הסוכה - הזדהות עם הסובל
1א
הדף מאת: קובי וייס / הלל ישראל
2ב
אחת הדרכים להתבונן על מצוות סוכה היא דרך הדרישה לחוש, דווקא בעונת הקציר והשפע, את חיי העוני והמחסור. החוויה הבלתי אמצעית עם הסבל היא הבסיס לעזרה ההדדית ולהזדהות עם הסובל והיא עוברת כחוט השני לכל אורך המצוות החברתיות.
3ג
(יג) חַג הַסֻּכֹּת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בְּאָסְפְּךָ מִגָּרְנְךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ:
(יד) וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ:
(טו) שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תָּחֹג לַד' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר ד' כִּי יְבָרֶכְךָ ד' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל תְּבוּאָתְךָ וּבְכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ שָׂמֵחַ:
Thou shalt keep the feast of tabernacles seven days, after that thou hast gathered in from thy threshing-floor and from thy winepress. And thou shalt rejoice in thy feast, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates. Seven days shalt thou keep a feast unto the LORD thy God in the place which the LORD shall choose; because the LORD thy God shall bless thee in all thine increase, and in all the work of thy hands, and thou shalt be altogether joyful.
4ד
דיון
  • מדוע יש צורך בפירוט המצווים בשמחה שבפסוק טו ?
  • למי מופנת הקריאה לשמחה?
5ה
(כ) וְגֵר לֹא-תוֹנֶה וְלֹא תִלְחָצֶנּוּ כִּי-גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם. (כא) כָּל-אַלְמָנָה וְיָתוֹם לֹא תְעַנּוּן. (כב) אִם-עַנֵּה תְעַנֶּה אֹתוֹ כִּי אִם-צָעֹק יִצְעַק אֵלַי, שָׁמֹעַ אֶשְׁמַע צַעֲקָתוֹ. (כג) וְחָרָה אַפִּי, וְהָרַגְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בֶּחָרֶב; וְהָיוּ נְשֵׁיכֶם אַלְמָנוֹת וּבְנֵיכֶם יְתֹמִים.
(כד) אִם-כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת-עַמִּי אֶת-הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא-תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה; לֹא-תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ. (כה) אִם-חָבֹל תַּחְבֹּל שַׂלְמַת רֵעֶךָ, עַד-בֹּא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ. (כו) כִּי הִוא כְסוּתֹה לְבַדָּהּ, הִוא שִׂמְלָתוֹ לְעֹרוֹ; בַּמֶּה יִשְׁכָּב וְהָיָה כִּי-יִצְעַק אֵלַי, וְשָׁמַעְתִּי כִּי-חַנּוּן אָנִי.
And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child. If thou afflict them in any wise—for if they cry at all unto Me, I will surely hear their cry— My wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless. If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor; neither shall ye lay upon him interest. If thou at all take thy neighbour’s garment to pledge, thou shalt restore it unto him by that the sun goeth down; for that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin; wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto Me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.
