Source Sheet for Mishnayos Mesechtas Yadayim Chapter 1

This source sheet is part of a series of source sheets providing background for Mishnayos Yadayim. The series can be found at

Introduction to the Mesechta

Our Mesechta discusses a unique case of Tumah (impurity), Typically, when a person becomes Tamei his entire body becomes impure. Single limbs are not susceptible to Tumah on their own. However, there is an ancient decree that a person's hands may become Tamei on a stand-alone basis under certain circumstances. Initially, the decree was limited to specific instances where a person's hand touched a weak source of Tumah (i.e., a Rishon L'Tumah) that itself could not make a person Tamei. The decree rendered only that particular hand Tamei. With certain exceptions, if his other hand did not touch the source of Tumah, it would remain pure.

Subsequently, the Chachomim enacted a broader decree called "Stam Yadayim." Pursuant to this decree a person's hands will always be deemed Tamei absent specific knowledge that they are, in fact, pure. In all these cases if a person's hands are Tamei his hands have the power to "Pasul" (disqualify) Terumah by touch. The underlying reasons for the decree(s) are discussed in the Talmud, Shabbos 13b.

Under most circumstances (See Chagigah 2:5) to purify one's hands, a person has to perform the נטילת ידים ceremony. This entails pouring a certain amount of water that was gathered in a utensil over your hands. The mechanics of this ritual --how to wash your hands, how much water, what type of utensil, qualifications for the water--are discussed in Chapters One and Two.

Chapter Three describes a number of items that impart (or are a source of) Tumas Yadayim, including Sifrei Kodesh (this discussion spills into two additional Mishayos in Chapter Four).

The final chapter strays beyond the immediate topic at hand and sets out a number of Halachik resolutions determined on the day Rabi Elazar ben Azariah is appointed Head of the Academy ("בו ביום") and a few miscellaneous disputes between the Chachomim (Pharisees) and the Tziddukim (Sadducees).

Chapter 1

The first chapter of Meseches Yadayim discuss many of the technical aspect of the purification process, i.e., Netilas Yadayim. How much water, what type of water, using a Keili, among others.

Sources for Mishnah 1:1

The basic unit of liquid measure in the Mishnah is the Revi'is, the quarter log, roughly 4 ounces. In addition to being the requisite amount of water needed for Netilas Yadayim, this measurement is used to assess violations of Shabbos (Shabbos 8:1), as the smallest measure of liquid for use in the Beis HaMikdash (Menachos 9:2-3) and, if impure, to convey Tumah to a person (Meilah 4:5 and Mikvaot 10:7).

(א) הַמּוֹצִיא יַיִן, כְּדֵי מְזִיגַת הַכּוֹס. חָלָב, כְּדֵי גְמִיעָה. דְּבַשׁ, כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל הַכָּתִית. שֶׁמֶן, כְּדֵי לָסוּךְ אֵבֶר קָטָן. מַיִם, כְּדֵי לָשׁוּף בָּהֶם אֶת הַקִּילוֹר. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין, בִּרְבִיעִית. וְכָל הַשּׁוֹפָכִין, בִּרְבִיעִית. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כֻּלָּן בִּרְבִיעִית, וְלֹא אָמְרוּ כָל הַשִּׁעוּרִין הַלָּלוּ אֶלָּא לְמַצְנִיעֵיהֶן:

(1) One who carries out: [unmixed] wine, [is liable if it is] enough for the mixing of a cup; milk, as much as is swallowed at a time; honey, as much as is placed on a scab; oil, as much as is required to rub on a small limb; water, enough to rub with it collyrium; and all other liquids, a revi’it; and all waste water, a revi’it. Rabbi Shimon says: all of them are a revi’it, they stated all of these measures only in respect of those who put them away.

(ב) שֶׁבַע מִדּוֹת שֶׁל לַח הָיוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ. הִין, וַחֲצִי הַהִין, וּשְׁלִישִׁית הַהִין, וּרְבִיעִית הַהִין, לֹג, וַחֲצִי לֹג, וּרְבִיעִית לֹג. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בַּר צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, שְׁנָתוֹת הָיוּ בַהִין, עַד כָּאן לְפַר, עַד כָּאן לְאַיִל, עַד כָּאן לְכֶבֶשׂ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיָה שָׁם הִין, וְכִי מֶה הָיָה הַהִין מְשַׁמֵּשׁ. אֶלָּא מִדָּה יְתֵרָה שֶׁל לֹג וּמֶחֱצָה הָיְתָה, שֶׁבָּהּ הָיָה מוֹדֵד לְמִנְחַת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, לֹג וּמֶחֱצָה בַּבֹּקֶר וְלֹג וּמֶחֱצָה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם:

(ג) רְבִיעִית מֶה הָיְתָה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת. רְבִיעִית מַיִם לִמְצֹרָע, וּרְבִיעִית שֶׁמֶן לְנָזִיר. חֲצִי לֹג מֶה הָיָה מְשַׁמֵּשׁ. חֲצִי לֹג מַיִם לְסוֹטָה. וַחֲצִי לֹג שֶׁמֶן לְתוֹדָה. וּבַלֹּג הָיָה מוֹדֵד לְכָל הַמְּנָחוֹת. אֲפִלּוּ מִנְחָה שֶׁל שִׁשִּׁים עִשָּׂרוֹן, נוֹתֵן לָהּ שִׁשִּׁים לֹג. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ מִנְחָה שֶׁל שִׁשִּׁים עִשָּׂרוֹן, אֵין לָהּ אֶלָּא לֻגָּהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יד), לְמִנְחָה וְלֹג שָׁמֶן. שִׁשָּׁה לְפַר, אַרְבָּעָה לְאַיִל, שְׁלשָׁה לְכֶבֶשׂ, שְׁלשָׁה וּמֶחֱצָה לַמְּנוֹרָה, מֵחֲצִי לֹג לְכָל נֵר:

(2) There were seven liquid measuring vessels in the Temple: the hin, the half-hin, the third-hin, the quarter-hin, the log, the half-log, and the quarter-log. Rabbi Eliezer bar Zadok says: there were markings in the hin measure [indicating] thus far for a bull, thus far for a ram, and thus far for a lamb. Rabbi Shimon says: there was no hin measure at all, for what purpose could the hin serve? But there was an additional measure of one and a half logs by which one used to measure [the oil] for the minhah of the high priest, a log and a half in the morning and a log and a half towards evening.

(3) For what purpose did the quarter-log serve? [To measure] a quarter-log of water for the one with skin disease and a quarter-log of oil for the Nazirite. For what purpose did the half-log serve? [To measure] a half-log of water for the sotah and a half-log of oil for the todah. With the log one measured [the oil] for all the menahot. Even a minhah of sixty tenths required sixty logs [of oil]. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: even a minhah of sixty tenths required only one log [of oil], for it is written, “For a minhah, and for a log of oil” (Leviticus 14:21). Six [logs] were required for a bull, four for a ram, and three for a lamb; Three logs and a half for the menorah, a half-log for each lamp.

(ה) כָּל הָאֳכָלִין מִצְטָרְפִין, לִפְסוֹל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה בְכַחֲצִי פְרָס, בִּמְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת לָעֵרוּב, בְּכַבֵּיצָה לְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת אֳכָלִין, בְּכַגְּרוֹגֶרֶת לְהוֹצָאַת שַׁבָּת, בְּכַכּוֹתֶבֶת בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין מִצְטָרְפִין, לִפְסוֹל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה בִרְבִיעִית, וּבִמְלֹא לֻגְמָיו בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים:

(5) All kinds of food can combine with one another:To make up the quantity of half a peras in order to render the body unfit [To make up the food] for two meals to form an eruv; To make up the volume of an egg to contaminate food; To make up the volume of a dry fig with regard to carrying on Shabbat; And the volume of a date with regard to Yom Kippur. All kinds of drinks can combine with one another: To make up a quarter [of a log] in order to render the body unfit; To make up a mouthful with regard to Yom Kippur.

(ז) כָּל הָאֳכָלִין מִצְטָרְפִין לִפְסֹל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה בְּכַחֲצִי פְרָס. כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין מִצְטָרְפִין לִפְסֹל אֶת הַגְּוִיָּה בִּרְבִיעִית. זֶה חֹמֶר בְּשׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין מִבַּמִּקְוֶה, שֶׁעָשׂוּ בוֹ שְׁאָר הַמַּשְׁקִין כַּמָּיִם:

(7) All foods combine together to make up the half of a half-loaf which makes the body unfit. All liquids combine together to make up the quarter-log which makes the body unfit. This is more of a stringency in the case of one who drinks unclean liquids than in the case of the mikveh, for in this case they have made all other liquids like water.

Sources for Mishnah 1:2

Our Mishnah is also found in Parah 5:5. Given the Torah directive in the case of Parah to use an actual vessel, it is likely that the Mishnah originated in Parah and was copied into Yadayim with certain modifications; Yair Furstenberg, Purity and Community in Antiquity: Traditions of the Law from Second Temple Judaism to the Mishnah, Magnes Press 2016 (Hebrew) pp.370-377).

The designation as a Keili is most relevant within the realm of Tumah and Taharah but also play a part in the rules of Shabbos. When it comes to the later, generally speaking, if an item is deemed a Keili and is used for a non-prohibited purpose, it may be utilized on Shabbos (See Shabbos 17:1).* When it comes to Tumah and Taharah, we can identify a number of applications for which a designation as a Keili is material.

First, a number of purification rituals (e.g., מצורע, קידוש ידיים, פרה אדומה) require that the water be held in a Keili. This, of course is the topic of our Mishnah.** Second, when filling a Mikvah, one must be careful not to fill it with "drawn water," i.e., water that is contained in a Keili (Mikvaos 4:1). Third, is the power of a tightly sealed Keili (usually a earthenware vessel (כלי חרס)) to protect its contents against Tumas Meis (Keilim 10:1 but see Ohalos 6:1).

As can be seen, the Keilim listed are not necessarily susceptible to contracting Tumah.

(א) כָּל הַכֵּלִים נִטָּלִין בְּשַׁבָּת וְדַלְתוֹתֵיהֶן עִמָּהֶן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְקוּ בְשַׁבָּת. שֶׁאֵינָן דּוֹמִין לְדַלְתוֹת הַבַּיִת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן מִן הַמּוּכָן:

(1) All utensils may be carried on Shabbat and their doors with them, even if they became detached on Shabbat, for they are not like the doors of a house, which are not set aside for use.

