ֣א יַמִּ֑ים

(9) Elohim said,

“Let the water below the sky be gathered (yikawu) into one area, that the dry land may appear.”

And it was so.

(10) Elohim called the dry land Earth, and the gathering (mikwe) of waters He called Seas.

If you're keeping track, that brings us to three linguistic allusions to creation in this passage which describes, well, basically the very opposite of creation; The absolute falling-apart of Edomite civilization.

I'll show you another one. Verse 13 mentions that the place will be overrun by jackals. Note the word in Hebrew; Tanim. Sound familiar? We just spoke at length about this word last week in Predicting Egypt's Fate (https://www.sefaria.org/sheets/292411?lang=bi).

Perhaps this verse will ring a bell:

(כא) וַיִּבְרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִ֖ם הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֣ה ׀ הָֽרֹמֶ֡שֶׂת אֲשֶׁר֩ שָׁרְצ֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם לְמִֽינֵהֶ֗ם וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־ע֤וֹף כָּנָף֙ לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב׃

(21) Elohim created the great tanim, and all the living creatures of every kind that creep, which the waters brought forth in swarms, and all the winged birds of every kind.

The sea monsters! (Remember those nasty crocodiles coming up from the Nile river?)

Isn't this interesting?

What do you think of all of this? Is the Herald evoking creation on purpose? Or is this all coincidental? And if on purpose, what is his rhetorical point in doing so? Do you think my suggestion above, that the Herald is trying to get across the totality of it all, such that creation itself is being undone, to be compelling? Or might there be something else going on?

I want to now look at something specific in verses 13-14:

(יג) וְעָלְתָ֤ה אַרְמְנֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ סִירִ֔ים קִמּ֥וֹשׂ וָח֖וֹחַ בְּמִבְצָרֶ֑יהָ וְהָיְתָה֙ נְוֵ֣ה תַנִּ֔ים חָצִ֖יר לִבְנ֥וֹת יַעֲנָֽה׃ (יד) וּפָגְשׁ֤וּ צִיִּים֙ אֶת־אִיִּ֔ים וְשָׂעִ֖יר עַל־רֵעֵ֣הוּ יִקְרָ֑א אַךְ־שָׁם֙ הִרְגִּ֣יעָה לִּילִ֔ית וּמָצְאָ֥ה לָ֖הּ מָנֽוֹחַ׃

(13) Thorns shall grow up in its palaces, Nettles and briers in its strongholds. It shall be a home of jackals, An abode of ostriches.

(14) Wildcats shall meet hyenas, Goat-demons shall greet each other; There too the night-one shall repose And find herself a resting place.

This is a fascinating two verses, and are actually quite eerie if you slow down and read them carefully; I don't know, there's just something that gets my spine tingling about goat-demons and "night-ones," whatever that means.

Let's look at a few commentaries about them.

First, the Jewish Study Bible on the Hebrew of the term "night-one", or lilith.

In ancient Semitic belief comntemporaneous with the Bible, this term [Lilith] referred to a group of female demons, in Akkadian, lilitu. They seduced and then illed single men, and they were especially dangerous to nursing mothers and infants.

Yup, that's pretty creepy, I'd say! Did you know that you could read about such figures in our ancient Israelite and Judahite literature?

But what in the world are these demon-women hanging around a desolated Edom for? I'm not really sure. Here is Alter's take:

As happens not infrequently in biblical poetry, there is an overlap between zoological and mythological entities: in the midst of the hyenas and jackals, goat-demons and a demonic goddess of the night make an appearance.

below: Check out the goat horns. Could this have been influenced by the lilith juxtaposition in Isiah 34 with goat-demons?

Huh! ..... This is not infrequent? The overlapping of natural and mythological entities? Can you think of other cases?

Now that we already have a foot in the macabre, I may as well show you another related source before continuing to think about Isaiah 34; (But be forewarned - Don't read this passage at home, after dark if you are home-alone; I wouldn't want to be responsible for you keeping yourself up at night seeing specters and ghosts in in every corner!)

