גילוי וכיסוי
1א
הדף מאת: נירה נחליאל / המדרשה באורנים
2ב
לימוד זה עוסק במבט הגברי בגוף האישה. נלמד את המקורות המגדירים איברים שונים בגוף האישה כ'ערווה', ונבחין בין הגדרות שונות ומצבים שונים שאליהם מתייחסת ההלכה. נדון בשאלת חשיפת הגוף הנשי והסתרתו בחברה המערבית ובחברה הדתית בת זמננו, במקורן ובהשלכותיהן.
3ג
כל באישה ערוה
אמר רבי יצחק: טפח באשה ערוה.
למאי [=למה] (לגבי איזו הלכה נאמר דבר זה)?
[...]
אלא: באשתו, ולקריאת שמע.
אמר רב חסדא: שוֹק באשה ערוה,
שנאמר (ישעיהו מז, ב) גַּלִּי שׁוֹק עִבְרִי נְהָרוֹת, וכתיב (ישעיהו מז, ג) תִּגָּל עֶרְוָתֵךְ גַּם תֵּרָאֶה חֶרְפָּתֵךְ.
אמר שמואל: קול באשה ערוה,
שנאמר (שיר השירים ב, יד) כִּי-קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה.
אמר רב ששת: שער באשה ערוה,
שנאמר (שיר השירים ד, א) שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד.
Rabbi Yitzḥak stated: An exposed handbreadth in a woman constitutes nakedness. The Gemara asks: Regarding which halakha was this said? If you say that it comes to prohibit looking at an exposed handbreadth in her, didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Why did the verse enumerate “anklets and bracelets, rings, earrings and girdles” (Numbers 31:50), jewelry that is worn externally, over her clothing, e.g., bracelets, together with jewelry worn internally, beneath her clothing, near her nakedness, e.g., girdles? This was to tell you: Anyone who gazes upon a woman’s little finger is considered as if he gazed upon her naked genitals, for if his intentions are impure, it makes no difference where he looks or how much is exposed; even less than a handbreadth. Rather, it is referring even to his wife, with regard to the recitation of Shema. One may not recite Shema before an exposed handbreadth of his wife. Along these lines, Rav Ḥisda said: Even a woman’s exposed leg is considered nakedness, as it is stated: “Uncover the leg and pass through the rivers” (Isaiah 47:2), and it is written in the following verse: “Your nakedness shall be revealed and your shame shall be seen” (Isaiah 47:3). Shmuel further stated: A woman’s singing voice is considered nakedness, which he derives from the praise accorded a woman’s voice, as it is stated: “Sweet is your voice and your countenance is alluring” (Song of Songs 2:14). Similarly, Rav Sheshet stated: Even a woman’s hair is considered nakedness, for it too is praised, as it is written: “Your hair is like a flock of goats, trailing down from Mount Gilead” (Song of Songs 4:1). The Gemara resumes its discussion of phylacteries. Rabbi Ḥanina said: I saw Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hang his phylacteries. The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita that one who hangs his phylacteries will have his life hang in the balance.
4ד
דיון
שאלות לעיון
  • כיצד לומדים מהפסוקים שקול ושיער אישה הם ערווה? איזו הנחה טמונה בלימוד זה?
  • על פי הנוסחה "X באשה ערווה", האם איברי הגוף הם הערווה או שהאישה עצמה נחשבת לערווה?
  • הסוגייה מלמדת שטפח מבשר אשת המתפלל, נחשב לערווה לעניין קריאת שמע כנגדה. האם לדעתכם גם האמירות על שאר האיברים נאמרו בהקשר זה של קריאת שמע?
  • מדוע לדעתכם התגלגלו אמירות אלה להנחיות נורמטיביות על התנהגות נשים בציבור בכלל?
