Selection of Mishnayos Relating to Seder Night (5780)

This source sheet is the third part of in a Series of source sheets focusing on different aspects of the Holiday of Pesach as seen through the Mishnah. This sheet will focus on the Mitzvah of Seder Night.

Additional materials for the Arvei Pesachim section can be found at

Color Code for the Mishnah: Case: Black; Ruling: Green or Red; Name of Tanna: Gold; Reason: Blue; Condition: Purple; Proof: Grey ; Rule: Fuscia

Seder Night as Reflected in Perek Arvei Pesachim

The Seder Night is perhaps the most widely celebrated Jewish ritual and the Haggadah the most commentated on work of Jewish liturgy. Its resounding messages of personal and national freedom, Divine Providence and Intervention, recompense for historic wrongs and promises of a brighter future find expression in each era, time and place allowing each individual and community to meaningfully connect to the holiday. Importantly, the ritual itself is meant to establish an atmosphere where one can relive that historic night—palpably sensing the imminent Exodus.

Seder Night, or ליל התקדש חג, is the culmination of weeks of exhaustive preparation. During Temple times the pilgrimage to Yerushalyim (עליית הרגל) and preparation of the Korban Pesach were the main focus of the people. Scholars suggest that the formal structure we know today was implemented only after the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash and that during Temple times the celebratory evening consisted of the family unit eating the Korban Pesach, Matzoh and Maror together in one's home while relating the story of Yetziyas Mitzrayim. Afterwards, everyone would make their way to the rooftops of Yerushalayim where they collectively would sing Hallel overlooking the Beis HaMikdash.

After the destruction, and in the absence of the Korban Pesach and its attendant celebration, the Rabbis and the nation looked to refashion the evening for a nation un-anchored from its land and history. To do so, meant diverting the focus from the Korban Pesach to the other elements of the night, such as the Matzoh, Marror and סיפור יציאת מצרים. Nonetheless, evidence remains of the central role the Korban Pesach continued to play post-destruction including, Rabban Gamliel's imperative to discuss the Korban, the inclusion of the question in Ma Nishtana and evidence that Jews continued to bring a Korban Pesach or a non-Korban substitute well after the destruction. Over the years, the Seder has evolved into a precise ritual of text, food and Hallel. It even contains its own table of contents/checklist.

Undoubtedly, our Seder meal mimics what one imagines a typical "Korban" meal may have looked like. The foods and liturgy may be different but the celebration was the same. Importantly, in developing the evening's festivities, the Rabbis, did not directly co-opt the model of the Greco-Roman "Symposium" (a formal meal at which the participants would drink wine, recline and partake in philosophical discussions). Rather, in developing a festive meal celebrating our freedom, they likely drew inspiration from the surrounding culture as to what constitutes such a meal. So drinking wine, reclining, dipping various foods and engaging in formal discussions were natural elements to be included.

The actual liturgy of the Haggadah was developed over the centuries but its core can already be found in the Mishna. We find mention of the מה נשתנה, the need to be דורש the passage of ארמי עובד אבי, Rabban Gamliel's directive to mention and explicate the three Mitzvos of the night: Korban Pesach, Matzoh and Maror and a discussion over the proper Berocho to make at the end of Magid. Some of these segments existed prior to the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash while others were added or altered afterwards.

The difficulty in translating Perek Arvei Pesachim is that it is easy to fall into the trap of seeing our current practices in the words of the Mishna. Many commentators have struggled to unify both the Mishna's words and common practice—essentially conflating the two. Evidence of this conundrum can be seen by the many additions and alterations to the Mishna's text to reflect later practices. Sometimes it’s the addition of a word or two; other times, it’s the inclusion of a copyist's note into the text itself. We will make an attempt to create a commentary as close to the text as possible. When dueling translations make equal sense, both will be noted.

What is clear, is that the Seder Night is an intricate amalgam of three elements: specialized and ritualized food and drink, the formal retelling of the Exodus story and exuberant praise for Hashem and the goodness He has shown us. How these three elements blend together into a considered whole is the main topic of our Perek.

A companion source sheet listing additional texts including passages from our standard Haggadah can be found at

Introduction to Mishna 10:1

The Seder Night was filled with anticipation. Anticipation for the Korban Pesach, for the Matzoh, Marror and the communal celebration. To ensure full participation in all the Mitzvos of the evening--especially for the Mitzvos directed at eating, the Chachomim instituted a ban or a curb on excessive eating starting from a half hour prior to Mincha Ketana (which we noted above was 3:30, so the ban started at 3:00). This would ensure that people had sufficient capacity to eat and fulfill the mitzvos of the night.