6ו
את העני עמך
"אם כסף תלוה את עמי את העני עמך" (שמות כב, כד)
הווה מסתכל בעצמך כאילו אתה עני
If thou lend money to any of My people (Exod. 22:24). R. Tanhuma began the discussion with the verse: He that is gracious unto the poor lendeth unto the Lord … He will repay unto Him (Prov. 19:17). What is meant by The Lord will repay unto him? Is it possible that The Lord lendeth, and His good deeds He will repay unto him (ibid.). R. Phinehas the priest, the son of Hama, said that R. Reuben posed this query: What is the meaning of And his good deeds He will repay him? One might conclude that if he gave a perutah to a poor man, the Holy One, blessed be He, will repay him. Indeed not. The Holy One, blessed be He, says: When the soul of a poor man is struggling to leave its body because of hunger, and you give him food and help him to live, be assured that I will repay you soul for soul. In the future, when your son or daughter becomes deathly ill, I will recall in their behalf the good deed you performed for the poor man, and I will save them from death. Therefore And his good deeds will He repay, that is, I will repay you soul for soul. The Holy One, blessed be He, said: It is sufficient that you should be spoken of as one who loans to Me. The Holy One, blessed be He, said: If thou lend money to any of My people (ammi) implies that you will be with Me (immi). That is, you will merit My area (in heaven). You find that the Holy One, blessed be He, sits in judgment upon every transgression of man, and asks: What decision shall be rendered? Whether the man is a thief, an adulterer, or a transgressor, the Holy One, blessed be He, sits in judgment upon him. And so you find that in the time of Ahab, Micah said: I saw the Lord sitting on His throne, and all the hosts of heaven standing by Him on His right hand and on His left (I Kings 22:19). Is there a left hand on High, since it is written: Thy right hand, O Lord, glorious in power; Thy right hand, O Lord, dasheth in pieces the enemy (Exod. 15:16), and also: The right hand of the Lord is exalted; the right hand of the Lord doeth valiantly (Ps. 118:16)? What, then, is the meaning of on His right hand and on His left? Those who plead in behalf of a sinner are called His right hand, and those who argue against him are called His left. And the Lord said: “Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead?” (I Kings 22:20). This verse indicates that He discussed the law with them (the heavenly hosts). One said: On this manner; and another said: On that manner. And there came forth a spirit and stood before the Lord, and said: “I will entice him” (ibid., v. 20–21). He asked him: “Do you know the cause of the sin?” And He replied: “Yes.” Then He began to discuss His decision with them, as it is said: And one said: On this manner; and another said: On that manner. but in regard to the one who lends money on interest, the Holy One, blessed be He, does not discuss His decision, for it is said: Hath given forth upon interest, and hath taken increase; shall he then live? He shall not live (Ezek. 18:13). He renders His verdict immediately, and the ministering angels declare: He hath done all these abominations; he shall surely be put to death, his blood shall be upon him, he shall not live (ibid.). Thus Moses said: If thou lend. Observe the difference between the deeds of men and of God. If a man owes his fellowman a hundred,26Probably referring to gold dinars. or two hundred, or three hundred, and the latter says to him: “Pay me what you owe me.” And he replies: “I have nothing,” they quarrel and abuse each other forthwith. The Holy One, blessed be He, does not act in that fashion, however. You find that during the summer, in the interval between Tevet and Tammuz (when the days grow longer and the nights shorter), the day borrows from the night, and in the interval between Tammuz and Tevet (when the reverse happens), the night borrows from the day, Yet there is no speech, there are no words, neither is their voice heard (Ps. 19:4). Thus the Holy One, blessed be He, warned Moses to tell the Israelites: If you lend money to one of My people, do not embarrass him, for he is with Me. Even to the poor with thee (Exod. 22:24). Consider yourself as though you were among the poor of your people. Even to the poor with thee. The sages concluded from this verse that between the poor of your family and the poor of your city, the poor of your family must take precedence, and between the poor of your city and another city, the poor of your city must take precedence. The R. Nahman BeRabbi said: Observe what is written in this verse: Thou shalt surely give him, and thy heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto him; of this thing the Lord thy God will bless thee in all thy work (Deut. 15:10). It does not say “for the sake of,” “on account of,” “in consequence of,” or “instead of,” but simply because of this I have made you rich and him poor. But if you do not give to him, I will reverse the wheel of fortune and make you poor and him rich. Why is that? Because God is judge; He putteth down one, and lifteth up another (Ps. 75:8). R. Shila stated: Observe that the verse is written Thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother (Deut. 15:7). What is the meaning of thy brother? It is not written “from the poor” but rather from thy brother to teach us that the two of you are equal, and that you should not cause yourself to become like him (poor). They say concerning R. Tanhum the son of Hanilai that whenever he brought home some meat or vegetables or anything else, he would tell the members of his household: “Set aside a portion for the poor, for I bought one measure of meat for you and a half-measure for the poor.” In that way He fulfilled the verse In the day of prosperity be joyful, in the day of adversity consider; God hath made even the one as well as the other, to the end that man should find nothing after him (Eccles. 7:14). In the day of prosperity be joyful in the good deeds you perform in behalf of the poor. In the day of adversity consider indicates that you too are not far removed from poverty, and that there is no greater misfortune for you than poverty. Thus it says: Even to the poor with thee.