(ה) בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים מְקַדְּשִׁים, אֲפִלּוּ בִכְלֵי גְלָלִים, בִּכְלֵי אֲבָנִים, וּבִכְלֵי אֲדָמָה. וּבִסְפִינָה, מְקַדְּשִׁין בָּהּ. אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין לֹא בְדָפְנוֹת הַכֵּלִים, וְלֹא בְשׁוּלֵי הַמַּחַץ, וְלֹא בִמְגוּפַת הֶחָבִית, וְלֹא בְחָפְנָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין מְמַלְּאִין וְאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין וְאֵין מַזִּין מֵי חַטָּאת אֶלָּא בְכֶלִי. אֵין מַצִּילִין בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל אֶלָּא כֵלִים, שֶׁאֵין מַצִּילִים מִיַּד כְּלֵי חֶרֶס אֶלָּא כֵלִים:

(5) They can make the mixture in all kinds of vessels, even in vessels made of cattle dung, of stone or of earth. The mixture may also be prepared in a boat. It may not be prepared in the walls of vessels, or in the sides of a large jug, or in the stopper of a jar, or in one's cupped hands, for one does not fill up, or mix in, or sprinkle the hatat with anything but a vessel. Only on a vessel does tightly fitting cover afford protection, for only in vessels is protection afforded against uncleanness within an earthen vessel.

(א) הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלִים תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר, אֶחָד כֵּלִים גְּדוֹלִים וְאֶחָד כֵּלִים קְטַנִּים, אֲפִלּוּ כְלֵי גְלָלִים, כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים, כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה, פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. אֶחָד הַמַּנִּיחַ וְאֶחָד הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַהֲרִין בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, נִמְנוּ וְרַבּוּ בֵית שַׁמַּאי עַל בֵּית הִלֵּל. וּמוֹדִים בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, עֲדַיִין מַחֲלֹקֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ עוֹמָדֶת:

(1) If one put vessels under a water-spout, whether they be large vessels or small vessels or even vessels of dung, vessels of stone or earthen vessels, they make the mikveh invalid. It is all alike whether they were put there [purposely] or were [merely] forgotten, the words of Bet Shammai. But Bet Hillel declare it clean in the case of one who forgets. Rabbi Meir said: they voted and Bet Shammai had a majority over Bet Hillel. Yet they agree in the case of one who forgets [and leaves vessels] in a courtyard that the mikveh remains clean. Rabbi Yose said: the controversy still remains as it was.

(א) אֵלּוּ כֵלִים מַצִּילִין בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל, כְּלֵי גְלָלִים, כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים, כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה, כְּלֵי חֶרֶס, וּכְלֵי נֶתֶר, עַצְמוֹת הַדָּג וְעוֹרוֹ, עַצְמוֹת חַיָּה שֶׁבַּיָּם וְעוֹרָהּ, וּכְלֵי עֵץ הַטְּהוֹרִים. מַצִּילִים בֵּין מִפִּיהֶם בֵּין מִצִּדֵּיהֶן, בֵּין יוֹשְׁבִין עַל שׁוּלֵיהֶן בֵּין מֻטִּין עַל צִדֵּיהֶן. הָיוּ כְפוּיִים עַל פִּיהֶן, מַצִּילִים כֹּל שֶׁתַּחְתֵּיהֶן עַד הַתְּהוֹם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְטַמֵּא. עַל הַכֹּל מַצִּילִין, חוּץ מִכְּלֵי חֶרֶס, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַצִּיל אֶלָּא עַל הָאֳכָלִים וְעַל הַמַּשְׁקִין וְעַל כְּלֵי חָרֶס:

(1) The following vessels protect their contents when they have a tightly fitting cover: those made of cattle dung, of stone, of clay, of earthenware, of sodium carbonate, of the bones of a fish or of its skin, or of the bones of any animal of the sea or of its skin, and wooden vessels that are always clean. They protect whether the covers close their mouths or their sides, whether they stand on their bottoms or lean on their sides. If they were turned over with their mouths downwards they afford protection to all that is beneath them to the nethermost deep. Rabbi Eliezer declares this unclean. These protect everything, except that an earthen vessel protects only foods, liquids and earthen vessels.

(א) אָדָם וְכֵלִים נַעֲשִׂין אֹהָלִין לְטַמֵּא, אֲבָל לֹא לְטַהֵר. כֵּיצַד. אַרְבָּעָה נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת הַנִּדְבָּךְ, טֻמְאָה תַחְתָּיו, כֵּלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו טְמֵאִין. טֻמְאָה עַל גַּבָּיו, כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו טְמֵאִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְטַהֵר. נָתוּן עַל אַרְבָּעָה כֵלִים, אֲפִלּוּ כְלֵי גְלָלִים, כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים, כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה, טֻמְאָה תַחְתָּיו, כֵּלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו טְמֵאִים. טֻמְאָה עַל גַּבָּיו, כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו טְמֵאִים. נָתוּן עַל אַרְבָּעָה אֲבָנִים, אוֹ עַל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים, טֻמְאָה תַחְתָּיו, כֵּלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו טְהוֹרִין. טֻמְאָה עַל גַּבָּיו, כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו טְהוֹרִין:

(1) Both persons and vessels can form ‘tents’ to bring uncleanness, but not to [protect objects so that they] remain clean. How so? There are four people carrying a chest: If there is uncleanness beneath it, vessels upon it become unclean. If there is uncleanness upon it, vessels beneath it become unclean. Rabbi Eliezer declares them clean. [If the chest] is placed upon four vessels, even if they are vessels made of dung, vessels of stone, or vessels of [unbaked] earth, If there is uncleanness beneath [the chest], vessels upon it become unclean. If there is uncleanness beneath it, vessels upon it become unclean. [If the chest] is placed on four stones or on any living creature, If there is uncleanness beneath it, vessels upon it remain clean. If there is uncleanness upon it vessels beneath it remain clean.