We find a similar concept in Shabbos 1:2-3 where the Chachomim banned certain activities close (i.e., half an hour prior) to Mincha or Shabbos. It seems that prior to the advent of clocks and watches when time could be more accurately tracked, a safe rule of thumb was to extend periods by half an hour.

Separately, the Mishna tells us that one must wait until nightfall to begin eating and that even a poor person must wait until he is settled in and leaning to his side before he begins eating (even though he may not have eaten all day).

Finally, the Mishna informs us that everyone must have no less than four (4) cups of wine during the Seder even is he is so poor that he generally is eligible to receive his daily food from the Tamchoi (the communal food plate).

עַרְבֵי פְסָחִים סָמוּךְ לַמִּנְחָה,

לֹא יֹאכַל אָדָם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשָׁךְ.
וַאֲפִלּוּ עָנִי שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יֹאכַל עַד שֶׁיָּסֵב.
וְלֹא יִפְחֲתוּ לוֹ מֵאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן,

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִן הַתַּמְחוּי:

(1) On the eve of Pesah close to minhah one may not eat until nightfall. Even the poorest person in Israel must not eat [on the night of Pesah] until he reclines. And they should give him not less than four cups [of wine], and even from the charity plate.

Introduction to Mishna 10:2

Like all Shabbos and Yom Tov meals, the Seder Night begins with Kiddush. The Chachomim instituted that Kiddush be recited on wine (and if no wine is available, bread may be substituted). The Kiddush has two main components: the blessing on the wine and the blessing over the day itself (i.e., the fact that Hashem has chosen us and set aside this special time for us).

Our Mishna relates a dispute Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel over the proper order of the blessings. This Mishna is repetitive of the Mishna in Berochos 8:1 (although query which is the "real" Mishna) where the same dispute is described. Beis Shammai requires the blessing on the day to be said first since it’s the special nature of the day itself that is causing us to make the blessing on wine. Beis Hillel's view, however, is that but for the presence of the wine, Kiddush would not be said, hence the blessing on wine takes priority.

מָזְגוּ לוֹ כוֹס רִאשׁוֹן,

בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיּוֹם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיָּיִן.
וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיַּיִן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַיּוֹם:

(2) They mixed him the first cup: Bet Shammai says: first he blesses over the day and then over the wine. Bet Hillel says: first he blesses over the wine and then over the day.

* The reference to "him" suggests that only the leader of the Seder need make Kiddush or do any of the other actions discussed throughout the Mishnayos in this Perek. Obviously, our practice is that everyone participates fully in the Seder night. See Tosfos, Pesachim 99b, sv. Lo Yepaschu for a discussion on whether each person requires their own cup of wine.

Introduction to Mishna 10:3

Mishna 3 is perhaps the hardest to decipher in our Perek. What is clear is that the Mishna is telling us about the various foods that are presented during the Seder Night. The confusion stems from the opening language of the Mishna and the words "מטבל בחזרת" and the double use of the words "הביאו לפניו". The commentators struggle to understand what does it mean to dip "in" the lettuce and what are the "two" items brought in front of him. Some commentators suggest that the Mishna is referring to the table which is brought in front of him. It first simply contains lettuce and then other items are added. Others suggest that they bring the entire table and then removed it, all to generate children's questions.

The next question is what exactly is he dipping and into what? The use of the letter ב is confusing because if what he is doing is dipping the lettuce into something it should have said "החזרת". Further, is he dipping the lettuce into Charoses (which would be duplicative of the Maror ceremony) or is he dipping into salt water like we do today? Finally, until when does he dip? Two main understandings have emerged from the commentators. Either פרפרת means the Maror [technically it means appetizer—see Mishna Berochos 6:5] which follows the Matzoh--the meaning of the Mishna being "he dips (and eats) the lettuce (and no other vegetable) until he reaches the Maror. Or, it means "to crumble" (i.e., to break the Matzoh) and the Mishna is read as follows: He dips/eats the lettuce up until he crumbles the Matzoh (at which point he uses the lettuce for Maror).

Finally, the Mishna tells us that besides for the Matzoh and Maror, they bring him Charoses (and the Mishna relates a dispute whether Charoses is a “Mitzvah” (obligatory)) and two cooked foods (representative of the Korban Chagigah and Korban Pesach). During the times of the Beis HaMikdash, they would bring him the actual Korban Pesach.