In this passage, we hear a man named Eliphaz the Temanize recounting an unexpected visitor in the black of night:

Visitors in the dark

(יב) וְ֭אֵלַי דָּבָ֣ר יְגֻנָּ֑ב וַתִּקַּ֥ח אָ֝זְנִ֗י שֵׁ֣מֶץ מֶֽנְהֽוּ׃ (יג) בִּ֭שְׂעִפִּים מֵחֶזְיֹנ֣וֹת לָ֑יְלָה בִּנְפֹ֥ל תַּ֝רְדֵּמָ֗ה עַל־אֲנָשִֽׁים׃ (יד) פַּ֣חַד קְ֭רָאַנִי וּרְעָדָ֑ה וְרֹ֖ב עַצְמוֹתַ֣י הִפְחִֽיד׃ (טו) וְ֭רוּחַ עַל־פָּנַ֣י יַחֲלֹ֑ף תְּ֝סַמֵּ֗ר שַֽׂעֲרַ֥ת בְּשָׂרִֽי׃ (טז) יַעֲמֹ֤ד ׀ וְֽלֹא־אַכִּ֬יר מַרְאֵ֗הוּ תְּ֭מוּנָה לְנֶ֣גֶד עֵינָ֑י דְּמָמָ֖ה וָק֣וֹל אֶשְׁמָֽע׃ (יז) הַֽ֭אֱנוֹשׁ מֵאֱל֣וֹהַ יִצְדָּ֑ק אִ֥ם מֵ֝עֹשֵׂ֗הוּ יִטְהַר־גָּֽבֶר׃ (יח) הֵ֣ן בַּ֭עֲבָדָיו לֹ֣א יַאֲמִ֑ין וּ֝בְמַלְאָכָ֗יו יָשִׂ֥ים תָּהֳלָֽה׃ (יט) אַ֤ף ׀ שֹׁכְנֵ֬י בָֽתֵּי־חֹ֗מֶר אֲשֶׁר־בֶּעָפָ֥ר יְסוֹדָ֑ם יְ֝דַכְּא֗וּם לִפְנֵי־עָֽשׁ׃ (כ) מִבֹּ֣קֶר לָעֶ֣רֶב יֻכַּ֑תּוּ מִבְּלִ֥י מֵ֝שִׂ֗ים לָנֶ֥צַח יֹאבֵֽדוּ׃ (כא) הֲלֹא־נִסַּ֣ע יִתְרָ֣ם בָּ֑ם יָ֝מ֗וּתוּ וְלֹ֣א בְחָכְמָֽה׃

(12) A word came to me in stealth; My ear caught a whisper of it.

(13) In musings from nighttime's visions, when slumber falls on men, (14) Fear and trembling came upon me, Causing all my bones to quake with fright.

(15) A wind passed over my face, Making the hair of my flesh bristle. (16) It halted; its appearance was strange to me; A form loomed before my eyes; I heard a murmur, a voice,

(17) “Can mortals be acquitted by God? Can man be cleared by his Maker? (18) If He cannot trust His own servants, And casts reproach on His agents, (19) How much less those who dwell in houses of clay, Whose origin is dust, Who are crushed like the moth, (20) Shattered between daybreak and evening, Perishing forever, unnoticed. (21) Their cord is pulled up And they die, and not with wisdom.”

No need to head to the local movie rental and wander the horror section to give yourself a scare. Just open up your TaNaKh, and you'll find material that should most definitely do the trick.

What do we have in this case? Eliphaz is lying in bed at night trying to sleep; And suddenly thinks he heard a whisper. Looking around, he finds the room dark, empty and still. Maybe there's a bit of moonlight coming from the window. And then... a breeze on his face? But how can that be? The curtains have not budged! Hair stands on end; Bones, paralyzed with fright. And then, look! A figure! Right before his very eyes; A figure who then opens up its mouth and begins to speak, delivering a message from a realm beyond the world of flesh-and-blood.

Perhaps we can call such passages as this one in Job and in the Herald above but two in a sub-genre of Israelite Ghost Stories. Can you think of any others? (Ever heard of the Witch of Endor? See 1 Samuel 28).

There's one more comment about this passage from the Herald that I want to share. This comes from Bob Utley's You Can Understand the Bible:

The origin of the term [lilith]and concept may be the three night demons of Akkadian mythology. The Peshitta identifies it as a "screech owl." The night with all its "nature-sounds" was terrifying to ancient people.

(The Peshitta is an ancient Aramaic translation of all of the works in the TaNaKh, widely used during the 5th century CE.)

Okay - that's the second time we've seen a reference to these Akkadian night demons. So let's look into it.

Here is some information from the New World Encyclopedia:

Around 3000 B.C.E., Lilith's first appearance was as a class of Sumerian storm spirits called Lilitu. The Lilitu were said to prey upon children and women, and were described as associated with lions, storms, desert, and disease. Early portrayals of lilitu are known as having Zu bird talons for feet and wings.