Sources for Mishnah 1:3

Mishnah 1:3 begins the discussion of the proper type of water that may be used for Netillas Yadayim. it is important, therefore, to understand the role water plays in Halchah. Water, as a distinct item, plays a significant role in Halacha. The introductory Berocho one makes on drinking water is the subject of a dispute (Berochos 6:8) and wine must first be diluted by water to be considered wine (Berochos 7:5). One cannot purchase water with Ma'aser Sheini funds (Ma'aser Sheini 1:5). Water is the subject of its own ritual ceremony in the Beis HaMikdash (Sukkah 4:9). Most importantly, however, is its use in all purification rituals.

(ח) אָכַל תְּאֵנִים עֲנָבִים וְרִמּוֹנִים, מְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרֵיהֶן שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּרָכָה אַחַת מֵעֵין שָׁלשׁ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל שֶׁלֶק וְהוּא מְזוֹנוֹ, מְבָרֵךְ אַחֲרָיו שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת. הַשּׁוֹתֶה מַיִם לִצְמָאוֹ, אוֹמֵר שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיֶה בִּדְבָרוֹ. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת:

(8) If one has eaten grapes, figs or pomegranates he blesses after them three blessings, the words of Rabban Gamaliel. The sages say: one blessing which includes three. Rabbi Akiva says: even if one ate only boiled vegetables and that is his meal, he says after it the three blessings. If one drinks water to quench his thirst, he says “By Whose word all things exist.” Rabbi Tarfon says: “Who creates many living things and their requirements.”

(ה) שְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלוֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּקְצָתָן רוֹאִין אֵלּוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִים לְזִמּוּן. וְאִם לָאו, אֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן, וְאֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן. אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְבָרְכִין:

(5) Two eating companies that were eating in the same room: When some of them can see some of the other they combine [for a zimun], but if not each group makes a zimun for itself. They do not bless over the wine until they put water into it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say they bless.

(ה) הַלּוֹקֵחַ מַיִם, וּמֶלַח, וּפֵרוֹת הַמְחֻבָּרִים לַקַּרְקַע, אוֹ פֵרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְהַגִּיעַ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, לֹא קָנָה מַעֲשֵׂר. הַלּוֹקֵחַ פֵּרוֹת, שׁוֹגֵג, יַחְזְרוּ דָמִים לִמְקוֹמָן. מֵזִיד, יָעֳלוּ וְיֵאָכְלוּ בַמָּקוֹם. וְאִם אֵין מִקְדָּשׁ, יֵרַקְּבוּ:

(5) One who bought water or salt, or produce still joined to the soil, or produce which cannot reach Jerusalem, he has not purchased maaser [sheni]. One who bought produce unwittingly, the money must be restored to its former place. But if intentionally, the produce must be taken up and be consumed in the [holy] place, and when there is no Temple, it must be left to rot.

(ט) נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם כֵּיצַד. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחֲזֶקֶת שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּים הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל סִיד הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מֻשְׁחָרִין פְּנֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַיָּיִן. וּמְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין, אֶחָד מְעֻבֶּה וְאֶחָד דַּק, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כָּלִין בְּבַת אַחַת. מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מַיִם, מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל יָיִן. עֵרָה שֶׁל מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יַיִן, וְשֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל מַיִם, יָצָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּלֹג הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ כָּל שְׁמֹנָה. וְלַמְנַסֵּךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הַגְבַּהּ יָדֶךָ, שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלָיו, וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן:

(9) How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs.

Our Mishna teaches that although you cannot use putrid water to pour on your hands, one may still dip their hands in such water so long as it is connected to a Mikvah. Importantly, like a Mikvah, if the cause of its dirtiness is because it is mixed with mud, then just like one cannot use such a Mikvah (Mikvaos 2:10) so too, one could not dip their hands.

