Source Sheet for Mishnayos Mesechtas Yadayim Chapter 3

This source sheet is part of a series of source sheets providing background for Mishnayos Yadayim. The series can be found at

Chapter 3

Chapter Three focuses on Yadayim that become Tamei by touching different sources of Tumah. The first two Mishnayos describe certain Avos HaTumah that cause Yadayim to become Tamei and whether a Sheini L'Tumah can make hands Tamei. The rest of the Chapter describes the details of Seforim (both the sefer itself and hands that touch seforim become tamei) such as, which parts of a scroll transmit Tumah, what is considered a "sefer" for these purposes and which seforim of TaNach were included in the decree.

Sources for Mishnah 3:1

The Mishnah begins with a discussion of a house contaminated with Tza'ras and the inherent power of its airspace to make people and items Tamei. The basic rules can be found in Negaim 13:9. While our Mishnah suggests that Yadayim can become Tamei from a Beis HaMenugah, nevertheless, it is only D'Rabanan. See Neagim 13:10 and Yachin ad. loc.

As an aside, to become Tamei from a Beis HaMenugah one has to wait at minimum of time. See Eiruvin 8:2.

(ט) מִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבַיִת הַמְנֻגָּע וְכֵלָיו עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְסַנְדָּלָיו וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדָיו, הוּא וָהֵן טְמֵאִין מִיָּד. הָיָה לָבוּשׁ בְּכֵלָיו וְסַנְדָּלָיו בְּרַגְלָיו וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדָיו, הוּא טָמֵא מִיָּד, וְהֵן טְהוֹרִין עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה כְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס. פַּת חִטִּין וְלֹא פַת שְׂעֹרִים, מֵסֵב וְאוֹכְלָן בְּלִפְתָּן:

(י) הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּפְנִים וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לַחוּץ וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדָיו, אִם שָׁהָה כְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס, טְמֵאוֹת. הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לִפְנִים וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדָיו, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְטַמֵּא מִיָּד. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה כְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס. אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מָה אִם בִּזְמַן שֶׁכָּל גּוּפוֹ טָמֵא, לֹא טִמֵּא אֶת מַה שֶּׁעָלָיו עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה כְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין כָּל גּוּפוֹ טָמֵא, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁלֹּא יְטַמֵּא אֶת מַה שֶּׁעָלָיו עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה כְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס:

(9) If a person entered a house afflicted with a nega, carrying his clothes upon his shoulders, and his sandals and rings in his hands, both he and they become unclean immediately. If, however, he was wearing his clothes and had his sandals on his feet and his rings on his hands, he becomes unclean immediately, but they remain clean, unless he stayed as much time as is required for the eating of half a loaf of wheat bread and not of barley bread, while in a reclining posture and eating with some condiment.

(10) If he was standing inside, and he stretched his hands outside, with his rings on his hands, if he stayed [inside] as much time as is required for the eating of half a loaf, they become unclean. If he was standing outside, stretching his hands inside, with his rings on his hands: Rabbi Judah says that they are unclean immediately, But the sages say: only after he leaves them there as much time as is required for the eating of half a loaf. They said to Rabbi Judah: if when all his body is unclean he does not render that which is on him unclean unless he stayed there long enough to eat half a loaf, when all of his body is not unclean, is it not logical that he should not render that which is on him unclean unless he stayed there long enough to eat half a loaf?

(ב) כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּרוֹ, מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעוּדוֹת לְכָל אֶחָד. מְזוֹנוֹ לְחֹל וְלֹא לְשַׁבָּת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לְשַׁבָּת וְלֹא לְחֹל. וְזֶה וָזֶה מִתְכַּוְּנִין לְהָקֵל. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה אוֹמֵר, מִכִּכָּר בְּפֻנְדְּיוֹן, מֵאַרְבַּע סְאִין בְּסֶלַע. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת לְכִכָּר מִשָּׁלֹשׁ לְקָב. חֶצְיָהּ לְבַיִת הַמְנֻגָּע, וַחֲצִי חֶצְיָהּ לִפְסֹל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה:

(2) What is the minimum measure [for Shabbat border eruvin]?Food for two meals for each person, for weekdays and not for Shabbat, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: for Shabbat and not for weekdays. And both intended to give a leniency. Rabbi Yohanan ben Beroka says: not less than a loaf that is purchased for a pondium when the price of wheat is four se’ah for a sela. Rabbi Shimon says: two thirds of a loaf, when three [loaves] are made from a kav [of wheat]. Half of this loaf is the size prescribed for a leprous house, and half of its half is the size that disqualifies one’s body [from eating terumah].

The second case of our Mishnah discusses the power of Tumas Chiburin to make Yadayim Tamei even though it does not have the power to make a person Tamei. See Zavim 5:1.

(א) הַנּוֹגֵעַ בַּזָּב אוֹ שֶׁהַזָּב נוֹגֵע בּוֹ, הַמַּסִּיט אֶת הַזָּב אוֹ שֶׁהַזָּב מַסִּיטוֹ, מְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִים וּכְלֵי שֶׁטֶף בְּמַגָּע, אֲבָל לֹא בְמַשָּׂא. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, כָּל הַמְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים בִּשְׁעַת מַגָּעוֹ, מְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין לִהְיוֹת תְּחִלָּה, וְהַיָּדַיִם לִהְיוֹת שְׁנִיּוֹת, וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא לֹא אָדָם וְלֹא כְלֵי חֶרֶס. לְאַחַר פְּרִישָׁתוֹ מִמְּטַמְּאָיו, מְטַמֵּא מַשְׁקִין לִהְיוֹת תְּחִלָּה, וְהָאֳכָלִין וְהַיָּדַיִם לִהְיוֹת שְׁנִיּוֹת, וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים:

(1) One who touches a zav, or whom a zav touches, who moves a zav or whom a zav moves, defiles by contact food and liquids and vessels that are rinsed, but not by carrying. A general principle was stated by Rabbi Joshua: anyone that defile garments while still in contact [with their source of uncleanness] also defiles foods and liquids so as to become [unclean] in the first grade, and the hands so that they become [unclean] in the second grade; but they do not defile people or earthenware vessels. After they separated from their source of uncleanness they defile liquids so as to become [unclean] in the first grade, and food and the hands so that they become [unclean] in the second grade, but they do not defile garments.