Later accounts depict lilitu as a name for one figure and several spirits. Similar demons from the same class are recorded around this time frame. Lilu, a succubus, Ardat lili ("Lilith's handmaid"), who would come to men in their sleep and beget children from them, and Irdu lili, the succubus counterpart to Ardat lili.

These demons were originally storm and wind demons, however later etymology made them into night demons.

Isn't that wild? 3,000 years BCE, going all the way back to the Sumerians!!!!

Does the term "Sumerian" sound familiar?

Recently, we spoke about the origin of the King-as-Shepherd idea, in our unit called Of Shepherds and Lions (https://www.sefaria.org/sheets/285121?lang=bi). That, too, went all the way back to these Sumerians, who now seems to have had quite a bit of influence on our texts in the TaNaKh.

Whatever meaning this lilith thing would come to mean by the Herald's time, I can't imagine it would have been pleasant for any lingering Edomites to encounter one.

And by the way, for those of you who haven't caught onto the word-game yet, lilith, or לילית, is a rarely used feminine form of the word for night; לילית/לית, which explains the translation choice of night-demon.

We now have to say something more about these "goat-demons," beings which actually make a few appearances in the TaNaKh.

As it turns out, the Israelites, once upon a time, might have been offering sacrifices, if you can believe it, to goat-demons.

Keep away from goat-demons!

(א) וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ (ב) דַּבֵּ֨ר אֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְאֶל֙ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר׃ (ג) אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁחַ֜ט שׁ֥וֹר אוֹ־כֶ֛שֶׂב אוֹ־עֵ֖ז בַּֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה א֚וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשְׁחַ֔ט מִח֖וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה׃ (ד) וְאֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵד֮ לֹ֣א הֱבִיאוֹ֒ לְהַקְרִ֤יב קָרְבָּן֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י מִשְׁכַּ֣ן יְהוָ֑ה דָּ֣ם יֵחָשֵׁ֞ב לָאִ֤ישׁ הַהוּא֙ דָּ֣ם שָׁפָ֔ךְ וְנִכְרַ֛ת הָאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמּֽוֹ׃ (ה) לְמַעַן֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָבִ֜יאוּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶֽת־זִבְחֵיהֶם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֵ֣ם זֹבְחִים֮ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַשָּׂדֶה֒ וֶֽהֱבִיאֻ֣ם לַֽיהוָ֗ה אֶל־פֶּ֛תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְזָ֨בְח֜וּ זִבְחֵ֧י שְׁלָמִ֛ים לַֽיהוָ֖ה אוֹתָֽם׃ (ו) וְזָרַ֨ק הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַדָּם֙ עַל־מִזְבַּ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַחֵ֔לֶב לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַיהוָֽה׃ (ז) וְלֹא־יִזְבְּח֥וּ עוֹד֙ אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶ֔ם לַשְּׂעִירִ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֛ר הֵ֥ם זֹנִ֖ים אַחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם תִּֽהְיֶה־זֹּ֥את לָהֶ֖ם לְדֹרֹתָֽם׃

(2)This is what YHWH has commanded:

(3) If anyone of the house of Israel slaughters an ox or sheep or goat in the camp, or does so outside the camp, (4) and does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to present it as an offering to YHWH, before the YHWH's Tabernacle, bloodguilt shall be imputed to that man: he has shed blood; that man shall be cut off from among his people. (5) This is in order that the Israelites may... offer their sacrifices no more to the goat-demons after whom they whore.

This shall be to them a law for all time, throughout the ages.

According to the historian of Chronicles, YHWH's command would eventually be disregarded... by a Northern-Israelite king!

The following passage describes the moment when the northern Israelites secede from being a part of what had seemed to be an emerging Israelite Empire under the Davidic family.

(We're about to read about King Rehoboam and King Jeroboam. And just so you keep your Rehoboams and your Jeroboams right, remember that "Rehoboam" is Solomon's son and is King-of-the-South. Think of "R" as in, "Royal." He came from the legitimate Royal family that went back to David.

While "Jeroboam," on the other hand, was the newly-appointed King-of-the-North. "J" for Just-now-appointed. Or "J" for Jack-in-the-box, if you will; No one expected him, he just kind of POPPED UP, surprisingly, out of nowhere.)