I note that Albeck suggests that the entire first clause, up until the second "הביאו לפניו" is extraneous and, in fact, was a scribal note accidentally copied into the text at some point (i.e., a copyist explaining what you might do with the Chazeres). While I am hesitant to strike words from the Mishna, it makes intuitive sense and solves many of the issues the commentators have with our Mishna while not detracting from the Halacha as we know it.

הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו,

מְטַבֵּל בַּחֲזֶרֶת, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְפַרְפֶּרֶת הַפַּת.
הֵבִיאוּ לְפָנָיו מַצָּה וַחֲזֶרֶת וַחֲרֹסֶת וּשְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין,

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין חֲרֹסֶת מִצְוָה.

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּרַבִּי צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, מִצְוָה.
וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיוּ מְבִיאִים לְפָנָיו גּוּפוֹ שֶׁל פָּסַח:

(3) They bring [it] in front of him. He dips lettuce before until he reaches the appetizer that precedes the bread. They bring before him matzah, lettuce, and haroset (and two dishes) though the haroset is not mandatory. Rabbi Elazar son of Rabbi Zadok says: it is mandatory. And in the Temple they bring the body of the pesah before him.

Introduction to Mishna 10:4

The Mishna now turns its attention to what can be seen as the core of the Seder Night as reconstituted by the Chachomim: the Mitzvah of סיפור יציאת מצרים. Although there is a Mitzvah to mention the Exodus from Egypt each day (and each night), the Chachomim understood (based on the Pasuk) that there was an additional and specific Mitzvah of retelling the story to our children on the night of Pesach. Furthermore, again basing themselves on the Pasuk (such as וְהָיָ֞ה כִּֽי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ֥ בִנְךָ֛ ), the Chachomim insisted that the pedagogical system of question/answer be utilized in that process and over the years, a formalized set of questions have been established. Importantly, these should not be the only questions asked on the Seder Night. They are meant to prompt further discussion among the participants.

Two things seem evident from the order and words of our Mishna. First, it would seem that "Magid" was first said after the Matzoh, Maror and meal were eaten making the questions in the Mah Nishtana reflective of the real life situation just experienced at the table. Second, it seems that rather than serving as the text of the son's questions, the Mah Nishtana were prompts used by the leader to engage the children in a discussion—eliciting further questions from those present. Over time, the roles were reversed and the child started saying the Mah Nishtana.

The text of our Mishna somewhat reflects the current version of our Mah Nishtana--however we swap out the question about roasted meat for leaning at the table. The original version contained only three questions:

מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת?

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ מַטְבִּילִין פַּעַם אֶחָת - והַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין חָמֵץ וּמַצָּה, והַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה - כֻּלּוֹ מַצָּה

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין בשר צלי שלוק ומבושל, והלילה הזה כלו צלי

The first question reflects the reality that during the period this was written it was common to serve appetizers, including vegetables, prior to the meal. The anomaly on Pesach night was that they were served again during the meal. Notably, there is no separate question for Maror in the original text. The second question regarding Matzoh we are familiar with. The last question reflects either the memory of or the current practice of eating roasted meat (either as a Korban or a Korban substitute) at the Seder to commemorate the Korban Pesach. The Chachomim eventually put an end to that practice out of concern, in part, that one may inadvertently designate the meat as a Korban.

Next, the Mishna sets out the parameters for the night's discussion. We are to start off discussing the more shameful aspects of our history while concluding on a high note. Where to begin is a Talmudic dispute between Rav and Shmuel. Shmuel says we begin by telling how our ancestors were slaves in Egypt (עבדים היינו). Whereas Rav focuses on the spiritual depths of our history when our ancestors were idol worshipers (מִתְּחִלָּה עוֹבְדֵי עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה). More likely than not, these paragraphs constituted older parallel texts to the אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי Darasha that the Mishna refers to next and the Amaroim wanted to include these as well in the official text.

Finally, as noted, the Mishna tells us that there is an obligation to recite and expound on the verses of אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי. These Pesukim are found in the Parsha of Bikkurim--and are part of the declaration a person bringing Bikkurim (the First Fruits) was required to say at the Beis HaMikdash. Not only do these verses provide the briefest of national history overviews, these were well known verses making them the perfect vehicle to fulfill the Seder Night's obligation to retell the story. While it is unclear which Midrash the Mishna is referring to it is clear that it was something well known at that time. The Midrash we use (which can be found in Sifrei Devarim chapter 301) likely incorporates part, if not all, of the original Midrash.