Our Mishnah preserves a dialogue between Rabi Akiva and the Chachomim where the Chachomim question the unique nature of Rabi Akiva's ruling that Yadayim can become a Rishon. Rabi Akiva replies by saying, that is the point! This case is unique and, therefore, is subject to its own rules. We find asimilar dialogue between Rabi Akiva and the Chachomim in Mishnah Shevuos 3:1.

(א) שְׁבוּעוֹת שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע, שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁאֹכַל וְשֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל, שֶׁאָכַלְתִּי וְשֶׁלֹּא אָכַלְתִּי. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל וְאָכַל כָּל שֶׁהוּא, חַיָּב, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, הֵיכָן מָצִינוּ בְּאוֹכֵל כָּל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב, שֶׁזֶּה חַיָּב. אָמַר לָהֶן רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, וְכִי הֵיכָן מָצִינוּ בִּמְדַבֵּר וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּן, שֶׁזֶּה מְדַבֵּר וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּן. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל וְשֶׁלֹּא אֶשְׁתֶּה וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה, חַיָּב שְׁתָּיִם:

(1) Oaths are two, subdivided into four. “I swear I shall eat”, and “[I swear] I shall not eat”; “[I swear] I have eaten”, and “[I swear] I have not eaten”. “I swear I shall not eat”, and he ate [even] a minute quantity, he is liable, the words of Rabbi Akiva. They [the Sages] said to Rabbi Akiva: “Where do we find that he who eats a minute quantity is liable, that this one should be liable?” Rabbi Akiba said to them: “But where do we find that he who [merely] speaks brings a sacrifice, that this one should bring a sacrifice?” [If a man says,] “I swear I shall not eat” and he ate and drank, he is liable only once. “I swear I shall not eat and I shall not drink,” and he ate and drank, he is liable twice.

Our Mishnah next discusses the power of a Keili that becomes Tamei after touching a liquid. The capacity of a vessel to become Tamei from a liquid is discussed in Keilim 25:6. Such Keilim are considered a Sheini L'Tumah, see Zavim 5:12.

(ו) כַּנֵּי כֵלִים, וְאֹגְנֵיהֶם, וְאָזְנֵיהֶם, וִידוֹת הַכֵּלִים הַמְקַבְּלִים, שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן מַשְׁקִין, מְנַגְּבָן וְהֵם טְהוֹרִים. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים (שֶׁאֵינָם יְכוֹלִין לְקַבֵּל רִמּוֹנִים), שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אֲחוֹרַיִם וָתוֹךְ, שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מַשְׁקִין עַל מִקְצָתוֹ, כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא. כְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ אֲחוֹרָיו בְּמַשְׁקִין, אֲחוֹרָיו טְמֵאִים, תּוֹכוֹ וְאֹגְנוֹ וְאָזְנוֹ וְיָדָיו טְהוֹרִין. נִטְמָא תוֹכוֹ, כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא:

(6) The bases, rims, hangers or handles of vessels that have a receptacle upon which an unclean liquid fell, one dries them and they remain clean. But [if unclean liquid fell] on any part of any other vessel which cannot hold pomegranates (or in which no distinction is made between its outer and inner sides), the whole becomes unclean. If the outer side of a vessel contracted uncleanness from a liquid, only its outer side is unclean but its inner side, rim, hanger and handles remain clean. If its inner side contracted uncleanness the whole is unclean.

(יב) אֵלּוּ פוֹסְלִים אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. הָאוֹכֵל אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן, וְהָאוֹכֵל אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי, וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין, וְהַבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין, וְטָהוֹר שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין, וְהַסֵּפֶר, וְהַיָּדַיִם, וּטְבוּל יוֹם, וְהָאֳכָלִים וְהַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְמַשְׁקִים:

(12) The following disqualify terumah:One who eats foods with first degree uncleanness; Or one who eats food with second degree uncleanness; And who drinks unclean liquids. And the one who has immersed his head and the greater part of him in drawn water; And a clean person upon whose head and greater part of him there fell three logs of drawn water; And a scroll [of Holy Scriptures], And [unwashed] hands; And one that has had immersion that same day; And foods and vessels which have become defiled by liquids.

The Mishnah concludes with a supporting story. In is, Rabban Gamliel address his questioner as "Biti," my daughter. We find a similar salutation in Sotah 1:4.

(ד) הָיוּ מַעֲלִין אוֹתָהּ לְבֵית דִּין הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וּמְאַיְּמִין עָלֶיהָ כְדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּאַיְּמִין עַל עֵדֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. וְאוֹמְרִים לָהּ, בִּתִּי, הַרְבֵּה יַיִן עוֹשֶׂה, הַרְבֵּה שְׂחוֹק עוֹשֶׂה, הַרְבֵּה יַלְדוּת עוֹשָׂה, הַרְבֵּה שְׁכֵנִים הָרָעִים עוֹשִׂים. עֲשִׂי לִשְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה, שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּחֶה עַל הַמָּיִם. וְאוֹמְרִים לְפָנֶיהָ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָהּ כְּדַאי לְשׁוֹמְעָן, הִיא וְכָל מִשְׁפַּחַת בֵּית אָבִיהָ:

(4) They bring her up to the great court which is in Jerusalem, and [the judges] solemnly admonish her in the same way that they admonish witnesses in capital cases. And they say to her, “My daughter, much is done by wine does much, much is done by frivolity, much is done by youth, much is done by bad neighbors. For the sake of His great name which is written in holiness do it so that it may not be rubbed out on the water.” And they say to her matters which neither she nor all the family of her father's house is worthy to hear.

Sources for Mishnah 3:2

In deflecting Rabi Yehoshua's proof that hands may become Tamei from a Sheini L'Tumah from the fact that a Sefer Torah, itself a Sheini, also makes hands Tamei, the Chachomim assert that one may not credibly compare and infer as between Divrei Torah and Divrei Sofrim. Ostensibly, the reference to Divrei Sofrim means laws established by the Chachomim in contrast to those of biblical origin. For example, secondary illicit relationships, see Orlah 3:9 and Yevamos 2:4.