(י) מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מַיִם וָטִיט, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, מַטְבִּילִין בַּמַּיִם וְאֵין מַטְבִּילִין בַּטִּיט. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, בַּמַּיִם וּבַטִּיט. בְּאֵיזֶה טִיט מַטְבִּילִין. בְּטִיט שֶׁהַמַּיִם צָפִים עַל גַּבָּיו. הָיוּ הַמַּיִם מִצַּד אֶחָד, מוֹדֶה רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שֶׁמַּטְבִּילִין בַּמַּיִם וְאֵין מַטְבִּילִין בַּטִּיט. בְּאֵיזֶה טִיט אָמְרוּ. בְּטִיט שֶׁהַקָּנֶה יוֹרֵד מֵאֵלָיו, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְקוֹם שֶׁאֵין קְנֵה הַמִּדָּה עוֹמֵד. אַבָּא אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן דּוֹלְעַאי אוֹמֵר, מְקוֹם שֶׁהַמִּשְׁקֹלֶת יוֹרֶדֶת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, הַיּוֹרֵד בְּפִי חָבִית. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַנִּכְנָס בִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, הַנִּמְדָּד בַּלֹּג:

(10) A mikveh which contains forty seahs of water and mud [combined]: Rabbi Eliezer says: one may immerse objects in the water but one may not immerse them in the mud. But Rabbi Joshua says: in the water and also in the mud. In what kind of mud may objects be immersed? Mud over which water floats. If the water was on one side only, Rabbi Joshua agrees that objects may be immersed in the water but may not be immersed in the mud. Of what kind of mud have they spoken? Mud into which a reed will sink of itself, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: [mud] in which a measuring-rod will not stand upright. Abba Elazar ben Dulai says: [mud] into which a plummet will sink. Rabbi Eliezer says: such as will go down into the mouth of a jar. Rabbi Shimon says: such as will enter into the tube of a water- skin. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: such as can be measured in a log measure.

Our Mishnah discusses the situation when the water to be used for Netillas Yadayim becomes discolored. We find a similar discussion regarding a Mikvah (Mikvaos 7:3-5). The Mishnah in Parah (8:11) also teaches that water that is not naturally discolored is invalid for Mei Chattas.

(ג) הֵדִיחַ בּוֹ סַלֵּי זֵיתִים וְסַלֵּי עֲנָבִים, וְשִׁנּוּ אֶת מַרְאָיו, כָּשֵׁר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מֵי הַצֶּבַע פּוֹסְלִין אוֹתוֹ בִשְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין, וְאֵינָן פּוֹסְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְשִׁנּוּי מַרְאֶה. נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ יַיִן, וּמֹחַל, וְשִׁנּוּ אֶת מַרְאָיו, פָּסוּל. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. יַמְתִּין לוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים וְיַחְזְרוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן לְמַרְאֵה הַמָּיִם. הָיוּ בוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, מְמַלֵּא בַכָּתֵף וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן לְמַרְאֵה הַמָּיִם:

(ד) נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ יַיִן אוֹ מֹחַל וְשִׁנּוּ מִקְצָת מַרְאָיו, אִם אֵין בּוֹ מַרְאֵה מַיִם אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטְבֹּל בּוֹ:

(ה) שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין מַיִם, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכָן קֹרְטוֹב יַיִן, וַהֲרֵי מַרְאֵיהֶן כְּמַרְאֵה הַיַּיִן, וְנָפְלוּ לְמִקְוֶה, לֹא פְסָלוּהוּ. שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין מַיִם חָסֵר קֹרְטוֹב, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכָן קֹרְטוֹב חָלָב, וַהֲרֵי מַרְאֵיהֶן כְּמַרְאֵה הַמַּיִם, וְנָפְלוּ לְמִקְוֶה, לֹא פְסָלוּהוּ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַמַּרְאֶה:

(3) If he rinsed in the mikveh baskets of olives or baskets of grapes and they changed its color, it remains valid. Rabbi Yose says: dye-water renders it invalid by a quantity of three logs, but not merely by changing its color. If wine or the sap of olives fell into it and changed its color, it becomes invalid. What should one do [to make it valid again]? One should wait until the rain falls and the color reverts to the color of water. If it contained forty seahs, water may be drawn and carried on the shoulder and put into it until the color reverts to that of water.

(4) If wine or the sap of olives fell into the mikveh and changed the color of a portion of the water, if there is not a portion [of the mikveh] that has forty seahs with the color of water, one may not immerse in there.

(5) If a kortov of wine fell into three logs of water and its color became like that of wine, and the water then fell into a mikveh, it does not render it invalid. If there were three logs of water less a kortov into which a kortov of milk fell, and their color remained like the color of water, and then they fell into a mikveh, they do not render it invalid. Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri says: everything goes by the color.

(יא) בְּאֵר אַחְאָב וּמְעָרַת פַּמְיָס, כְּשֵׁרָה. הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ וְשִׁנּוּיָן מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָן, כְּשֵׁרִין. אַמַּת הַמַּיִם הַבָּאָה מֵרָחוֹק, כְּשֵׁרָה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּשְׁמְרֶנָּה שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִיקֶנָּה אָדָם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הִיא בְחֶזְקַת מֻתֶּרֶת. בְּאֵר שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכָהּ חַרְסִית אוֹ אֲדָמָה, יַמְתִּין לָהּ עַד שֶׁתִּצַּל, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין:

(11) Ahab's well and the pool in Banias cave are fit. Water that has changed its color and the change arose from itself, remains fit. A water channel that comes from a distance is fit, as long as it is watched so that no one cuts it off. Rabbi Judah says: the presumption is that it is permitted. If some clay or earth fell into a well, one must wait until it becomes clear, the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiba says: he need not wait.

The agent of discoloration used in our Mishnah are certain types of inks used for writing, דְּיוֹ, קוֹמוֹס, וְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם. Reference to these and others is made throughout the Mishnah, including whether using them to write on Shabbos constitutes a violation and whether they are proper inks for a Megillah, Sotah water or a Get. Finally, they also get a mention in Parah (9:1).