7ז
בנימין ז. רובין, טל חרמון, הוצאת ב. בוטשאן, עמוד 42
הגביר הרב והקור
מצאנו בגמרא: אגרא דתעניתא-צדקתא (ברכות ו׳). הנה-צדקה בכל יום הוא זמנה. וכי השבע אינו צריך לתת צדקה?אלא דוקא מי שצם ומתענה? זוהי הכונה: חז״ל אמרו: ״קודם שאכל אדם ושתה, יש לו ב׳ לבבות. לאחר שאכל ושתה אין לו אלא לב אחד״ (בבא בתרא ב׳ ב׳). כשהאדם רעב וקיבתו ריקה, הוא מרגיש ברעבונו של העני ולבו מתמלא עליו רחמים. אבל כשהוא שבע, אין הוא מרגיש בצערו וברעבונו של העני, אינו מיצר בצרתו של השני ואין עינו ולבו אלא אחרי בצעו. וזוהי הכונה: ״אגרא דתעניתא-צדקתא״. כיון שאדם מתענה וצם מתעורר בלבו רגש של רחמים לאחיו הנדכאים והרעבים, כי גם הוא חש בשעת צומו את צרות הרעב.
מספרים: הרב הלודזאי המפורסם, ר׳ אליהו חיים מייזל זצ״ל בא פעם בליל חורף קר אחד אל גביר אדיר לבקש נדבה בעבור עניים מרודים. כשנכנס הרב אל הגביר, קרא אותו החוצה ודבר אתו ארוכות בעניינים שונים. כשהתחיל הקור להציק לגביר ושניו דא לדא נקשן [שיניו נקשו זו לזו מרוב קור], אמר לו הרב את מבוקשו. ענה לו הגביר: למה קראתני החוצה, הלא היית יכול לומר לי זאת בבית? [ ומיד הייתי תורם לך ביד רחבה!]
אמר לו הרב: עשיתי זאת בכוונה, למען תרגיש גם אתה את הקור החזק ותחוש את צרותיו ועינוייו של העני. הנה כשתשב בחדר חם ואבוא אליך לבקש נדבה בעבור עניים לא תרגיש כל כך את דחקם ולחצם, אבל כשתהייה בחוץ והקור יצרוב את בשרך, אזי ממילא תשתתף בצערם ותפתח את ידך לרוחה.


מושגים
  • טל חרמון - נדפס בטשענסטחוב בשנת 1933 בהוצאת ב. בוטשאן, המחבר, בנימין זאב רובין היה האדמו"ר של קהילת טסשענסטחוב ונספה בשואה.
    גיבור הסיפור הרב אליהו חיים מייזל רב העיר לודז' 1821-1912
8ח
רש"ר הירש, חורב עמוד 198
רש"ר הירש על סוכות
בחג באסיף, אשר אז נשלם כמעט קציר השנה עם תבואת זרעך, ופרי הקציר והבציר מלאו אסמיך, גורנך ויקבך ויש לך די והותר לכלכלת ביתך וכל אשר לך. אתה שלו ושקט, שמח ובטוח, כי לא תדע כל מחסור בחורף הבא ואכלת ושבעת רוב דגן ותירוש...למען דעת: אם עשיר הנך, איש ישראל, כי לא העושר לא הרכוש ,לא מקנה וקניין ואחוזת נחלה, לא מעשה אנוש ותחבולותיו, אשר עליהם יתגאה האדם, לא המה יבטיחו ויחזיקו את החיי ם.רק ה' הוא לבדו המכלכל חיים ומחזיק את קיומם. הסוכה תאלפך דעת, לגמור אומר ולהסיר ממך את הרחבת החיים עד למותרות ולמנוע מלפנק את נפשך ונפשות בני ביתך ללא הועיל, לשחרר את נפשך מחבלי שווא, מחבלי העושר ותענוגות החיים.