Famously, the RAMBAM in Hilchos Ishus 1:2, describes the ability to use money to effectuate Kiddushin as Divrei Sofrim, even though the Gemara utilizes a G'zeira Shava, one of the thirteen guidelines for analyzing the Torah, to extrapolate the law--thereby lending it biblical status. It would seem, therefore, that according to the Rambam, any rule or law that is not blatantly clear from the Tirah and requires fleshing out via the thirteen guidelines, while having the force of biblical standing, nevertheless, is of some lesser degree, called Dvrei Sofrim. See Sanhedrin 11:3 (and Yachin ad. loc.) where the Mishnah seemingly agrees with that theory.

(ט) סְפֵק עָרְלָה, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר, וּבְסוּרְיָא מֻתָּר, וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ יוֹרֵד וְלוֹקֵחַ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִרְאֶנּוּ לוֹקֵט. כֶּרֶם נָטוּעַ יָרָק, וְיָרָק נִמְכָּר חוּצָה לוֹ, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׁרָאֵל אָסוּר, וּבְסוּרְיָא מֻתָּר, וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ יוֹרֵד וְלוֹקֵט, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִלְקֹט בַּיָּד. הֶחָדָשׁ, אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְהָעָרְלָה, הֲלָכָה. וְהַכִּלְאַיִם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:

(9) Doubtful orlah: in the land of Israel is prohibited, in Syria is permitted, and outside the land one may go down and purchase [from a non-Israelite] as long as he has not seen him gathering it. A vineyard planted with vegetables [which are kilayim], and they [the vegetables] are sold outside of it: in the land of Israel these are prohibited, and in Syria they are permitted; outside the land one may go down and purchase them as long as he does not gather [them] with [one’s own] hand. New [produce] is prohibited by the Torah in all places. And orlah is a halachah. And kilayim are an enactment of the scribes.

(ד) אִסּוּר מִצְוָה, שְׁנִיּוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. אִסּוּר קְדֻשָּׁה, אַלְמָנָה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט, מַמְזֶרֶת וּנְתִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּבַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָתִין וּמַמְזֵר:

(4) A “prohibition due to a commandment” [refers to] the secondary incest prohibitions forbidden by the scribes. “A prohibition due to holiness” [refers to the following forbidden relationships]: a widow to a high priest; a divorced woman, or one that had performed halitzah to a regular priest; a mamzereth or a netinah to an Israelite; and an Israelite woman to a natin or a mamzer.

(ג) חֹמֶר בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִבְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה, הָאוֹמֵר אֵין תְּפִלִּין, כְּדֵי לַעֲבֹר עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, פָּטוּר. חֲמִשָּׁה טוֹטָפוֹת, לְהוֹסִיף עַל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, חַיָּב:

(3) There is greater stringency in respect to the teachings of the scribes than in respect to the torah: [thus,] if [a rebellious elder] says, there is no commandment of tefillin, so that a biblical law may be transgressed, he is exempt. [But if he rules that the tefillin must contain] five compartments, thus adding to the words of the scribes, he is liable.

Sources for Mishnah 3:3

The Mishnah mentions Retzuos, straps. We find mention of many different type of straps throughout Mishnayos, including Shabbos 6:1, Makkos 3:12, Keilim 24:12.

(א) בַּמֶּה אִשָּׁה יוֹצְאָה וּבַמָּה אֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה. לֹא תֵצֵא אִשָּׁה לֹא בְחוּטֵי צֶמֶר וְלֹא בְחוּטֵי פִשְׁתָּן וְלֹא בִרְצוּעוֹת שֶׁבְּרֹאשָׁהּ. וְלֹא תִטְבֹּל בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁתְּרַפֵּם. וְלֹא בְטֹטֶפֶת וְלֹא בְסַנְבּוּטִין בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָן תְּפוּרִין. וְלֹא בְכָבוּל לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְלֹא בְעִיר שֶׁל זָהָב, וְלֹא בְקַטְלָא, וְלֹא בִנְזָמִים, וְלֹא בְטַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם, וְלֹא בְמַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה. וְאִם יָצָאת, אֵינָהּ חַיֶּבֶת חַטָּאת:

(1) With what may a woman go out and with what may she not go out?A woman may not go out with wool ribbons, linen ribbons, or straps around her head; Nor may she immerse while wearing them, until she loosens them. [She may not go out] with frontlets or head-bangles if they are not sewn, Or with a hair-net into the public domain, Or with a golden city, or with a necklace or with ear-rings, or with a finger-ring [even if it has] no signet, or with a needle [even if it] is unpierced. But if she goes out with these, she is not liable to a sin-offering.

(יב) כֵּיצַד מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ, כּוֹפֵת שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל הָעַמּוּד הֵילָךְ וְהֵילָךְ, וְחַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹחֵז בִּבְגָדָיו, אִם נִקְרְעוּ נִקְרָעוּ, וְאִם נִפְרְמוּ נִפְרָמוּ, עַד שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ. וְהָאֶבֶן נְתוּנָה מֵאַחֲרָיו, חַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת עוֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ. וּרְצוּעָה שֶׁל עֵגֶל בְּיָדוֹ, כְּפוּלָה אֶחָד לִשְׁנַיִם וּשְׁנַיִם לְאַרְבָּעָה, וּשְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת עוֹלוֹת וְיוֹרְדוֹת בָּהּ:

(12) How do they lash him? His two hands are tied to a pillar on either side of it and the minister of the synagogue grabs his clothing, if they are torn, they are torn; if they are ripped open, they are ripped open, until he exposes the offender’s chest. And a stone is placed behind the offender, the minister of the synagogue stands on it, a strap of cowhide in his hands, doubled over into two, and redoubled, and two straps that rise and fall attached to it.

(יב) שְׁלֹשָׁה עוֹרוֹת הֵן. הֶעָשׂוּי לְשָׁטִיחַ, טָמֵא מִדְרָס. לְתַכְרִיךְ הַכֵּלִים, טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. וְשֶׁל רְצוּעוֹת וְשֶׁל סַנְדָּלִים, טְהוֹרָה מִכְּלוּם:

(12) There are three different types of hides:That which is used as a rug is susceptible to midras uncleanness; That which is used as a wrapper for vessels is susceptible to corpse uncleanness; And that which is intended for straps and sandals is free from all uncleanness.