Return of the goat-demons

(יג) וְהַכֹּהֲנִים֙ וְהַלְוִיִּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל הִֽתְיַצְּב֥וּ עָלָ֖יו מִכָּל־גְּבוּלָֽם׃ (יד) כִּֽי־עָזְב֣וּ הַלְוִיִּ֗ם אֶת־מִגְרְשֵׁיהֶם֙ וַאֲחֻזָּתָ֔ם וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ לִיהוּדָ֖ה וְלִֽירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כִּֽי־הִזְנִיחָ֤ם יָֽרָבְעָם֙ וּבָנָ֔יו מִכַּהֵ֖ן לַיהוָֽה׃ (טו) וַיַּֽעֲמֶד־לוֹ֙ כֹּֽהֲנִ֔ים לַבָּמ֖וֹת וְלַשְּׂעִירִ֑ים וְלָעֲגָלִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה׃ (טז) וְאַחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם מִכֹּל֙ שִׁבְטֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַנֹּֽתְנִים֙ אֶת־לְבָבָ֔ם לְבַקֵּ֕שׁ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בָּ֚אוּ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לִזְבּ֕וֹחַ לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבוֹתֵיהֶֽם׃

(13) The priests and the Levites, from all their territories throughout Israel, presented themselves to [King Rehoboam].

(14) The Levites had left their pasturelands and their holdings and had set out for Judah and Jerusalem, because [King] Jeroboam and his sons had prevented them from serving YHWH, (15) having appointed his own priests for the shrines, goat-demons, and calves which he had made. (16) From all the tribes of Israel, those intent on seeking YHWH, Elohei-Israel, followed them to Jerusalem, to sacrifice to YHWH, Elohim-of-their-fathers.

I have a question for you; How believable do you think this description is? Can you accept that this Norther King, Jeroboam, would have the nerve to steer his people away from YHWH and back to the goat-demons of their past, that they were warned about in Leviticus 17 above?


Might this historian not only be writing strict history, but crafting a religious polemic in order to delegitimize the norther-religious establishment?

Which of the above two possibilities do you find most likely? Which do you find more disturbing? That the northerners would do such a thing? Or that this historian would falsely accuse them of it?

below: I'd caution against looking too closely at this picture.

I'll show you another place where we see these goat-demons, in a similar context to our Herald describing a desolate Edom, actually. It comes from Isaiah son of Amoz predicting a desolated Babylon:

(יט) וְהָיְתָ֤ה בָבֶל֙ צְבִ֣י מַמְלָכ֔וֹת תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת גְּא֣וֹן כַּשְׂדִּ֑ים כְּמַהְפֵּכַ֣ת אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־סְדֹ֖ם וְאֶת־עֲמֹרָֽה׃ (כ) לֹֽא־תֵשֵׁ֣ב לָנֶ֔צַח וְלֹ֥א תִשְׁכֹּ֖ן עַד־דּ֣וֹר וָד֑וֹר וְלֹֽא־יַהֵ֥ל שָׁם֙ עֲרָבִ֔י וְרֹעִ֖ים לֹא־יַרְבִּ֥צוּ שָֽׁם׃ (כא) וְרָבְצוּ־שָׁ֣ם צִיִּ֔ים וּמָלְא֥וּ בָתֵּיהֶ֖ם אֹחִ֑ים וְשָׁ֤כְנוּ שָׁם֙ בְּנ֣וֹת יַֽעֲנָ֔ה וּשְׂעִירִ֖ים יְרַקְּדוּ־שָֽׁם׃ (כב) וְעָנָ֤ה אִיִּים֙ בְּאַלְמנוֹתָ֔יו וְתַנִּ֖ים בְּהֵ֣יכְלֵי עֹ֑נֶג וְקָר֤וֹב לָבוֹא֙ עִתָּ֔הּ וְיָמֶ֖יהָ לֹ֥א יִמָּשֵֽׁכוּ׃

(19) And Babylon, glory of kingdoms, Proud splendor of the Chaldeans, Shall become like Sodom and Gomorrah Overturned by Elohim.

(20) Nevermore shall it be settled Nor dwelt in through all the ages. No Arab shall pitch his tent there, No shepherds make flocks lie down there.

(21) But beasts shall lie down there, And the houses be filled with owls; There shall ostriches make their home, And there shall goat-demons dance.

(22) And jackals shall abide in its castles And dragons in the palaces of pleasure. Her hour is close at hand; Her days will not be long.

In more ways than one, our Herald's passage about Edom echoes this passage of the fate of Bavel. In addition to the goat-demons, some of the same types of creatures will be inhabiting both places, once their respective civilizations have been brought to an end.

I find this particularly interesting given what we've seen in a few places from the lament-poem of Psalm 137, in which a poet laments the destruction of Solomon's Temple at the hands of the Babylonians, as well as rage directed towards Edom for their complicity.