(ד) הַכּוֹתֵב שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת בְּהֶעְלֵם אֶחָד, חַיָּב. כָּתַב בִּדְיוֹ, בְּסַם, בְּסִקְרָא, בְּקוֹמוֹס וּבְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם, וּבְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רוֹשֵׁם, עַל שְׁנֵי כָתְלֵי זָוִיּוֹת וְעַל שְׁנֵי לוּחֵי פִנְקָס, וְהֵן נֶהְגִּין זֶה עִם זֶה, חַיָּב. הַכּוֹתֵב עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ, חַיָּב. הַמְסָרֵט עַל בְּשָׂרוֹ, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב חַטָּאת, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פּוֹטֵר:

(4) He who writes two letters in one state of unawareness is liable. He who writes with ink, arsenic, red chalk, gum, sulphate of copper or with anything that leaves a mark, on the angle of two walls, or on the two leaves of a ledger, and they [the two letters] are read together, is liable. He who writes on his flesh, he is liable. He who scratches a mark on his flesh: Rabbi Eliezer declares him liable to a sin-offering; But the sages exempt him.

(ב) קְרָאָהּ סֵרוּגִין, וּמִתְנַמְנֵם, יָצָא. הָיָה כוֹתְבָהּ, דּוֹרְשָׁהּ, וּמַגִּיהָהּ, אִם כִּוֵּן לִבּוֹ, יָצָא. וְאִם לָאו, לֹא יָצָא. הָיְתָה כְּתוּבָה בְּסַם, וּבְסִקְרָא, וּבְקוֹמוֹס וּבְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם, עַל הַנְּיָר וְעַל הַדִּפְתְּרָא, לֹא יָצָא, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא כְּתוּבָה אַשּׁוּרִית, עַל הַסֵּפֶר וּבִדְיוֹ:

(2) If one reads it with breaks, or naps [in between readings], he has fulfilled his obligation. If he was copying it, explaining it or correcting [a scroll of Esther], if he directed his heart, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if not, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If it was written with arsenic, with red chalk, with gum or with sulfate of copper, or on paper or on scratch paper, he has not fulfilled his obligation, unless it is written in Assyrian on parchment and in ink.

(ד) אֵינוֹ כוֹתֵב לֹא עַל הַלּוּחַ וְלֹא עַל הַנְּיָר וְלֹא עַל הַדִּפְתְּרָא, אֶלָּא עַל הַמְּגִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) בַּסֵּפֶר. וְאֵינוֹ כוֹתֵב לֹא בְקוֹמוֹס וְלֹא בְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם וְלֹא בְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁרוֹשֵׁם, אֶלָּא בִדְיוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וּמָחָה, כְּתָב שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהִמָּחֵק:

(4) He writes neither on a [wooden] tablet nor on papyrus nor on rough parchment but on a [parchment] scroll, as it is said, “In a scroll” (Numbers 5:23). Nor does he write with a [preparation of] gum or sulphate of copper or with anything which makes an impression [on the parchment] but with ink, as it is said, “And he will blot it out” (ibid.) writing which is capable of being blotted out.

(ג) בַּכֹּל כּוֹתְבִין, בִּדְיוֹ, בְּסַם, בְּסִקְרָא, וּבְקוֹמוֹס, וּבְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם, וּבְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל קְיָמָא. אֵין כּוֹתְבִין לֹא בְמַשְׁקִים, וְלֹא בְמֵי פֵרוֹת, וְלֹא בְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְקַיֵּם. עַל הַכֹּל כּוֹתְבִין, עַל הֶעָלֶה שֶׁל זַיִת, וְעַל הַקֶּרֶן שֶׁל פָּרָה, וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ אֶת הַפָּרָה, עַל יָד שֶׁל עֶבֶד, וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ אֶת הָעָבֶד. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, אֵין כּוֹתְבִין לֹא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים, וְלֹא עַל הָאֳכָלִין:

(3) They write [a get] with any material, with ink, with arsenic, with red chalk, with gum or with sulfate of copper or with anything which is lasting. It may not be written with liquids or with fruit juice or with anything that is not lasting. They write [a get] on anything: on an olive leaf, on the horn of an ox and he must give her the ox, or on the hand of a slave--and he must give her the slave. Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: they do not write [a get] on anything living or on food.

(א) צְלוֹחִית שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכָהּ מַיִם כָּל שֶׁהֵן, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יַזֶּה שְׁתֵּי הַזָּיוֹת. וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִין. יָרַד לְתוֹכָהּ טַל, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יַנִּיחֶנָּה בַחַמָּה וְהַטַּל עוֹלֶה. וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִין. נָפַל לְתוֹכָהּ מַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵרוֹת, יְעָרֶה וְצָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב. דְּיוֹ, קוֹמוֹס, וְקַנְקַנְתּוֹם, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רוֹשֵׁם, יְעָרֶה וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְנַגֵּב:

(1) If the smallest amount of water fell into a flask: Rabbi Eliezer says: the sprinkling must be done twice; But the sages say that the mixture is invalid. If dew dropped into it: Rabbi Eliezer says: let it be put out in the sun and the dew will rise. But the sages say that the mixture is invalid. If a liquid or fruit juice fell into it, all the contents must be poured away and it is also necessary to dry the flask. If ink, gum or sulphate of copper, or anything that leaves a mark, fell into it, the contents must be poured away but it is not necessary to dry the flask.