9ט
מיריי הדס-לבל, פילון האלכסנדרוני - בין יהדות להלניזם, הוצאת ידיעות ספרים, 2007
אחרון מועדי השנה, המכונה סוכות, מתרחש בזמן בו יום ולילה שווים באורכם (הEQUINOX של הסתיו). מכאן אנו למדים שני דברים. הראשון הוא שעלינו לכבד את השוויון (שהוא היושר) ולשנוא את חוסר-השוויון (שהוא חוסר-יושר). השוויון הוא תחילתו ומקורו של הצדק, וחוסר-השוויון – של אי-הצדק. הראשון דומה לאור השמש, השני לחושך. הדבר השני שאנו לומדים הוא שלאחר שכל הפירות הבשילו בשלמות, עלינו להודות לאל שהביאם לשלמות זו והוא המקור של כל הטוב.... אנחנו מצווים בזמן החג לדור בסוכות.... ייתכן ומטרת הדבר להזכיר לנו את נדודי אבותינו במעמקי המדבר, כאשר בכל תחנה בילו שנים רבות באוהלים. ואכן טוב הדבר להיזכר בעוני בזמן שאנו נהנים מהשפע. טוב לו לאדם לזכור את עוניו בעת עושרו, את שפלותו בימי תפארתו, את חייו כאדם פשוט גם לאחר שעלה לגדולה, את סכנות המלחמה בעת שלום, את הסערות בים בעודו על היבשה, ואת המדבר – בהיותו בתוך העיר. לפי שאין מה שישמח אותנו יותר מזיכרון ימי הרעה בזמן שחיים בימים טובים. אולם מלבד העונג, תמצא כאן תועלת רבה לחינוך למידות ומעשים טובים, כי מי שזוכר גם את הטוב וגם את הרע, וודאי יתמלא רגשות תודה. ... גם תחילת חג זה חל ביום 15 לחודש, כמו בחג האביב, כדי האור הנפלא שהטבע מעניק לנו ימלא את העולם לא רק ביום אלא גם בלילה, כי ביום הזה השמש והירח זורחים אחד אחרי השני, בלי הפסקה בין האור שלהם ובלי מחיצה של חושך ביניהם...."
© כל הזכויות שמורות לhttp://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/


מושגים
  • פילון האלכסנדרוני - (20 לפנה"ס עד 50 לספירה; נודע גם בשמו היהודי: ידידיה) פילוסוף יהודי הלניסטי שחי באלכסנדריה שבמצרים. הרבה לעסוק באפולוגטיקה של הדת היהודית, והצגתה כתואמת לעקרונות הפילוסופיה היוונית. כתב ביוונית ורוב חיבוריו אבדו. רוב ספריו של פילון ששרדו עוסקים בפרשנות התורה. על שמו נקרא כיום המושב כפר ידידיה.
10י
[נאמר במשנה: "סדר תענייות כיצד: מוציאין את התיבה [ שקוראים עליה בספר התורה מבית הכנסת] לרחובה של עיר; ונותנין אפר מקלה על גבי התיבה, ובראש הנשיא, ובראש אב בית דין, וכל אחד ואחד נוטל ונותן בראשו"]

ולמה נותנין אפר מקלה על גבי תיבה אמר רבי יהודה בן פזי כלומר [(תהילים צא,טו) יִקְרָאֵנִי, וְאֶעֱנֵהוּ] עִמּוֹ-אָנֹכִי בְצָרָה;[ אֲחַלְּצֵהוּ, וַאֲכַבְּדֵהוּ ] ריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו סג,ט) בְּכָל-צָרָתָם לוֹ צָר, [וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם--בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ, הוּא גְאָלָם; וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם, כָּל-יְמֵי עוֹלָם.] אמר ר' זירא מריש כי הוה חזינא להו לרבנן דיהבי אפר מקלה על גבי תיבה מזדעזע לי כוליה גופאי [בתחילה כאשר ראיתי לחכמים ששמים אפר על גבי התיבה, היה מזדעזע כל גופי].