Our Mishnah assumes that a Sefer Torah is a source of Tumah and, therefore, teaches us that Tefillin are another source of Tumah. The Mishnah does not Mention Mezuzos. These three, Seforim, Tefillin and Mezuzos are found grouped in the Mishnah a number of times. Sometimes having the same rules (Moed Katan 3:4 and Gittin 4:6) and others differentiating among them (Meggilah 1:8).

(ד) אֵין כּוֹתְבִין שִׁטְרֵי חוֹב בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל, הֲרֵי זֶה יִכְתֹּב. אֵין כּוֹתְבִין סְפָרִים, תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת, בַּמּוֹעֵד, וְאֵין מַגִּיהִין אוֹת אַחַת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּסֵפֶר (הָעֲזָרָה) עֶזְרָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כּוֹתֵב אָדָם תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת לְעַצְמוֹ, וְטוֹוֶה עַל יְרֵכוֹ תְּכֵלֶת לְצִיצִיתוֹ:

(4) They may not write loan documents during the festival; but if he [the creditor] does not trust him or he does not have food to eat, he may write. They may not write [Torah] scrolls, tefillin and mezuzot during the festival, nor may they correct [even] a single letter, even in the [ancient] Temple-scroll. Rabbi Judah says: a man may write tefillin and mezuzot for himself. And one may spin on his thigh the blue-wool for his fringe.

(ו) הַמּוֹכֵר עַבְדּוֹ לְגוֹי אוֹ לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, יָצָא בֶן חוֹרִין. אֵין פּוֹדִין אֶת הַשְּׁבוּיִים יוֹתֵר עַל כְּדֵי דְמֵיהֶן, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם. וְאֵין מַבְרִיחִין אֶת הַשְּׁבוּיִין, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מִפְּנֵי תַקָּנַת הַשְּׁבוּיִין. וְאֵין לוֹקְחִים סְפָרִים, תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת מִן הַגּוֹיִם יוֹתֵר עַל כְּדֵי דְמֵיהֶן, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם:

(6) If a man sells his slave to a Gentile or [to someone living] outside the land [of Israel] the slave goes free. Captives should not be redeemed for more than their value, because of tikkun olam. Captives should not be helped to escape, because of tikkun olam. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says [that the reason is] to prevent the ill-treatment of fellow captives. Torah scrolls of the law, tefillin and mezuzoth are not bought from Gentiles at more than their value, because of tikkun olam.

(ח) אֵין בֵּין סְפָרִים לִתְפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁהַסְּפָרִים נִכְתָּבִין בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן, וּתְפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת אֵינָן נִכְתָּבוֹת אֶלָּא אַשּׁוּרִית. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּסְּפָרִים לֹא הִתִּירוּ שֶׁיִּכָּתְבוּ אֶלָּא יְוָנִית:

(8) There is no difference between scrolls [of the Tanakh] and tefillin and mezuzahs except that scrolls may be written in any language whereas tefillin and mezuzahs may be written only in Assyrian. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says that scrolls [of the Tanakh] were permitted [by the sages] to be written only in Greek.

Sources for Mishnah 3:4

According to Rabi Yehudah, the blank space at the end of a Sefer is not Tamei until it is affixed to a pillar or rod (Amud). We find this term a number of times in Mishnayos, including Makkot 3:12, Shevuos 3:8, Pirkei Avos 5:5, Tamid 3:5 (and Middos 3:5), Oholot 6:6, Negaim 12:1, Oktzin 1:2-3.

(ח) אֵיזוֹ הִיא שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא, נִשְׁבַּע לְשַׁנּוֹת אֶת הַיָּדוּעַ לָאָדָם, אָמַר עַל הָעַמּוּד שֶׁל אֶבֶן שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל זָהָב, וְעַל הָאִישׁ שֶׁהוּא אִשָּׁה, וְעַל הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא אִישׁ. נִשְׁבַּע עַל דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר, אִם לֹא רָאִיתִי גָמָל שֶׁפּוֹרֵחַ בָּאֲוִיר, וְאִם לֹא רָאִיתִי נָחָשׁ כְּקוֹרַת בֵּית הַבַּד. אָמַר לְעֵדִים בֹּאוּ וַהֲעִידוּנִי, שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא נְעִידֶךָ. נִשְׁבַּע לְבַטֵּל אֶת הַמִּצְוָה, שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת סֻכָּה, וְשֶׁלֹּא לִטֹּל לוּלָב, וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהָנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין, זוֹ הִיא שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא, שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל זְדוֹנָהּ מַכּוֹת וְעַל שִׁגְגָתָהּ פָּטוּר:

(8) What is a vain oath?If he swore that which is contrary to the facts known to people, saying of a pillar of stone that it is of gold; or of a man that he is a woman; or of a woman that she is a man. If he swore concerning a thing which is impossible, [for instance if he said,] “If I have not seen a camel flying in the air”, or “If I have not seen a serpent as thick as the beam of the olive press”. If he said to witnesses, “Come and bear testimony for me”, [and they replied,] “We swear that we will not bear testimony for you”. If he swore to annul a commandment, [for example] not to make a sukkah, or not to take a lulav, or not to put on tefillin. These are vain oaths, for which one is liable, for intentional transgression, lashes, and for unintentional transgression one is exempt.