Our Mishnah mention the Tana Shimon HaTimni. He appears in three Mishnayos. Our Mishnah, Taanis (3:7) and Yevamos (4:13). In all three he seems to be more lenient than the prior Tana.

(ז) עַל אֵלּוּ מַתְרִיעִין בְּשַׁבָּת, עַל עִיר שֶׁהִקִּיפוּהָ גוֹיִם אוֹ נָהָר, וְעַל הַסְּפִינָה הַמִּטָּרֶפֶת בַּיָּם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לְעֶזְרָה וְלֹא לִצְעָקָה. שִׁמְעוֹן הַתִּמְנִי אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל הַדֶּבֶר, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:

(7) For these matters they sound a blast even on Shabbat: if a city is besieged by Gentile [troops] or a river, or if a ship is foundering on the sea. Rabbi Yose says: [they sound a blast] for help but not for an outcry (for the sake of prayer). Shimon the Yemenite says: also for a plague, but the sages did not agree with him.

(יג) אֵיזֶהוּ מַמְזֵר, כָּל שְׁאֵר בָּשָׂר שֶׁהוּא בְלֹא יָבֹא דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. שִׁמְעוֹן הַתִּימְנִי אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם. וַהֲלָכָה כִדְבָרָיו. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁחַיָּבִים עָלָיו מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן עַזַּאי, מָצָאתִי מְגִלַּת יֻחֲסִין בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וְכָתוּב בָּהּ, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי מַמְזֵר מֵאֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, לְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁמֵּתָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲחוֹתָהּ. גֵּרְשָׁהּ וָמֵתָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲחוֹתָהּ. נִשֵּׂאת לְאַחֵר וָמֵתָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲחוֹתָהּ. יְבִמְתּוֹ שֶׁמֵּתָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲחוֹתָהּ. חָלַץ לָהּ וָמֵתָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲחוֹתָהּ:

(13) Who is a mamzer? [The offspring of a union with] any relative with whom cohabitation is forbidden, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Shimon the Yemenite says: [The offspring of any union] for which one is obligated kareth at the hands of heaven; and the halachah is like his words. Rabbi Joshua says: [The offspring of any union] for which one is obligated death at the hands of a court.Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I found a scroll of genealogical records in Jerusalem, and it was written on it, “So-and-so is a mamzer [having been born] from an adulterous woman”, which confirms the view of Rabbi Joshua. If a man’s wife died, he is permitted to marry her sister. If he divorced her and then she died he is permitted to marry her sister. If she was married to another man and died, he is permitted to marry her sister. If a man’s sister-in-law died, he may marry her sister. If he performed for her halitzah and then she died, he is permitted to marry her sister.

Sources for Mishnah 1:4

Our Mishnah discusses using water to clean or polish measuring weights. The Mishnah in Bava Basra (5:10) describes how often one must clean their weights. The Mishnah in Demai (2:4) clarifies the term Siton that is found in the MIshnah in Bava Basra (See TYT ad loc.).

We also find the term "Michui" for cleaning the intestines of an animal. See Pesachim 6:1.

(י) הַסִּיטוֹן מְקַנֵּחַ מִדּוֹתָיו אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם, וּבַעַל הַבַּיִת אַחַת לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, חִלּוּף הַדְּבָרִים. חֶנְוָנִי מְקַנֵּחַ מִדּוֹתָיו פַּעֲמַיִם בַּשַּׁבָּת, וּמְמַחֶה מִשְׁקְלוֹתָיו פַּעַם אַחַת בַּשַּׁבָּת, וּמְקַנֵּחַ מֹאזְנַיִם עַל כָּל מִשְׁקָל וּמִשְׁקָל:

(10) The wholesaler must clean out his measures once every thirty days and the householder once every twelve months. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: “The rule is just the opposite.” The shopkeeper must clean out his measures twice in the week and polish his weights once a week and clean out his scales after every weighing.

(ד) הַנַּחְתּוֹמִים, לֹא חִיְּבוּ אוֹתָם חֲכָמִים לְהַפְרִישׁ אֶלָּא כְדֵי תְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְחַלָּה. הַחֶנְוָנִים אֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לִמְכֹּר אֶת הַדְּמַאי. כָּל הַמַּשְׁפִּיעִין בְּמִדָּה גַסָּה, רַשָּׁאִין לִמְכֹּר אֶת הַדְּמַאי. אֵלּוּ הֵן הַמַּשְׁפִּיעִין בְּמִדָּה גַסָּה, כְּגוֹן הַסִּיטוֹנוֹת וּמוֹכְרֵי תְבוּאָה:

(4) Bakers the sages did not obligate them to separate [from demai produce] any more than suffices for terumat maaser and for hallah. Grocers may not sell demai [produce]. All [merchants] who supply in large quantities may sell demai. Who are those who supply in large quantities? Those such as wholesalers and grain-sellers.