one who is humiliated by others. Accordingly, ashes are placed on the heads of the leaders of the community by others, to increase the appearance of their suffering. The Gemara asks: And where exactly are the ashes placed upon their heads? Rabbi Yitzḥak said: On the place of the phylacteries of the head, as it is stated: “To appoint to those who mourn in Zion, to give to them an ornament [pe’er] instead of ashes” (Isaiah 61:3). This verse likens the placement of ashes on one’s head to an ornament, and the term pe’er is traditionally interpreted as a reference to phylacteries. § The Gemara provides a mnemonic device for the forthcoming statements. Square; ark; and sackcloth; ashes; ashes; cemetery; and Moriah. The Gemara asks: Why do they go out to the square? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: This is a symbolic action, as though to say: We cried out in private inside the synagogue and we were not answered. We will therefore disgrace ourselves in public, so that our prayers will be heard. Reish Lakish said that the move into the square symbolizes exile, as though they are saying: We have been exiled; may our exile atone for us. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two explanations? The Gemara answers that the practical difference between them is in a case where they are exiled, i.e., they move, from one synagogue to another synagogue. According to the opinion of Reish Lakish, they have exiled themselves, and therefore this ceremony is adequate. Conversely, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba maintains that as the ritual is performed in private, it is insufficient. The Gemara asks another question concerning the meaning of the ritual. And why do they remove the ark to the city square? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: This is done as though to say: We had a modest vessel, which was always kept concealed, but it has been publicly exposed due to our transgressions. The Gemara further asks: And why do they cover themselves in sackcloth? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: This is as though to say: We are considered before You like animals, which are likewise covered with hide. And why do they place burnt ashes on top of the ark? Rabbi Yehuda ben Pazi said: This is as though to say in God’s name: “I will be with him in trouble” (Psalms 91:15). Reish Lakish said that the same idea can be derived from a different verse: “In all their affliction, He was afflicted” (Isaiah 63:9). By placing burnt ash on the ark, which is the symbol of the Divine Presence, it is as though God Himself joins the Jews in their pain. Rabbi Zeira said: At first, when I saw the Sages place burnt ashes upon the ark, my entire body trembled from the intensity of the event. And why do they place ashes upon the head of each and every individual? Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagree with regard to this matter. One said that this is as though to say: We are considered like ashes before You. And one said that these ashes are placed in order to remind God of the ashes of our forefather Isaac, on our behalf. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two explanations? The Gemara answers that the practical difference between them is in a case where one placed ordinary earth upon the ark instead of ashes. Although earth does symbolize self-nullification and may be used according to the first explanation, it has no connection to the sacrifice of Isaac, and therefore it does not satisfy the second explanation. The Gemara further asks: And why do they go out to the cemetery on a fast day? Again, Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagree with regard to this matter. One said this is as though to say: We are like the dead before You. And one said that one goes out to the cemetery in order that the deceased will request mercy on our behalf. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between them? The Gemara answers that the practical difference between them concerns graves of gentiles. If the purpose of going to graves is to say that they stand before God like the dead, graves of gentiles would suffice. However, if they go to the cemetery for the deceased to ask for mercy on their behalf, they should visit specifically Jewish graves. § Apropos disputes between Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina, the Gemara mentions another dispute between them. What is the meaning of the name Mount [Har] Moriah, the Temple Mount? Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagree with regard to this matter. One said that the name alludes to the Great Sanhedrin that convened there, as it is the mountain from which instruction [hora’a] went out to the Jewish people. And one said that it is the mountain from which fear [mora] went out to the nations of the world, as this place signifies God’s choice of the Jewish people. § The mishna taught: The eldest of the community says to them statements of reproof. The Sages taught in a baraita: If there is an elder, then the elder says the admonition, and if not, a Sage says the admonition. And if not, a person of imposing appearance says it. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that the elder of whom we spoke is preferred to a scholar simply by virtue of his age, even though he is not a scholar? Abaye said that this is what the mishna is saying: If there is an elder, and he is also a scholar, this elder scholar says the admonition. And if not, even a young scholar says the reproof. And if there is no scholar of any kind available, a person of imposing appearance says it. What does he say? Our brothers, it is not sackcloth and fasting that cause atonement for our sins. Rather, repentance and good deeds will cause our atonement. This is as we find with regard to the people of Nineveh, that it is not stated about them: And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting. Rather, the verse states: “And God saw their deeds, that they had turned from their evil way” (Jonah 3:10). § Apropos the repentance of the inhabitants of Nineveh, the Gemara discusses their behavior further. The verse states: “But let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast” (Jonah 3:8). What did they do? They confined the female animals alone, and their young alone, in a different place. They then said before God: Master of the Universe, if You do not have mercy on us, we will not have mercy on these animals. Even if we are not worthy of Your mercy, these animals have not sinned. It is further stated with regard to the people of Nineveh: “And let them cry mightily to God” (Jonah 3:8). The Gemara asks: What did they say that could be described as calling out “mightily”? The Gemara explains that they said before God: Master of the Universe, if there is a dispute between a submissive one and an intractable one, or between a righteous one and a wicked one, who must yield before whom? Certainly the righteous forgives the wicked. Likewise, You must have mercy on us. The verse states: “And let them turn, every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands” (Jonah 3:8). What is the meaning of the phrase “and from the violence that is in their hands”? Shmuel said that the king of Nineveh proclaimed: Even if one stole a beam and built it into his building, he must tear down the entire building and return the beam to its owner. Although the Sages decreed that one need only pay financial compensation in a case of this kind, these people wanted to repent completely by removing any remnant of stolen property from their possession. § Similarly, Rav Adda bar Ahava said: A person who has a transgression in his hand, and he confesses but does not repent for his sin, to what is he comparable? To a person who holds in his hand a dead creeping animal, which renders one ritually impure by contact. As in this situation, even if he immerses in all the waters of the world, his immersion is ineffective for him, as long as the source of ritual impurity remains in his hand. However, if he has thrown the animal from his hand, once he has immersed in a ritual bath of forty se’a, the immersion is immediately effective for him. As it is stated: “He who covers his transgressions shall not prosper, but whoever confesses and forsakes them shall obtain mercy” (Proverbs 28:13). That is, confession alone is futile, but one who also abandons his transgressions will receive mercy. And it states elsewhere: “Let us lift up our heart with our hands to God in Heaven” (Lamentations 3:41), which likewise indicates that it is not enough to lift one’s hands in prayer; rather, one must also raise his heart and return to God. § The mishna teaches: They stood for prayer, and the congregation appoints an elder. The Sages taught in a baraita: They stood for prayer, and even if there is a man there who is elderly and a scholar, they appoint to descend before the ark as prayer leader only a person who is accustomed to lead in prayer. Who is considered an accustomed prayer leader in this sense? Rabbi Yehuda says: One who has financially dependent children but he does not have the means to support them, and he has no choice but to toil in the field, and whose house is empty, and who will therefore pray for rain with great devotion. Rabbi Yehuda continues with his depiction of the worthy prayer leader. And his youth was becoming, and he is humble and accepted by the people, as he is likable. And furthermore, he must be familiar with songs and his voice pleasant, and he is expert in reading the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings, and he knows how to study midrash, halakha, and aggada. And finally, he must be expert in all of the blessings. Clearly, it is hard to find someone with all these qualities. And the Gemara relates that when this worthy person was described, those Sages present turned their eyes toward Rav Yitzḥak bar Ami, who possessed all of these virtues.
11יא
דיון
  • מה זעזע את רבי זירא?
  • איך קטע זה מתקשר ללימוד שלפנינו?
13 יג
14יד
דף הנחיות למנחה:
דף למנחים.doc