מָזְגוּ לוֹ כוֹס שֵׁנִי,
וְכָאן הַבֵּן שׁוֹאֵל אָבִיו,

וְאִם אֵין דַּעַת בַּבֵּן, אָבִיו מְלַמְּדוֹ,
מַה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת,

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין חָמֵץ וּמַצָּה, הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה כֻלּוֹ מַצָּה.

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין שְׁאָר יְרָקוֹת, הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מָרוֹר.

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין בָּשָׂר צָלִי, שָׁלוּק, וּמְבֻשָּׁל, הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה כֻלּוֹ צָלִי.

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ מַטְבִּילִין פַּעַם אַחַת, הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים.
וּלְפִי דַעְתּוֹ שֶׁל בֵּן, אָבִיו מְלַמְּדוֹ.
מַתְחִיל בִּגְנוּת וּמְסַיֵּם בְּשֶׁבַח,

וְדוֹרֵשׁ מֵאֲרַמִּי אוֹבֵד אָבִי, עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר כֹּל הַפָּרָשָׁה כֻלָּהּ:

(4) They mixed him a second cup, and here the son questions his father. If the son lacks the intelligence to ask, his father instructs him: How different this night is from all other nights! On all other nights we eat hametz and matzah, tonight only matzah. On all other nights we eat other vegetables, tonight only bitter herbs. On all other nights, we eat meat roasted, boiled or cooked, tonight only roasted. On all other nights we dip once, tonight twice. And according to the intellect of the son, the father instructs him. He begins with shame and concludes with praise; and expounds from “A wandering Aramean was my father” (Deuteronomy 6:20-25) until he completes the whole section.

* Perhaps what is underlying these questions is the fact that the Korban Pesach most commonly resembles the Korban Todah, the Thanksgiving Offering. Both are unique subsets of the broader Shelamim (See Zevachim 5:8-10). They are each meant to be eaten in larger groups and within a shortened time period, albeit with slight differences. Along with the Todah, you brought a mix of Chametz and Matzoh breads, you could cook it in any permissible way and you could utilize the entire salad bar. This is total contrast to the Korban Pesach, where, in addition to only being allowed to roast the meat, you were limited to eating the Pesach with Matzoh and Maror .

To any person familiar with the workings of the Beis Hamikdash and the Korbonos, they would find the Korban Pesach a strange experience--prompting you to ask questions. In fact, the questions would be exactly the ones our Mishnah poses! If this is true, it would suggest that the formulation of these questions is ancient--from the time of the Beis HaMikdash itself.

With this understanding, I would suggest that this can help us understand the answer we provide the Wise son in the Hagaddah. The Wise son asks about all of the unique aspects of the holiday and the Seder night--as evidenced by the four questions listed in our Mishnah. But he leaves one, additional difference, out of his question, אֵין מַפְטִירִין אַחַר הַפֶּסַח. That after the Korban Pesach one must not eat any other food or dessert, allowing the taste to linger. Whereas, after the Todah, these restrictions do not apply and one may consume other foods. Therefore, we take the opportunity to teach the Wise son, right after he asks his questions, that he didn't quite catch all the nuances of the night.

Introduction to Mishna 10:5

Mishna 5 is an interesting Mishna. First, Rabban Gamliel's* Halacha--that in order to fulfill your obligations of וְהִגַּדְתָּ֣ לְבִנְךָ֔ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא one must specifically mention and explain Pesach, Matzoh and Marror--itself becomes part of the liturgy. Of course, in the Haggadah, Rabban Gamliel's statement is transformed into question form and the answers are embellished with support from Pasukim.

Second, the next two parts of the Mishna appear not be part of the original text but were later additions. Note that the Mishna itself does not say one "should say these words," but they have definitively become part of the liturgy itself. The last part of the Mishna appears to be a transition from the Mitzvah of Sippur to the Mitzvah of Hallel.

*There is some debate as to which Rabban Gamliel our Mishna is referring. It may be the later Rabban Gamliel of Yavneh or his great-grandfather, who lived at the end of the Second Beis HaMikdash.

רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיָה אוֹמֵר,

כָּל שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אֵלּוּ בְּפֶסַח, לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן,

פֶּסַח, מַצָּה, וּמָרוֹר.
פֶּסַח, עַל שׁוּם שֶׁפָּסַח הַמָּקוֹם עַל בָּתֵּי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְמִצְרַיִם.