5ה
העושה דבר מחוקות אלו הרי הוא חשוד על העריות, ואסור לאדם לקרוץ בידיו וברגליו או לרמוז בעיניו לאחת מן העריות או לשחוק עמה או להקל ראש ואפילו להריח בשמים שעליה או להביט ביפיה אסור, ומכין למתכוין לדבר זה מכת מרדות, והמסתכל אפילו באצבע קטנה של אשה ונתכוון להנות כמי שנסתכל במקום התורף ואפילו לשמוע קול הערוה או לראות שערה אסור.
One who engages in these behaviours is suspected of committing Arayos. And it's forbidden for a person to intimate with his hands or feet or to hint with his eyes to any of the Arayos or to laugh with her or to engage in light-headedness. And even to smell her perfume or to gaze at her beauty is forbidden. And one who engages in this deliberately receives lashes of rebelliousness. And one who gazes even at the little finger of a woman intending to derive sexual pleasure is comparable to one who looks at her genitalia. And even to hear the voice of an Ervah or to look at her hair is forbidden.
6ו
והמסתכל אפילו באצבע קטנה של אשה ונתכוין ליהנות ממנה, כאלו נסתכל בבית התורף (פי' ערוה) שלה. ואסור לשמוע קול ערוה או לראות שערה. והמתכוין לאחד מאלו הדברים, מכין אותו מכת מרדות.
A person must stay very far from women. He is forbidden to signal with his hands or his feet, or to hint with his eyes, to one of the arayos. He is forbidden to be playful with her, to be frivolous in front of her, or to look upon her beauty. Even to smell the perfume upon her is forbidden. He is forbidden to gaze at women doing laundry. He is forbidden to gaze at the colorful garments of a woman whom he recognizes, even if she is not wearing them, lest he come to have [forbidden] thoughts about her. If one encounters a woman in the marketplace, he is forbidden to walk behind her, but rather [must] run so that she is beside or behind him. One may not pass by the door of a promiscuous woman [or: a prostitute], even four cubits [around 6–8 ft or 2–2.5 m] distant. If one gazes even at the little finger of a woman with the intent to have pleasure from it, it is as though he gazed at her shameful place. It is forbidden to listen to the voice of an erva or to look at her hair. If one intentionally does one of these things, we give him lashes of rebellion. These things are also forbidden in the case of ordinary Biblical prohibitions.
7ז
יש ליזהר משמיעת קול זמר אשה בשעת קריאת שמע.
One should be careful from hearing a woman's singing voice at the time of the Recitation of the Sh'ma. Gloss: And even with his wife. But the voice that is normal has no [element of] nakedness in it. (Beit Yosef in the name of the name of Ohel Moed and the G"M)
8ח
דיון
שאלות לעיון
  • למה מכוונת המילה "ערוה" בדברי הרמב"ם, ובדברי השולחן ערוך - לאישה עצמה או לאיבריה ולקולה? מה ההבדל ביניהם?
  • מה ההבדל בין שני סעיפי השולחן ערוך?
9ט
מסופר על ר' יוסי דמן יוקרת:
היתה לו בת בעלת יופי
יום אחד ראה [ר' יוסי] אדם אחד שעשה חור בגדר הקנים ומסתכל בה.
אמר לו: מה אתה עושה?
אמר לו: רבי, אם ללוקחה לא זכיתי [=לשאתה לאישה], לראותה לא אזכה?
אמר לה: בתי, את מצערת את הבריות, שובי לעפרך, ולא יכשלו בך אנשים.