(א) עַ֥ל נַהֲר֨וֹת ׀ בָּבֶ֗ל שָׁ֣ם יָ֭שַׁבְנוּ גַּם־בָּכִ֑ינוּ בְּ֝זָכְרֵ֗נוּ אֶת־צִיּֽוֹן׃ (ב) עַֽל־עֲרָבִ֥ים בְּתוֹכָ֑הּ תָּ֝לִ֗ינוּ כִּנֹּרוֹתֵֽינוּ׃ (ג) כִּ֤י שָׁ֨ם שְֽׁאֵל֪וּנוּ שׁוֹבֵ֡ינוּ דִּבְרֵי־שִׁ֭יר וְתוֹלָלֵ֣ינוּ שִׂמְחָ֑ה שִׁ֥ירוּ לָ֝֗נוּ מִשִּׁ֥יר צִיּֽוֹן׃ (ד) אֵ֗יךְ נָשִׁ֥יר אֶת־שִׁיר־יְהוָ֑ה עַ֝֗ל אַדְמַ֥ת נֵכָֽר׃ (ה) אִֽם־אֶשְׁכָּחֵ֥ךְ יְֽרוּשָׁלִָ֗ם תִּשְׁכַּ֥ח יְמִינִֽי׃ (ו) תִּדְבַּ֥ק־לְשׁוֹנִ֨י ׀ לְחִכִּי֮ אִם־לֹ֪א אֶ֫זְכְּרֵ֥כִי אִם־לֹ֣א אַ֭עֲלֶה אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֑ם עַ֝֗ל רֹ֣אשׁ שִׂמְחָתִֽי׃ (ז) זְכֹ֤ר יְהוָ֨ה ׀ לִבְנֵ֬י אֱד֗וֹם אֵת֮ י֤וֹם יְֽרוּשָׁ֫לִָ֥ם הָ֭אֹ֣מְרִים עָ֤רוּ ׀ עָ֑רוּ עַ֝֗ד הַיְס֥וֹד בָּֽהּ׃

(1) By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat, sat and wept, as we thought of Zion. (2) There on the poplars we hung up our lyres, (3) for our captors asked us there for songs, our tormentors, for amusement, “Sing us one of the songs of Zion.”


(7) Remember, O YHWH, against the Edomites the day of Jerusalem’s fall; how they cried, “Strip her, strip her to her very foundations!”

You've probably picked up on the fact that chapter 34 is not the most "pleasant" of passages for everyone involved. I can't imagine that were I an Edomite, it would make for nice bed-side reading.

I therefore think we owe it to ourselves to take a look at chapter 35 as well, where we finally get the "good stuff."

It is a very short chapter - just 10 verses. But to preface our reading of it, I want to share a comment from Jerome Smith's Ultimate Cross-Reference Treasury:

[Chapters 34 and 35] form one distinct prophecy; an entire, regular, and beautiful poem, consisting of two parts; the first containing a denunciation of Divine vengeance against the enemies of the people or church of God; the second describing the flourishing state of that church consequent upon those judgments.

The event foretold is represented as of the highest importance, and of universal concern; all nations are called upon to attend to the declaration of it.

Let's now see how things take a turn entering chapter 35; In my opinion, it is one of the most uplifting and joyous of passages in the works in the TaNaKh!!!

I'll give it all to you at once, so that you can truly bask in it, line-by-line, as the Herald intended:

the Splendor-of-Elohim!!!!
(א) יְשֻׂשׂ֥וּם מִדְבָּ֖ר וְצִיָּ֑ה וְתָגֵ֧ל עֲרָבָ֛ה וְתִפְרַ֖ח כַּחֲבַצָּֽלֶת׃ (ב) פָּרֹ֨חַ תִּפְרַ֜ח וְתָגֵ֗ל אַ֚ף גִּילַ֣ת וְרַנֵּ֔ן כְּב֤וֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן֙ נִתַּן־לָ֔הּ הֲדַ֥ר הַכַּרְמֶ֖ל וְהַשָּׁר֑וֹן הֵ֛מָּה יִרְא֥וּ כְבוֹד־יְהוָ֖ה הֲדַ֥ר אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ׃ (ס) (ג) חַזְּק֖וּ יָדַ֣יִם רָפ֑וֹת וּבִרְכַּ֥יִם כֹּשְׁל֖וֹת אַמֵּֽצוּ׃ (ד) אִמְרוּ֙ לְנִמְהֲרֵי־לֵ֔ב חִזְק֖וּ אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ הִנֵּ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ נָקָ֣ם יָב֔וֹא גְּמ֣וּל אֱלֹהִ֔ים ה֥וּא יָב֖וֹא וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶֽם׃ (ה) אָ֥ז תִּפָּקַ֖חְנָה עֵינֵ֣י עִוְרִ֑ים וְאָזְנֵ֥י חֵרְשִׁ֖ים תִּפָּתַֽחְנָה׃ (ו) אָ֣ז יְדַלֵּ֤ג כָּֽאַיָּל֙ פִּסֵּ֔חַ וְתָרֹ֖ן לְשׁ֣וֹן אִלֵּ֑ם כִּֽי־נִבְקְע֤וּ בַמִּדְבָּר֙ מַ֔יִם וּנְחָלִ֖ים בָּעֲרָבָֽה׃ (ז) וְהָיָ֤ה הַשָּׁרָב֙ לַאֲגַ֔ם וְצִמָּא֖וֹן לְמַבּ֣וּעֵי מָ֑יִם בִּנְוֵ֤ה תַנִּים֙ רִבְצָ֔הּ חָצִ֖יר לְקָנֶ֥ה וָגֹֽמֶא׃ (ח) וְהָיָה־שָׁ֞ם מַסְל֣וּל וָדֶ֗רֶךְ וְדֶ֤רֶךְ הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִקָּ֣רֵא לָ֔הּ לֹֽא־יַעַבְרֶ֥נּוּ טָמֵ֖א וְהוּא־לָ֑מוֹ הֹלֵ֥ךְ דֶּ֛רֶךְ וֶאֱוִילִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִתְעֽוּ׃ (ט) לֹא־יִהְיֶ֨ה שָׁ֜ם אַרְיֵ֗ה וּפְרִ֤יץ חַיּוֹת֙ בַּֽל־יַעֲלֶ֔נָּה לֹ֥א תִמָּצֵ֖א שָׁ֑ם וְהָלְכ֖וּ גְּאוּלִֽים׃ (י) וּפְדוּיֵ֨י יְהוָ֜ה יְשֻׁב֗וּן וּבָ֤אוּ צִיּוֹן֙ בְּרִנָּ֔ה וְשִׂמְחַ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם עַל־רֹאשָׁ֑ם שָׂשׂ֤וֹן וְשִׂמְחָה֙ יַשִּׂ֔יגוּ וְנָ֖סוּ יָג֥וֹן וַאֲנָחָֽה׃ (פ)

(1) The arid desert shall be glad, The wilderness shall rejoice And shall blossom like a rose!

(2) It shall blossom abundantly, It shall also exult and shout! It shall receive the glory of Lebanon, The splendor of Carmel and Sharon. They shall behold the glory of YHWH, The splendor of our elohim!

(3) Strengthen the hands that are slack; Make firm the tottering knees! (4) Say to the anxious of heart,

“Be strong, fear not; Behold your Elohim! Requital is coming, The recompense of Elohim!— He Himself is coming to give you triumph.”

(5) Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. (6) Then the lame shall leap like a deer, And the tongue of the dumb shall shout aloud;

For waters shall burst forth in the desert, Streams in the wilderness. (7) Torrid earth shall become a pool; Parched land, fountains of water;

The home of jackals, a pasture; The abode [of ostriches], reeds and rushes.

(8) And a highway shall appear there, Which shall be called the Sacred Way. No one unclean shall pass along it, But it shall be for them. No traveler, not even fools, shall go astray. (9) No lion shall be there, No ferocious beast shall set foot on it— These shall not be found there. But the redeemed shall walk it; (10) And the ransomed of YHWH shall return, And come with shouting to Zion, Crowned with joy everlasting!

They shall attain joy and gladness, While sorrow and sighing flee.

Isn't that incredible?

Imagine being an ancient Israelite in exile, perhaps one who was old enough to suffer through the trauma of the death and destruction of Judah at the hands of the Babylonians. You have long-since given up hope that you would be able to return to Judah, to Zion once again, to worship YHWH, the eloha-of-your-fathers.

And then word starts getting around of a prophet who is in short saying, Get ready. It's nearly time go home...... And with singing, with dancing, with the Splendor-of-Elohim!

If you read through chapters 34 and 35 together, you'll see what Smith meant when he calls this a "beautiful poem." For a few times in chapter 35 we get mirror-images of the various ways that desolation and waste were represented in chapter 34. My recommendation is to to give it a full read through, and then to line them up side-by-side to see what you can find.

I'll give you a nice, but slightly subtle example, and then let you see what you can dig up on your own.