מַצָּה, עַל שׁוּם שֶׁנִּגְאֲלוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְמִצְרַיִם.

מָרוֹר, עַל שׁוּם שֶׁמֵּרְרוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת חַיֵּי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְמִצְרָיִם.
בְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר חַיָּב אָדָם לִרְאוֹת אֶת עַצְמוֹ כְאִלּוּ הוּא יָצָא מִמִּצְרַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יג), וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר, בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יי לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם.
לְפִיכָךְ אֲנַחְנוּ חַיָּבִין לְהוֹדוֹת, לְהַלֵּל, לְשַׁבֵּחַ, לְפָאֵר, לְרוֹמֵם, לְהַדֵּר, לְבָרֵךְ, לְעַלֵּה, וּלְקַלֵּס, לְמִי שֶׁעָשָׂה לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ וְלָנוּ אֶת כָּל הַנִּסִּים הָאֵלּוּ, הוֹצִיאָנוּ

מֵעַבְדוּת לְחֵרוּת,

מִיָּגוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה,

וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיוֹם טוֹב,

וּמֵאֲפֵלָה לְאוֹר גָּדוֹל,

וּמִשִּׁעְבּוּד לִגְאֻלָּה.

וְנֹאמַר לְפָנָיו, הַלְלוּיָהּ:

(5) Rabban Gamaliel used to say: whoever does not make mention of these three things on Pesah does not fulfill his duty. And these are they: the pesah, matzah, and bitter herbs. The pesah because the Omnipresent passed over the houses of our fathers in Egypt. The matzah because our fathers were redeemed from Egypt. The bitter herb because the Egyptians embittered the lives of our fathers in Egypt. In every generation a man is obligated to regard himself as though he personally had gone forth from Egypt, because it is said, “And you shall tell your son on that day, saying: ‘It is because of that which the Lord did for me when I came forth out of Egypt” (Exodus 13:8). Therefore it is our duty to thank, praise, laud, glorify, raise up, beautify, bless, extol, and adore Him who made all these miracles for our fathers and ourselves; He brought us forth from slavery into freedom, from sorrow into joy, from mourning into festivity, from darkness into great light, and from servitude into redemption. Let us say before him, Hallelujah!

Introduction to Mishna 10:6

We saw that during the times of the Beis HaMikdash, the Levi’im would sing Hallel while the people slaughtered their Korbanei Pesach. However, on the Seder Night there is a separate Mitzvah to say Hallel as part of the meal itself. From the Mishna it seems that Hallel was split into two parts. The first one or two chapters being said prior to Birchas HaMazon and the second (and bulk of the chapters) part, afterwards. Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel argue whether the second chapter of Hallel, בצאת ישראל , is said in the first part.

Second, the Mishna tells us the rule that a blessing is said at the conclusion of the Haggadah. Rabi Tarfon and Rabi Akiva argue as to the precise nature and text of the blessing. Our common practice is to combine both of their views in one long Blessing.

עַד הֵיכָן הוּא אוֹמֵר,

בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, עַד אֵם הַבָּנִים שְׂמֵחָה.

וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, עַד חַלָּמִישׁ לְמַעְיְנוֹ מָיִם.
וְחוֹתֵם בִּגְאֻלָּה.

רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֲשֶׁר גְּאָלָנוּ וְגָאַל אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ מִמִּצְרָיִם, וְלֹא הָיָה חוֹתֵם.

רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, כֵּן יי אֱלֹקֵינוּ וֵאלֹקֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ יַגִּיעֵנוּ לְמוֹעֲדִים וְלִרְגָלִים אֲחֵרִים הַבָּאִים לִקְרָאתֵנוּ לְשָׁלוֹם, שְׂמֵחִים בְּבִנְיַן עִירֶךָ וְשָׂשִׂים בַּעֲבוֹדָתֶךָ, וְנֹאכַל שָׁם מִן הַזְּבָחִים וּמִן הַפְּסָחִים כוּ', עַד בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל:

(6) How far does one recite it? Bet Shammai say: Until “As a joyous mother of children” (Psalms 113:9). But Bet Hillel say: Until “The flinty rock into a fountain of waters” (Psalms 114:8). And he concludes with [a formula of] redemption. Rabbi Tarfon says: “Who redeemed us and redeemed our fathers from Egypt”, but he did not conclude [with a blessing]. Rabbi Akiva says: “So may the Lord our God and the God of our fathers bring us to other appointed times and festivals which come towards us for peace, rejoicing in the rebuilding of Your city and glad in Your service, and there we will eat of the sacrifices and the pesahim” etc. until “Blessed are You who has redeemed Israel.”