לסוגיה המלאה באתר פשיטא

One day Rabbi Yosei bar Avin heard Rav Ashi studying and reciting the following statement. Shmuel said: With regard to one who removes a fish from the sea on Shabbat, when an area on the skin of the fish the size of a sela coin has dried up, he is liable for violating the prohibition against slaughtering an animal on Shabbat. A fish in that condition cannot survive, and therefore one who removed it from the water is liable for killing it. Rabbi Yosei bar Avin said to Rav Ashi: And let the Master say that this is the case provided that the skin that dried is between its fins. Rav Ashi said to him: And doesn’t the Master maintain that Rabbi Yosei ben Rabbi Avin said this ruling? Why didn’t you state it in his name? Rabbi Yosei bar Avin said to him: I am he. Rav Ashi said to him: And didn’t the Master sit before and frequent the study hall of Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat? Rabbi Yosei bar Avin said to him: Yes. Rav Ashi said to him: And what is the reason that the Master left him and came here? Rabbi Yosei bar Avin said to him: I was concerned and departed because he is so severe and unforgiving. He is a man who has no mercy on his own son, and no mercy on his daughter. How, then, could he have mercy on me? The Gemara asks: What is the incident involving his son? One day Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat hired day laborers to work his field. It grew late and he did not bring them food. The workers said to the son of Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat: We are starving. They were sitting under a fig tree, so the son said: Fig tree, fig tree. Yield your fruits, so that my father’s workers may eat. The fig tree yielded fruit, and they ate. In the meantime, his father came and said to the workers: Do not be angry with me for being late, as I was engaged in a mitzva, and until just now I was traveling for that purpose and could not get here any sooner. They said to him: May the Merciful One satisfy you just as your son satisfied us and gave us food. He said to them: From where did he find food to give you? They said: Such-and-such an incident occurred. Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat said to his son: My son, you troubled your Creator to cause the fig to yield its fruit not in its proper time, so too, you will die young. And indeed, his son died before his time. The Gemara asks: What is the incident involving his daughter? He had a very beautiful daughter. One day Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat saw a certain man piercing a hole in the hedge surrounding his property and looking at his daughter. Rabbi Yosei said to him: What is this? The man said to him: My teacher, if I have not merited taking her in marriage, shall I not at least merit to look at her? Rabbi Yosei said to her: My daughter, you are causing people distress. Return to your dust, and let people no longer stumble into sin due to you. § The Gemara relates another story involving Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat. He had a certain donkey that people hired each day for work. In the evening they would send it back with the money for its hire on its back, and the animal would go to its owner’s house. But if they added or subtracted from the appropriate sum, the donkey would not go. One day someone forgot a pair of sandals on the donkey, and it did not move until they removed the sandals from its back, after which it went off. The Gemara cites more stories about miracles that occurred to righteous individuals. Whenever the charity collectors would see Elazar of the village of Birta, they would hide from him, as any money Elazar had with him he would give them, and they did not want to take all his property. One day, Elazar went to the market to purchase what he needed for his daughter’s dowry. The charity collectors saw him and hid from him. He went and ran after them, saying to them: I adjure you, tell me, in what mitzva are you engaged? They said to him: We are collecting money for the wedding of an orphan boy and an orphan girl. He said to them: I swear by the Temple service that they take precedence over my daughter. He took everything he had with him and gave it to them. He was left with one single dinar, with which he bought himself wheat, and he then ascended to his house and threw it into the granary. Elazar’s wife came and said to her daughter: What has your father brought? She said to her mother: Whatever he brought he threw into the granary. She went to open the door of the granary, and saw that the granary was full of wheat, so much so that it was coming out through the doorknob, and the door would not open due to the wheat. The granary had miraculously been completely filled. Elazar’s daughter went to the study hall and said to her father: Come and see what your He Who loves You, the Almighty, has performed for you. He said to her: I swear by the Temple service, as far as you are concerned this wheat is consecrated property, and you have a share in it only as one of the poor Jews. He said this because he did not want to benefit from a miracle. The Gemara returns to the topic of fasting for rain. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia decreed a fast and prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. He said, lamenting: How great is the difference between the prophet Samuel of Rama, for whom rain fell even when he prayed for it in summer, and myself, Yehuda ben Gamliel. Woe to the generation that is stuck with this leadership; woe to him in whose days this has occurred. He grew upset, and rain came. The Gemara relates another story involving a Nasi’s decree of a fast for rain. In the house of the Nasi a fast was declared, but they didn’t inform Rabbi Yoḥanan and Reish Lakish of the fast the day before. In the morning they informed them. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: What are we to do? We did not accept this fast upon ourselves the evening before, and a fast must be accepted in the afternoon service of the day preceding the fast. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: We are drawn after the community, and therefore, when the Nasi declares a public fast there is no need for an individual to accept it upon himself the day before. The Gemara further states that on another occasion, a fast was declared in the house of the Nasi, but rain did not come. Oshaya, the youngest member of the group of Sages, taught them a baraita. It is written: “Then it shall be, if it shall be committed in error by the congregation, it being hidden from their eyes” (Numbers 15:24). This verse indicates that the leaders are considered the eyes of the congregation. Oshaya continued: There is a parable that illustrates this, involving a bride who is in her father’s home and has not yet been seen by her bridegroom. As long as her eyes are beautiful, her body need not be examined, as certainly she is beautiful. However, if her eyes are bleary [terutot], her entire body requires examination. So too, if the leaders of the generation are flawed, it is a sign that the entire generation is unworthy. By means of this parable, Oshaya was hinting that rain was withheld from the entire nation due to the evil committed by the household of the Nasi. The servants of the Nasi came and placed a scarf around his neck and tormented him as punishment for insulting the house of the Nasi. His townsmen said to them: Let him be, as he also causes us pain with his harsh reproof, but since we see that all his actions are for the sake of Heaven we do not say anything to him and let him be. You too should let him be. § The Gemara relates: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi declared a fast but rain did not come. Ilfa descended to lead the service before him, and some say it was Rabbi Ilfi. He recited: He Who makes the wind blow, and the wind indeed blew. He continued to recite: And Who makes the rain come, and subsequently, the rain came. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: What are your good deeds, in the merit of which your prayers are answered so speedily? He said to him: I live in an impoverished city, in which there is no wine for kiddush or havdala. I go to the effort of bringing the residents wine for kiddush and havdala, and I thereby enable them to fulfill their duty. In reward for this mitzva, my prayers for rain were answered. The Gemara relates a similar incident. Rav happened to come to a certain place where he decreed a fast but rain did not come. The prayer leader descended to lead the service before him and recited: He Who makes the wind blow, and the wind blew. He continued and said: And Who makes the rain fall, and the rain came. Rav said to him: What are your good deeds? He said to him: I am a teacher of children, and I teach the Bible to the children of the poor as to the children of the rich, and if there is anyone who cannot pay, I do not take anything from him. And I have a fishpond, and any child who neglects his studies, I bribe him with the fish and calm him, and soothe him until he comes and reads. The Gemara further relates: Rav Naḥman decreed a fast, prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. In his misery, he said: Take Naḥman and throw him from the wall to the ground, as the fast he decreed has evidently had no effect. He grew upset, and rain came. The Gemara relates: Rabba decreed a fast. He prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. They said to him: But when this Rav Yehuda decreed a fast, rain would come. He said to them: What can I do? If the difference between us is due to Torah study, we are superior to the previous generation, as in the years of Rav Yehuda all of their learning
10י
דיון
שאלות לעיון
  • כיצד אתם מסבירים את מעשהו של ר' יוסי?
  • מה מניע את ר' יוסי? כיצד הוא תופס את יופייה?
  • מי לדעתכם נושא בימינו באחריות לתחושות ולמעשים שמעורר היופי הנשי?
11יא
מתוך: טובה הרטמן-הלברטל, 'כיסוי וגילוי באישה', דעות, 17 (חורף תשס"ד), עמ' 6–11 בהוצאת נאמני תורה ועובדה ומרכז יעקב הרצוג
כיסוי וגילוי באישה
טובה הרטמן-הלברטל

כבר לפני כמעט שני עשורים בודדו וסיווגו מבקרות פמיניסטיות את הדינמיקה המרכזית הזו של הלבוש בעולם האורתודוקסי בן-זמננו, וטבעו את הביטוי 'המבט החודר הגברי'. הן הסבירו שבתוך ההגבלות וההגדרות של המבט הזה, המקיף-כול, גופן של נשים מוערך, מוסדר ומוגדר לא רק ביחס לגברים הצופים בהן, אלא גם עבור הנשים עצמן. [...] החברה הדתית שמה במרכז המבט החודר שלה את החשש מן המחשבות והמעשים האסורים הלכתית אשר עלולים להיגרם לגבר מצפייה בגופן של נשים. 'התכסו', אומר המבט החודר הזה לנשים, 'כדי שלא יהיו לי שום הרהורי עבֵרה'. [...]