(ה) עֲשָׂרָה נִסִּים נַעֲשׂוּ לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. לֹא הִפִּילָה אִשָּׁה מֵרֵיחַ בְּשַׂר הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְלֹא הִסְרִיחַ בְּשַׂר הַקֹּדֶשׁ מֵעוֹלָם, וְלֹא נִרְאָה זְבוּב בְּבֵית הַמִּטְבָּחַיִם, וְלֹא אֵרַע קֶרִי לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וְלֹא כִבּוּ גְשָׁמִים אֵשׁ שֶׁל עֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה, וְלֹא נָצְחָה הָרוּחַ אֶת עַמּוּד הֶעָשָׁן, וְלֹא נִמְצָא פְסוּל בָּעֹמֶר וּבִשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וּבְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, עוֹמְדִים צְפוּפִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים רְוָחִים, וְלֹא הִזִּיק נָחָשׁ וְעַקְרָב בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם מֵעוֹלָם, וְלֹא אָמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ צַר לִי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁאָלִין בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם:

(5) Ten wonders were wrought for our ancestors in the Temple: [1] no woman miscarried from the odor of the sacred flesh; [2] the sacred flesh never became putrid; [3] no fly was ever seen in the slaughterhouse; [4] no emission occurred to the high priest on the Day of Atonement; [5] the rains did not extinguish the fire of the woodpile; [6] the wind did not prevail against the column of smoke; [7] no defect was found in the omer, or in the two loaves, or in the showbread; [8] the people stood pressed together, yet bowed down and had room enough; [9] never did a serpent or a scorpion harm anyone in Jerusalem; [10] and no man said to his fellow: the place is too congested for me to lodge overnight in Jerusalem.

(ה) מִי שֶׁזָּכָה בַתָּמִיד, מוֹשְׁכוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ לְבֵית הַמִּטְבָּחַיִם, וּמִי שֶׁזָּכוּ בָאֵבָרִים הוֹלְכִין אַחֲרָיו. בֵּית הַמִּטְבָּחַיִם הָיָה לִצְפוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ, וְעָלָיו שְׁמֹנָה עַמּוּדִים נַנָּסִין, וּרְבִיעִית שֶׁל אֶרֶז עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן, וְאֻנְקְלָיוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל הָיוּ קְבוּעִין בָּהֶן, וּשְׁלשָׁה סְדָרִים הָיָה לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, שֶׁבָּהֶן תּוֹלִין. וּמַפְשִׁיטִין עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹת שֶׁל שַׁיִשׁ שֶׁבֵּין הָעַמּוּדִים:

(5) The priest who had won the right to slaughter the tamid takes it along with him to the slaughter house, and those who had won the right to bring the limbs up followed after him. The slaughter house was to the north of the altar, and on it were eight small pillars on top of which were blocks of cedar wood, in which were fixed hooks of iron, three rows in each, upon which they would hang [the tamid] and they would strip its hide on tables of marble that stood between the pillars.

(ו) בַּיִת הַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת הַכֹּתֶל, יִדּוֹן כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם. כֵּיצַד. כֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּין שְׁנֵי כוּכִין, אוֹ בֵין שְׁתֵּי מְעָרוֹת, טֻמְאָה בַבָּתִּים וְכֵלִים בַּכֹּתֶל וַעֲלֵיהֶם כִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם, טְהוֹרִין. טֻמְאָה בַכֹּתֶל וְכֵלִים בַּבָּתִּים וְעָלֶיהָ כִקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם, טְהוֹרִין. טֻמְאָה תַחַת הָעַמּוּד, טֻמְאָה בוֹקַעַת וְעוֹלָה, בּוֹקַעַת וְיוֹרָדֶת:

(6) A house serving a wall is subject to the principle of garlic-skin. How so? [In the case of] a wall between two tomb-niches or two caverns, If there is uncleanness in them and vessels in the walls, and there is a covering thin as garlic-skin over them, they remain clean. If the uncleanness is in the wall and the vessels are in them, and there is a covering thin as garlic-skin over the uncleanness, they remain clean. If there is uncleanness beneath a pillar, the uncleanness cleaves upwards and downwards.

(א) כָּל הַבָּתִּים מִטַּמְּאִין בַּנְּגָעִים, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל נָכְרִים. הַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּתִּים מִן הַנָּכְרִים, יֵרָאוּ בַתְּחִלָּה. בַּיִת עָגֹל, בַּיִת טְרִיגוֹן, בַּיִת הַבָּנוּי בִּסְפִינָה אוֹ בְאַסְקַרְיָא, עַל אַרְבַּע קוֹרוֹת, אֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בַנְּגָעִים. וְאִם הָיָה מְרֻבָּע, אֲפִלּוּ עַל אַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדִים, מִטַּמֵּא:

(1) All houses may contract negaim uncleanness, except those of non-Jews. If one bought houses from non-Jews, any it must be inspected as if they had then first appeared. A round house, a triangular house, or a house built on a ship, on a raft or on four beams, is not susceptible to negaim uncleanness. But if it was four-sided, even if it was built on four pillars, it is susceptible to uncleanness.

(ב) שָׁרְשֵׁי הַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים וְהַקַּפְלוֹטוֹת בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן לַחִין, וְהַפִּטְמָא שֶׁלָּהֶן בֵּין לַחָה בֵּין יְבֵשָׁה, וְהָעַמּוּד שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד הָאֹכֶל, שָׁרְשֵׁי הַחֲזָרִים וְהַצְּנוֹן וְהַנָּפוּס, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֹׁרֶשׁ צְנוֹן גָּדוֹל מִצְטָרֵף, וְהַסִּיב שֶׁלּוֹ, אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף. שָׁרְשֵׁי הַמִּתְנָא וְהַפֵּיגָם וְיַרְקוֹת שָׂדֶה וְיַרְקוֹת גִּנָּה שֶׁעֲקָרָן לְשָׁתְלָן, וְהַשִּׁדְרָה שֶׁל שִׁבֹּלֶת וְהַלְּבוּשׁ שֶׁלָּהּ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, אַף הַסִּיג שֶׁל רְצָפוֹת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִטַּמְּאִין וּמְטַמְּאִים וּמִצְטָרְפִין:

(ג) אֵלּוּ מִטַּמְּאִין וּמְטַמְּאִין וְלֹא מִצְטָרְפִין. שָׁרְשֵׁי הַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים וְהַקַּפְלוֹטוֹת בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵם יְבֵשִׁים, וְהָעַמּוּד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד הָאֹכֶל, וְיַד הַפַּרְכִּיל טֶפַח מִכָּאן וְטֶפַח מִכָּאן, יַד הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וְזָנָב שֶׁל אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁרִקְּנוֹ, וְיַד הַמַּכְבֵּד שֶׁל תְּמָרָה אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים, וְקָנֶה שֶׁל שִׁבֹּלֶת שְׁלשָׁה טְפָחִים, וְיַד כָּל הַנִּקְצָרִים שְׁלשָׁה, וְשֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּן לִקָּצֵר יְדֵיהֶם וְשָׁרְשֵׁיהֶם כָּל שֶׁהֵן, וּמַלְעִין שֶׁל שִׁבֳּלִין, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִטַּמְּאִים וּמְטַמְּאִין וְלֹא מִצְטָרְפִין:

(2) Roots of garlic, onions or leeks that are still moist, or their top-parts, whether they are moist or dry, also the central stalk that is within the edible part, the roots of lettuce, the radish and the turnip, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: only the large roots of the radish are included, but its fibrous roots are not included. The roots of the mint, rue, wild herbs and garden herbs that have been uprooted in order to be planted elsewhere, and the spine of an ear of grain, and its husk. Rabbi Elazar says: also the earth covering of roots; All these things contract and convey impurity and are included.

(3) The following are both defiled and defile, but do not join together [together with the rest]: Roots of garlic, onions or leeks when they are dry, the stalk that is not within the edible part, the twig of a vine a handbreadth long on either side, the stem of the cluster whatsoever be its length, the tail of the cluster bereft of grapes, the stem of the ‘broom’ of the palm-tree to a length of four handbreadths, the stalk of the ear [of grain] to a length of three handbreadths, and the stalk of all things that are cut, to the length of three handbreadths. In the case of those things not usually cut, their stalks and roots of any size whatsoever. As for the outer husks of grains, they defile and are defiled, but do not join together.

Sources for Mishnah 3:5

In describing the minimum size of a scroll that is Metamei Yadayim, the Mishnah points to the Parsha of V'yehi B'nsoah. In Shabbos 8:3, when describing the minimum size of a piece of parchment over which, if carried from one Reshus to another (or four Amos in Reshus HaRabim) the Mishnah points to the size needed to write the Shema. See Meforshim ad. loc. as to why Shema was chosen over others.

(ג) עוֹר, כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת קָמֵעַ. קְלָף, כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו פָּרָשָׁה קְטַנָּה שֶׁבַּתְּפִלִּין, שֶׁהִיא שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל. דְּיוֹ, כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת. כְּחֹל, כְּדֵי לִכְחֹל עַיִן אֶחָת:

(3) [One who carries] animal hide: as much as is required for making an amulet; Parchment, for writing on it the shortest passage of the tefillin, which is “Sh’ma Yisrael”: Ink, for writing two letters; Eye shadow, for painting one eye.

Our Mishnah begins with the assertion that all Kisvei Kodesh are deemed to be a source of Tumah (see also Keilim 15:6). Traditionally, the Jewish Canon is made up of 24 Books broken down into three (tripartite) system of Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim. A discussion of the canonization of our TaNa"CH is beyond the scope of this sheet, nevertheless, it is important to know what is included in the term Kisvei Kodesh, as it has ramifications for a number of laws as set forth in the Mishnah, including Shabbos 16:1 (saving them from burning in a fire), Eruvin 10:3(rolling a Sefer that unfurled onto the floor), Bava Basra 1:6 (prohibition on dividing Kisvei Kodesh among partners) and Sanhedrin 10:6 (preserving Kisvei Kodesh of an Ir HaNidachas).

(ו) נִבְלֵי הַשָּׁרָה, טְמֵאִין. וְנִבְלֵי בְנֵי לֵוִי, טְהוֹרִין. כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין, טְמֵאִין. וּמַשְׁקֵה בֵית מַטְבְּחַיָּא, טְהוֹרִין. כָּל הַסְּפָרִים מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, חוּץ מִסֵּפֶר הָעֲזָרָה. הַמַּרְכּוֹף, טָהוֹר. הַבַּטְנוֹן, וְהַנִּקְטְמוֹן, וְהָאֵרוּס, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָאֵרוּס טָמֵא מוֹשָׁב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָאַלָּיִת יוֹשֶׁבֶת עָלָיו. מְצֻדַּת הַחֻלְדָּה, טְמֵאָה. וְשֶׁל הָעַכְבָּרִין, טְהוֹרָה:

(6) Ordinary harps are susceptible to impurity, but the harps of Levites are clean. All liquids are susceptible to impurity, but the liquids in the Temple slaughtering house are clean. All scrolls convey impurity to the hands, excepting the scroll of the Temple courtyard. A wooden toy horse is clean. The belly-lute, the donkey-shaped musical instrument and the erus are susceptible to impurity. Rabbi Judah says: the erus is susceptible to sitting impurity since the wailing woman sits on it. A weasel-trap is susceptible to impurity, but a mouse- trap is clean.

(א) כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מַצִּילִין אוֹתָן מִפְּנֵי הַדְּלֵקָה, בֵּין שֶׁקּוֹרִין בָּהֶן וּבֵין שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין בָּהֶן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּתוּבִים בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן, טְעוּנִים גְּנִיזָה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אֵין קוֹרִין בָּהֶן, מִפְּנֵי בִטּוּל בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. מַצִּילִין תִּיק הַסֵּפֶר עִם הַסֵּפֶר, וְתִיק הַתְּפִלִּין עִם הַתְּפִלִּין, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכָן מָעוֹת. וּלְהֵיכָן מַצִּילִין אוֹתָן, לְמָבוֹי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפֻלָּשׁ. בֶּן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר, אַף לִמְפֻלָּשׁ:

(1) All sacred writings may be saved from a fire, whether we read from them or not [on Shabbat]. And even if they are written in any language, they must be stored. And why do we not read them? Because of the neglect of the study house. One may save the container of a scroll together with the scroll, and the container of tefillin together with the tefillin, even if it [also] contains money. And to where may one rescue them? Into a closed alley. Ben Batera says: even into an open one.