In the destruction of chapter 34, there are a lot of corpses:

(ב) כִּ֣י קֶ֤צֶף לַֽיהוָה֙ עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְחֵמָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־צְבָאָ֑ם הֶחֱרִימָ֖ם נְתָנָ֥ם לַטָּֽבַח׃ (ג) וְחַלְלֵיהֶ֣ם יֻשְׁלָ֔כוּ וּפִגְרֵיהֶ֖ם יַעֲלֶ֣ה בָאְשָׁ֑ם וְנָמַ֥סּוּ הָרִ֖ים מִדָּמָֽם׃

(2) For YHWH is angry at all the nations, Furious at all their host; He has doomed them, consigned them to slaughter. (3) Their slain shall be left lying, And the stench of their corpses shall mount; And the hills shall be drenched with their blood.

Yikes. (As we said - not the most pleasant of bed-side readings.)

Do you remember anything about corpses elsewhere in the works in the TaNaKh?

How about this?

(יג) כָּֽל־הַנֹּגֵ֡עַ בְּמֵ֣ת בְּנֶפֶשׁ֩ הָאָדָ֨ם אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֜וּת וְלֹ֣א יִתְחַטָּ֗א אֶת־מִשְׁכַּ֤ן יְהוָה֙ טִמֵּ֔א וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּי֩ מֵ֨י נִדָּ֜ה לֹא־זֹרַ֤ק עָלָיו֙ טָמֵ֣א יִהְיֶ֔ה ע֖וֹד טֻמְאָת֥וֹ בֽוֹ׃ (יד) זֹ֚את הַתּוֹרָ֔ה אָדָ֖ם כִּֽי־יָמ֣וּת בְּאֹ֑הֶל כָּל־הַבָּ֤א אֶל־הָאֹ֙הֶל֙ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּאֹ֔הֶל יִטְמָ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃ (טו) וְכֹל֙ כְּלִ֣י פָת֔וּחַ אֲשֶׁ֛ר אֵין־צָמִ֥יד פָּתִ֖יל עָלָ֑יו טָמֵ֖א הֽוּא׃ (טז) וְכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּ֜ע עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה בַּֽחֲלַל־חֶ֙רֶב֙ א֣וֹ בְמֵ֔ת אֽוֹ־בְעֶ֥צֶם אָדָ֖ם א֣וֹ בְקָ֑בֶר יִטְמָ֖א שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃

(13) Whoever touches a corpse, the body of a person who has died, and does not cleanse himself, defiles YHWH’s Tabernacle; that person shall be cut off from Israel. Since the water of lustration was not dashed on him, he remains unclean; his uncleanness is still upon him.

(14) This is the ritual: When a person dies in a tent, whoever enters the tent and whoever is in the tent shall be unclean seven days; (15) and every open vessel, with no lid fastened down, shall be unclean. (16) And in the open, anyone who touches a person who was killed or who died naturally, or human bone, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days.

Corpses are basically oozing with impurity; So-much-so that it has such power to spread and infect everything under the same roof, whether there was any direct contact or not. If this impurity spreads to a person, it will take at least 7 days for this impurity to be able to be washed off completely.

For the Israelites, corpses were basically synonymous with impurity.

But look what happens in chapter 35:

(ח) וְהָיָה־שָׁ֞ם מַסְל֣וּל וָדֶ֗רֶךְ וְדֶ֤רֶךְ הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִקָּ֣רֵא לָ֔הּ לֹֽא־יַעַבְרֶ֥נּוּ טָמֵ֖א וְהוּא־לָ֑מוֹ הֹלֵ֥ךְ דֶּ֛רֶךְ וֶאֱוִילִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִתְעֽוּ׃

(8) And a highway shall appear there, Which shall be called the Sacred Way. No one unclean shall pass along it, But it shall be for them.

This highway that appears, leading the Judahites back home, will be one that is completely devoid of uncleanness, of impurity, of corpses; Rather, it is paved and pure all the way through, not a corpse in site.

How else does chapter 35 provide a contrast to what we see in 34?

I just want to draw your attention to one more line here which I love:

(ד) אִמְרוּ֙ לְנִמְהֲרֵי־לֵ֔ב חִזְק֖וּ אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ הִנֵּ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ נָקָ֣ם יָב֔וֹא גְּמ֣וּל אֱלֹהִ֔ים ה֥וּא יָב֖וֹא וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶֽם׃ (ה) אָ֥ז תִּפָּקַ֖חְנָה עֵינֵ֣י עִוְרִ֑ים וְאָזְנֵ֥י חֵרְשִׁ֖ים תִּפָּתַֽחְנָה׃ (ו) אָ֣ז יְדַלֵּ֤ג כָּֽאַיָּל֙ פִּסֵּ֔חַ וְתָרֹ֖ן לְשׁ֣וֹן אִלֵּ֑ם כִּֽי־נִבְקְע֤וּ בַמִּדְבָּר֙ מַ֔יִם וּנְחָלִ֖ים בָּעֲרָבָֽה׃

(4) Say to the anxious of heart,

“Be strong, fear not; Behold your Elohim! Requital is coming, The recompense of Elohim!— He Himself is coming to give you triumph.”