(א) אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים בַּפֶּסַח דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ וּזְרִיקַת דָּמוֹ וּמִחוּי קְרָבָיו וְהֶקְטֵר חֲלָבָיו. אֲבָל צְלִיָּתוֹ וַהֲדָחַת קְרָבָיו אֵינָן דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. הַרְכָּבָתוֹ וַהֲבָאָתוֹ מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וַחֲתִיכַת יַבַּלְתּוֹ, אֵין דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, דּוֹחִין:

(1) These things in [connection with] the pesah override Shabbat: its slaughtering and the sprinkling of its blood and the cleansing of its innards and the burning of its fat. But its roasting and the washing of its innards do not override Shabbat. Carrying it and bringing it from outside the Shabbat border and cutting off its wart do not override Shabbat. R. Eliezer says they do override [Shabbat].

Sources for Mishnah 1:5

The first part of our Mishnah mentions the term Gluskan, a loaf of bread made of purer flour. We find this term in Demai 6:12 as well.

The second part of our Mishnah describes who can pour the water and by what means/power it can be poured. We find a similar discussion in Parah (6:1) regarding pouring the ash into the water. One question the Mishnah raises is whether an non-human, a monkey, may pour the water. We find reference to a monkey in Kelayim (8:6). In addition, in Parah 3:5 we find a Kohein Gadol whose name suggests he was the son of a monkey.

(יב) עַם הָאָרֶץ שֶׁאָמַר לְחָבֵר, קַח לִי אֲגֻדַּת יָרָק, קַח לִי גְלֻסְקָן אֶחָד, לוֹקֵחַ סְתָם וּפָטוּר. וְאִם אָמַר, שֶׁלִּי זֶה, וְזֶה שֶׁל חֲבֵרִי, וְנִתְעָרְבוּ, חַיָּב לְעַשֵּׂר, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן מֵאָה:

(12) If an am haaretz said to a chaver, “Buy me a bundle of vegetables,” or: “Buy me a loaf of bread,” the chaver may buy it without checking [whether it had been tithed], and he is exempt [from tithing it]. But if the chaver said: “This one I am buying for myself and this one for my friend,” and they got mixed up, he must tithe [them both], even if there were one hundred [for the am haaretz.]

(א) הַמְקַדֵּשׁ וְנָפַל הַקִּדּוּשׁ עַל יָדוֹ אוֹ עַל הַצַּד וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָפַל עַל הַשֹּׁקֶת, פָּסוּל. נָפַל מִן הַשְּׁפוֹפֶרֶת לַשֹּׁקֶת, פָּסוּל. נָטַל מִשְּׁפוֹפֶרֶת וְכִסָּה, אוֹ שֶׁהֵגִיף אֶת הַדֶּלֶת, הַקִּדּוּשׁ כָּשֵׁר, וְהַמַּיִם פְּסוּלִים. זְקָפָהּ בָּאָרֶץ, פָּסוּל. לְתוֹךְ יָדוֹ, כָּשֵׁר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר:

(1) If one was about to mix the ashes with the water and the ashes fell upon his hand or upon the side of the trough and then fell into the trough, the mixture is invalid. If they fell from the tube into the trough, the mixture is invalid. If he took the ashes from the tube and then covered it, or shut a door, the ashes remain valid but the water becomes invalid. If he put it up erect on the ground, the water becomes invalid. If in his hand, the water is valid, since it is impossible [otherwise]

(ו) שׁוֹר בָּר, מִין בְּהֵמָה. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מִין חַיָּה. כֶּלֶב, מִין חַיָּה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִין בְּהֵמָה. חֲזִיר, מִין בְּהֵמָה. עָרוֹד, מִין חַיָּה. הַפִּיל וְהַקּוֹף, מִין חַיָּה. וְאָדָם מֻתָּר עִם כֻּלָּם לִמְשֹׁךְ וְלַחֲרֹשׁ וּלְהַנְהִיג:

(6) The wild ox [it is in the category of] behemah. But Rabbi Yose says: [it is in the category] of hayyah. The dog [it is in the category of] hayyah. But Rabbi Yose says: [it is in the category] of behemah. The pig [it is in the category of] behemah. The wild donkey [it is in the category of] hayyah. The elephant and the monkey [they are in the category of] hayyah. A human being is permitted to draw, plow, or lead with any of them.

(ה) לֹא מָצְאוּ מִשֶּׁבַע, עוֹשִׂין מִשֵּׁשׁ, מֵחָמֵשׁ, מֵאַרְבַּע, מִשָּׁלשׁ, מִשְּׁתַּיִם וּמֵאֶחָת. וּמִי עֲשָׂאָם. הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עָשָׂה משֶׁה, וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה עָשָׂה עֶזְרָא, וְחָמֵשׁ, מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁבַע מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ. וּמִי עֲשָׂאָן. שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק וְיוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל עָשׂוּ שְׁתַּיִם שְׁתַּיִם, אֶלְיְהוֹעֵינַי בֶּן הַקּוֹף וַחֲנַמְאֵל הַמִּצְרִי וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פִּיאָבִי עָשׂוּ אַחַת אֶחָת:

(5) If they did not find the residue of the ashes of the seven [red cows] they performed the sprinkling with those of six, of five, of four, of three, of two or of one. And who prepared these? Moses prepared the first, Ezra prepared the second, and five were prepared from the time of Ezra, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: seven from the time of Ezra. And who prepared them? Shimon the Just and Yohanan the high priest prepared two; Elihoenai the son of Ha-Kof and Hanamel the Egyptian and Ishmael the son of Piabi prepared one each.