(ג) הָיָה קוֹרֵא בַסֵּפֶר עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה, נִתְגַּלְגֵּל הַסֵּפֶר מִיָּדוֹ, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. הָיָה קוֹרֵא בְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל הַסֵּפֶר מִיָּדוֹ, עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לַעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ לַעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, הוֹפְכוֹ עַל הַכְּתָב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין מְסֻלָּק מִן הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא כִמְלֹא מַחַט, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ בָאָרֶץ עַצְמוֹ גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי כִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ:

(3) If one was reading a scroll on a threshold and the scroll rolled out of his hand, he may roll it back to himself. If he was reading on the top of a roof and the scroll rolled out of his hand: Before it reached ten handbreadths from the ground, he may roll it back to himself; But after it had reached ten handbreadths from the ground he must turn it over with its writing downwards. Rabbi Judah says: even if it was removed from the ground by no more than a thread's thickness he may roll it back to himself. Rabbi Shimon says: even if it touched the actual ground he may roll it back to himself, since no prohibition that is due to “Shabbat rest” stands before the Holy Writings.

(ו) אֵין חוֹלְקִין אֶת הֶחָצֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה וְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לָזֶה. וְלֹא אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין לָזֶה וְתִשְׁעָה קַבִּין לָזֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ תִּשְׁעַת חֲצָאֵי קַבִּין לָזֶה וְתִשְׁעַת חֲצָאֵי קַבִּין לָזֶה. וְלֹא אֶת הַגִּנָּה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ חֲצִי קַב לָזֶה וַחֲצִי קַב לָזֶה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, בֵּית רֹבַע. וְלֹא אֶת הַטְּרַקְלִין, וְלֹא אֶת הַמּוֹרָן, וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹבָךְ, וְלֹא אֶת הַטַּלִּית, וְלֹא אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ, וְלֹא אֶת בֵּית הַבַּד, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהֶן כְּדֵי לָזֶה וּכְדֵי לָזֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁיֵּחָלֵק וּשְׁמוֹ עָלָיו, חוֹלְקִין. וְאִם לָאו, אֵין חוֹלְקִין. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין שְׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים. אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְפָחוֹת מִכָּאן, יַחֲלֹקוּ. וְכִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם רוֹצִים, לֹא יַחֲלֹקוּ:

(6) They do not divide a courtyard until there is four cubits for this [partner] and four cubits for this [partner]. Nor [do they divide up] a field until it has nine kavs for this [partner] and nine kavs for this [partner]. Rabbi Judah says: “Until it has nine half-kavs for this [partner] and nine half-kavs for this [partner]. Nor [do they divide up] a garden until it has a half-kav for this [partner] and a half-kav for this [partner]. Rabbi Akiva says: “A quarter-kav.” Nor [do they divide up] an eating hall, a watch-tower, a dovecote, a cloak, a bathhouse, or an olive-press until there is sufficient for this [partner] and for this [partner]. This is the general rule: whatever can be divided and still be called by the same name, they divide; otherwise they do not divide. When is this so? When they do not both wish [to divide the property]. However, if both wish they can divide it even if it is smaller. And with regards to the Sacred Books, they may not be divided even if both are willing.

(ו) וְאֶת כָּל שְׁלָלָהּ תִּקְבֹּץ אֶל תּוֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ וְגוֹ' (דברים יג). אִם אֵין לָהּ רְחוֹב, עוֹשִׂין לָהּ רְחוֹב. הָיָה רְחוֹבָהּ חוּצָה לָהּ, כּוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ. וְשָׂרַפְתָּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת הָעִיר וְאֶת כָּל שְׁלָלָהּ כָּלִיל לַיי אֱלֹקֶיךָ (שם). שְׁלָלָהּ, וְלֹא שְׁלַל שָׁמָיִם. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ, הַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ יִפָּדוּ, וּתְרוּמוֹת יֵרָקְבוּ, מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְכִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ יִגָּנֵזוּ. כָּלִיל לַיי אֱלֹקֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אִם אַתֶּם עוֹשִׂים דִּין בְּעִיר הַנִּדַּחַת, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם כְּאִלּוּ אַתֶּם מַעֲלִין עוֹלָה כָלִיל לְפָנָי. וְהָיְתָה תֵּל עוֹלָם לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד (דברים יג), לֹא תֵעָשֶׂה אֲפִלּוּ גַנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד, לִכְמוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה אֵינָהּ נִבְנֵית, אֲבָל נַעֲשֵׂית הִיא גַּנּוֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִים. וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם (שם), שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָרְשָׁעִים בָּעוֹלָם, חֲרוֹן אַף בָּעוֹלָם. אָבְדוּ רְשָׁעִים מִן הָעוֹלָם, נִסְתַּלֵּק חֲרוֹן אַף מִן הָעוֹלָם:

(6) “And you shall gather all its spoil into the public square” (Deut. 13:17): if it had no public square, one is made for it; if the public square was outside of [the city], it is brought within it. “And you shall burn with fire the city, and all its spoil as a whole burnt offering for the Lord your God” (ibid.): “And all its spoil”, but not the spoil of heaven. From here they said, the holy objects in the city must be redeemed and the heave offerings (terumoth) allowed to rot; and the second tithe and the sacred writings hidden. “A whole burnt offering for the Lord your God”: Rabbi Shimon said: “The holy Blessed One declared, ‘If you execute judgment upon the seduced city, I will ascribe merit to you as though you had sacrificed to me a whole offering.’” “And it shall remain an everlasting ruin, never to be rebuilt”: it may not be made even into gardens and orchards, according to the words of Rabbi Yose the Galilean. Rabbi Akiva says: “Never to be rebuilt”: it may not be built as it was, but it may be made into gardens and orchards. “Let nothing that has been doomed stick to your hand, in order that the Lord may turn His blazing anger and show you compassion” (Deut. 13:18): as long as the wicked exist in the world, there is blazing anger in the world; when the wicked perish from the world, blazing anger disappears from the world.

In our Mishnah, Rabi Shimon has a tradition that the Tamei status of Koheles is among the disputes of Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel for which Beis Shammai is knows to have ruled leniently (i.e., no Tamei). In Eduyos 5:3, this same tradition is brought in the name of Rabi Yeshmael.