Introduction to Mishna 10:7

Mishna 7 concludes the Seder evening and describes the final two cups of wine. The third cup of wine is used for Birchas HaMazon while the fourth is used to complete the second part of the Hallel. The Mishna mentions that Hallel concludes with "Birchas HaShir" which either means the standard יהללוך we say at the end of Hallel service or it means נשמת כל חי. In practice, we say both--a practice the RamBam found praiseworthy.

Finally, the Mishna tells us that one cannot drink extra cups of wine between the third and fourth cups (and likely between the first and second). But one may drink between the first set and the second (i.e., during the meal--this interpretation assumes that the meal comes after Magid).

מָזְגוּ לוֹ כוֹס שְׁלִישִׁי,

מְבָרֵךְ עַל מְזוֹנוֹ.
רְבִיעִי, גּוֹמֵר עָלָיו אֶת הַהַלֵּל,

וְאוֹמֵר עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַשִּׁיר.
בֵּין הַכּוֹסוֹת הַלָּלוּ, אִם רוֹצֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת, יִשְׁתֶּה.

בֵּין שְׁלִישִׁי לָרְבִיעִי, לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה:

(7) They poured him a third cup, blesses over his meal. A fourth [cup], he concludes the Hallel, and recites over it the blessing of song. Between these cups if he wants he may drink; between the third and the fourth he may not drink.

Introduction to Mishna 10:8

Now that the Seder night has concluded, our Mishnah teaches that one should not consume any dessert or other food so that he taste of the Korban Pesach (or, today, the Matzoh) should linger in our mouths. The opening words of the Mishnah are familiar to us as the "answer" we provide the "Wise Son" during the Seder. Many have sought to explain the importance and singularity of this final rule and why, that is the law taught to the Wise Son. But perhaps, we can interpret it slightly differently. What the Ba'al HaGaddah is saying is that in response to the Wise Son's desire to learn the laws and rules, we, in fact, teach him all of the rules from the start of the Seder all the way through this final point of " אֵין מַפְטִירִין אַחַר הַפֶּסַח." But see, David Henshke, Mah Nishtannah, The Passover Night in the Sages' discourse, Magnes Press, 5776, pp. 365-369.

The Mishnah then discusses whether a person (or entire family) who falls asleep during the Seder (after having eaten the Korban Pesach) whether they can continue eating when they wake up. Rabi Yose limits the rule to those who take a nap; those falling into a deep sleep are prevented from further eating the Korban Pesach.

וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין אַחַר הַפֶּסַח אֲפִיקוֹמָן.
יָשְׁנוּ מִקְצָתָן, יֹאכְלוּ.

כֻּלָּן, לֹא יֹאכֵלוּ.

רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, נִתְנַמְנְמוּ, יֹאכְלוּ. נִרְדְּמוּ, לֹא יֹאכֵלוּ:

(8) One may not conclude the pesah meal with an afikoman. If some of them fell asleep, they may eat [the pesah when they wake up]. If all of them fell asleep they may not eat. Rabbi Jose says: if they napped, they may eat, but if they fell asleep, they may not eat.

Introduction to Mishna 10:9

The Final Mishnah of the Mesechta teaches that the Korban Pesach, after Midnight, will be M'Tamei Yadayim. This is to prevent people from leaving over from their Korban. The Mishnah then discusses the proper Berochos one should make on the Korban Pesach and Korban Chagigah.

הַפֶּסַח אַחַר חֲצוֹת,

מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדָיִם.
הַפִּגּוּל וְהַנּוֹתָר, מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדָיִם.
בֵּרַךְ בִּרְכַּת הַפֶּסַח פָּטַר אֶת שֶׁל זֶבַח.

בֵּרַךְ אֶת שֶׁל זֶבַח, לֹא פָטַר אֶת שֶׁל פֶּסַח, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל.

רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא זוֹ פוֹטֶרֶת זוֹ, וְלֹא זוֹ פוֹטֶרֶת זוֹ:

(9) The pesah defiles one’s hands after midnight. Piggul and remnant defile one’s hands. If he recited the blessing for the pesah, he thereby exempts the sacrifice [the hagigah]; [but] if he recited the blessing for the sacrifice [the hagigah], he does not exempt the pesah, the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: this does not exempt that nor does that exempt this.

חג שמח