(5) Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. (6) Then the lame shall leap like a deer, And the tongue of the dumb shall shout aloud!

I find this to be just so stirring; The image of Israel hearing the news that YHWH is alive and well and is on his way to meet with his people once again, and Israel being so ecstatic at this such that she begins to leap like a prancing deer...... wow.

below: Ever see gazelles prancing? Here is a video of the closely-related springbok, found in southwestern Africa. Try watching this without feeling the urge to get up and "pronk" around right along with them!

This is not the only place in the works in the TaNaKh where a dancing deer is used to illustrate excitement and euphoria. An ancient Israelite poet, composing love-poetry between, saw fit to do the same:

(ח) ק֣וֹל דּוֹדִ֔י הִנֵּה־זֶ֖ה בָּ֑א מְדַלֵּג֙ עַל־הֶ֣הָרִ֔ים מְקַפֵּ֖ץ עַל־הַגְּבָעֽוֹת׃ (ט) דּוֹמֶ֤ה דוֹדִי֙ לִצְבִ֔י א֖וֹ לְעֹ֣פֶר הָֽאַיָּלִ֑ים הִנֵּה־זֶ֤ה עוֹמֵד֙ אַחַ֣ר כָּתְלֵ֔נוּ מַשְׁגִּ֙יחַ֙ מִן־הַֽחֲלֹּנ֔וֹת מֵצִ֖יץ מִן־הַֽחֲרַכִּֽים׃ (י) עָנָ֥ה דוֹדִ֖י וְאָ֣מַר לִ֑י ק֥וּמִי לָ֛ךְ רַעְיָתִ֥י יָפָתִ֖י וּלְכִי־לָֽךְ׃ (יא) כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֥ה הסתו [הַסְּתָ֖יו] עָבָ֑ר הַגֶּ֕שֶׁם חָלַ֖ף הָלַ֥ךְ לֽוֹ׃ (יב) הַנִּצָּנִים֙ נִרְא֣וּ בָאָ֔רֶץ עֵ֥ת הַזָּמִ֖יר הִגִּ֑יעַ וְק֥וֹל הַתּ֖וֹר נִשְׁמַ֥ע בְּאַרְצֵֽנוּ׃ (יג) הַתְּאֵנָה֙ חָֽנְטָ֣ה פַגֶּ֔יהָ וְהַגְּפָנִ֥ים ׀ סְמָדַ֖ר נָ֣תְנוּ רֵ֑יחַ ק֥וּמִי לכי [לָ֛ךְ] רַעְיָתִ֥י יָפָתִ֖י וּלְכִי־לָֽךְ׃ (ס)

(8) Hark! My beloved! There he comes, Leaping over mountains, Bounding over hills. (9) My beloved is like a gazelle Or like a young stag. There he stands behind our wall, Gazing through the window, Peering through the lattice.

(10) My beloved spoke thus to me, “Arise, my darling; My fair one, come away! (11) For now the winter is past, The rains are over and gone. (12) The blossoms have appeared in the land, The time of pruning has come; The song of the turtledove Is heard in our land. (13) The green figs form on the fig tree, The vines in blossom give off fragrance. Arise, my darling; My fair one, come away!

First of all; Beautiful!!!

Second of all, are you thinking what I'm thinking? How similar is this to what we were just looking at in Isaiah 35! We have "dancing stags," we have a lover calling out to his beloved and inviting her to join him elsewhere, we have blossoming (springtime?) imagery; There are some lovely parallels.

I'm not sure which of these came first, the love-poetry or the Herald; But do you think it is possible that one of them was inspired by the other?

And to round out our readings, as usual, here is some worthwhile wisdom from the treasure-chest of Israelite proverbs that we still have with us to this day:

(יג) אָמַ֣ר עָ֭צֵל אֲרִ֣י בַח֑וּץ בְּת֥וֹךְ רְ֝חֹב֗וֹת אֵֽרָצֵֽחַ׃

(13) The lazy man says, “There’s a lion in the street; I shall be killed if I step outside.”