(ג) רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. קֹהֶלֶת אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדָיִם. מֵי חַטָּאת שֶׁעָשׂוּ מִצְוָתָן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַמְּאִין. הַקֶּצַח, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִין וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַמְּאִין. וְכֵן לַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת:

(3) Rabbi Yishmael says: there are three instances of lenient rulings by Beth Shammai and strict rulings by Beth Hillel.The book of Ecclesiastes does not defile the hands, according to the opinion of Beth Shammai; But Beth Hillel say: it defiles the hands. Water of purification which has done its duty: Beth Shammai pronounces it pure, But Beth Hillel pronounces it impure. Black cumin: Beth Shammai pronounces it not liable to become impure, But Beth Hillel pronounces it liable to become impure. So, too, with regard to tithes.

Like in our Mishnah, in Zevachim 13:, Shimon ben Azai brings another tradition in the name of the seventy two elders.

(ג) הַפֶּסַח שֶׁשְּׁחָטוֹ בְשַׁחֲרִית בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמוֹ, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מַכְשִׁיר, כְּאִלּוּ נִשְׁחַט בִּשְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר. בֶּן בְּתֵירָא פּוֹסֵל, כְּאִלּוּ נִשְׁחַט בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם. אָמַר שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן עַזַּאי, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מִפִּי שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁנַיִם זָקֵן, בְּיוֹם שֶׁהוֹשִׁיבוּ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה בַיְשִׁיבָה, שֶׁכָּל הַזְּבָחִים הַנֶּאֱכָלִים שֶׁנִּזְבְּחוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָן, כְּשֵׁרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא עָלוּ לַבְּעָלִים מִשּׁוּם חוֹבָה, חוּץ מִן הַפֶּסַח וּמִן הַחַטָּאת. וְלֹא הוֹסִיף בֶּן עַזַּאי אֶלָּא הָעוֹלָה, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:

(3) A pesah that was slaughtered on the morning of the fourteenth [of Nisan] under a different designation: Rabbi Joshua declares it valid, just as if it had been slaughtered on the thirteenth. Ben Batera declares it invalid, as if it had been slaughtered in the afternoon. Said Shimon ben Azzai: I have a tradition from seventy-two elder[s] on the day that Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah] was placed in the academy, that all sacrifices which are eaten, though slaughtered under a different designation are valid, except that their owners have not fulfilled their obligation, except the pesah and the hatat. And ben Azzai added only the olah, but the sages did not agree with him.

We find just one other use of the term Chas V'Shalom in the Mishnah, in Edyos 5:6. Interestingly, that Mishnah concludes that by relating that there was a Tanna, Eliezer ben Chanoch, who disputed the notion of Tumas Yadayim.

(ו) עֲקַבְיָא בֶּן מַהֲלַלְאֵל הֵעִיד אַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, עֲקַבְיָא, חֲזֹר בְּךָ בְאַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיִיתָ אוֹמֵר וְנַעַשְׂךָ אַב בֵּית דִּין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר לָהֶן, מוּטָב לִי לְהִקָּרֵא שׁוֹטֶה כָּל יָמַי, וְלֹא לֵעָשׂוֹת שָׁעָה אַחַת רָשָׁע לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִים, בִּשְׁבִיל שְׂרָרָה חָזַר בּוֹ. הוּא הָיָה מְטַמֵּא שְׂעַר הַפְּקֻדָּה וְדַם הַיָּרוֹק. וַחֲכָמִים מְטַהֲרִין. הוּא הָיָה מַתִּיר שְׂעַר בְּכוֹר בַּעַל מוּם שֶׁנָּשַׁר וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְחַלּוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁחָטוֹ, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִים. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין מַשְׁקִין לֹא אֶת הַגִּיֹּרֶת וְלֹא אֶת שִׁפְחָה הַמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מַשְׁקִין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַעֲשֶׂה בְּכַרְכְּמִית, שִׁפְחָה מְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת שֶׁהָיְתָה בִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְהִשְׁקוּהָ שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן. אָמַר לָהֶם, דֻּגְמָא הִשְׁקוּהָ. וְנִדּוּהוּ, וּמֵת בְּנִדּוּיוֹ, וְסָקְלוּ בֵית דִּין אֶת אֲרוֹנוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם שֶׁעֲקַבְיָא נִתְנַדָּה, שֶׁאֵין עֲזָרָה נִנְעֶלֶת בִּפְנֵי כָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּחָכְמָה וּבְיִרְאַת חֵטְא כַּעֲקַבְיָא בֶּן מַהֲלַלְאֵל. וְאֶת מִי נִדּוּ, אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן חֲנוֹךְ, שֶׁפִּקְפֵּק בְּטָהֳרַת יָדָיִם. וּכְשֶׁמֵּת, שָׁלְחוּ בֵית דִּין וְהִנִּיחוּ אֶבֶן עַל אֲרוֹנוֹ. מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל הַמִּתְנַדֶּה וּמֵת בְּנִדּוּיוֹ, סוֹקְלִין אֶת אֲרוֹנוֹ:

(6) Akavia ben Mahalalel testified concerning four things. They said to him: Akavia, retract these four things which you say, and we will make you the head of the court in Israel. He said to them: it is better for me to be called a fool all my days than that I should become [even] for one hour a wicked man before God; So they shouldn’t say: “he withdrew his opinions for the sake of power.” He used to pronounce impure the hair which has been left over [in leprosy], And green (yellow) blood (of vaginal discharge); But the Sages declared them clean. He used to permit the wool of a first-born animal which was blemished and which had fallen out and had been put in a niche, the first-born being slaughtered afterwards; But the sages forbid it. He used to say: a woman proselyte and a freed slave-woman are not made to drink of the bitter waters. But the Sages say: they are made to drink. They said to him: it happened in the case of Karkemith, a freed slave-woman who was in Jerusalem, that Shemaiah and Avtalion made her drink. He said to them: they made her drink an example (and not the real water). Whereupon they excommunicated him; and he died while he was under excommunication, and the court stoned his coffin. Rabbi Judah said: God forbid [that one should say] that Akavia was excommunicated; for the courtyard is never locked for any man in Israel who was equal to Avavia ben Mahalalel in wisdom and the fear of sin. But whom did they excommunicate? Eliezer the son of Hanoch who cast doubt against the laws concerning the purifying of the hands. And when he died the court sent and laid a stone on his coffin. This teaches that whoever is excommunicated and dies while under excommunication, his coffin is stoned.