ההנחה הזאת, שלפיה נשים נעדרות רעב מיני, מטילה את המשא השלם והמגביל של התשוקה, ואת השבירות והפגיעות הרוחנית שנלוות לה, על כתפיהם של הגברים. על פי האקסיומה הזו, כל האנרגיה שלנו בתחום הצניעות צריכה להיות מופנית כדי להגן על הגברים מפני חוסר השליטה המיני שלהם. האחריות על ניהול המיניות הגברית מוטלת באופן בלעדי על הנשים, מה שמשחרר את הגברים לעניינים אציליים יותר.
[...]
החברה המערבית, למרות כל החופש והפתיחות שבה, למרות כל הצעדים האמיתיים שלה לקראת פתיחת טווח-אפשרויות חסר-תקדים בתחום תפקידיהן של נשים, אוכפת משטר חמור של דיכוי מגדרי בכל הנוגע לגוף האישה. אותו גוף משמש אובייקט ומתנהל על פי צרכיו ורצונותיו של המבט החודר הגברי הבלתי ניתן לסיפוק. ואולם, בניגוד לראייה המסורתית את הנשים המבקשת לכסות את גופן, המבט החודר המערבי אינו מנסה כלל לכבוש ולדכא את הדחף המיני הגברי, אלא דווקא מאדיר אותו ועל כן הוא מפשיט ומגלה את גופן של הנשים. במקום לנסות להחליש את היצר, המבט החודר הגברי המערבי בוטה וגלוי בתשוקותיו הגופניות ובצורות הבסיסיות של התאווה – בדרישתו הנחרצת שנשים תשרתנה את התשוקות האלה על ידי כך שתחשופנה את גופן, בציבור ובפרטיות, ותישארנה חשופות כאובייקטים זמינים של עונג לצריכתם חסרת המאמץ של הגברים. [...]
על רקע מצוקת הגוף של הנשים בחברה המערבית, מצטיירת החברה המסורתית כבעלת קסם מסוים. עדיף שגופך יכוסה ויודח אל השוליים, מאשר שיופשט ויימתח על מיטת סדום.
[...]
השיח המיני, המשותף לאורתודוקסיה הדתית ולחברה המערבית, מעוצב כמעט ורק על ידי זכרים, ומתקבל על ידי נשים כאילו היה הוראה אלוהית. הנתק החד-צדדי הזה הוא, בעיניי, המקור לכל כך הרבה צורות של השחתה ששיטות המגדר השונות מעוררות – ושבסופו של דבר הן הרסניות עבור גברים בדיוק כמו עבור נשים, ואינן משרתות אף אחד משני המינים. העובדה שהמבט החודר הגברי נע בכיוון אחד בלבד – כמו גם הדרך שבה הוא גורם לנשים לטעון במיניות מופרזת הן את גופן שלהן והן את תפיסתן לגבי גברים – זוהי בדיוק מהותו של חוסר הצניעות – זהו הגורם הראשון של המתירנות והכפייה, שממנו נובעים כל שאר העיוותים.

© כל הזכויות שמורות לכתב העת דעות
www.toravoda.org.il
12יב
דיון
שאלות לעיון ולדיון מסכם
  • מהי טענת הכותבת כנגד גישת החברה הדתית בעניין דרישתה לצניעות וכיסוי הנשים?
  • ומהי טענתה כנגד גישת החברה המערבית כלפי נשים?
  • האם אתם מסכימים עם טענות אלה? אילו טיעונים ניתן לטעון כנגדן?
14 יד
15טו
דף הנחיות למנחה:
גילוי וכיסוי - למנחה.doc