מעוות לא יוכל לתקון (קהלת, א', טו')
1א
הדף מאת: ליאורה אילון, יעל יחיאלי / קולות בנגב
2ב
לימוד בנושא תיקון ולקיחת אחריות, לקראת יום הכיפורים.
3ג
(יב) אֲנִי קֹהֶלֶת הָיִיתִי מֶלֶךְ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּירוּשָׁלִָם: (יג) וְנָתַתִּי אֶת לִבִּי לִדְרוֹשׁ וְלָתוּר בַּחָכְמָה עַל כָּל אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם הוּא עִנְיַן רָע נָתַן אֱלֹהִים לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ: (יד) רָאִיתִי אֶת כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנֵּה הַכֹּל הֶבֶל וּרְעוּת רוּחַ: (טו) מְעֻוָּת לֹא יוּכַל לִתְקֹן וְחֶסְרוֹן לֹא יוּכַל לְהִמָּנוֹת: (טז) דִּבַּרְתִּי אֲנִי עִם לִבִּי לֵאמֹר אֲנִי הִנֵּה הִגְדַּלְתִּי וְהוֹסַפְתִּי חָכְמָה עַל כָּל אֲשֶׁר הָיָה לְפָנַי עַל יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְלִבִּי רָאָה הַרְבֵּה חָכְמָה וָדָעַת: (יז) וָאֶתְּנָה לִבִּי לָדַעַת חָכְמָה וְדַעַת הֹלֵלוֹת וְשִׂכְלוּת יָדַעְתִּי שֶׁגַּם זֶה הוּא רַעְיוֹן רוּחַ: (יח) כִּי בְּרֹב חָכְמָה רָב כָּעַס וְיוֹסִיף דַּעַת יוֹסִיף מַכְאוֹב:
I Koheleth have been king over Israel in Jerusalem. And I applied my heart to seek and to search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven; it is a sore task that God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised therewith. I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity and a striving after wind. That which is crooked cannot be made straight; And that which is wanting cannot be numbered. I spoke with my own heart, saying: ‘Lo, I have gotten great wisdom, more also than all that were before me over Jerusalem’; yea, my heart hath had great experience of wisdom and knowledge. And I applied my heart to know wisdom, and to know madness and folly—I perceived that this also was a striving after wind. For in much wisdom is much vexation; And he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.
4ד
דיון
שאלות
  • על מה מיצר קהלת?
  • מה דעתו על תוצאות המעשים שנעשו תחת השמשהינם, בעיניו, הבל ורעות רוח?
  • כיצד הוא מתייחס למעשים אלה שהוא אותם עשה הוא בעצמו, עשה למען ירושלים?
  • כיצד מסתכל קהלת על העברמה דעתו של קהלת על תיקון המעוות? האם ניתן לתקנו?
  • 5ה
    (יג) רְאֵה אֶת מַעֲשֵׂה הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי מִי יוּכַל לְתַקֵּן אֵת אֲשֶׁר עִוְּתוֹ: (יד) בְּיוֹם טוֹבָה הֱיֵה בְטוֹב וּבְיוֹם רָעָה רְאֵה גַּם אֶת זֶה לְעֻמַּת זֶה עָשָׂה הָאֱלֹהִים עַל דִּבְרַת שֶׁלֹּא יִמְצָא הָאָדָם אַחֲרָיו מְאוּמָה: (טו) אֶת הַכֹּל רָאִיתִי בִּימֵי הֶבְלִי יֵשׁ צַדִּיק אֹבֵד בְּצִדְקוֹ וְיֵשׁ רָשָׁע מַאֲרִיךְ בְּרָעָתוֹ: (טז) אַל תְּהִי צַדִּיק הַרְבֵּה וְאַל תִּתְחַכַּם יוֹתֵר לָמָּה תִּשּׁוֹמֵם: (יז) אַל תִּרְשַׁע הַרְבֵּה וְאַל תְּהִי סָכָל לָמָּה תָמוּת בְּלֹא עִתֶּךָ: (יח) טוֹב אֲשֶׁר תֶּאֱחֹז בָּזֶה וְגַם מִזֶּה אַל תַּנַּח אֶת יָדֶךָ כִּי יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים יֵצֵא אֶת כֻּלָּם:
    Consider the work of God; for who can make that straight, which He hath made crooked? In the day of prosperity be joyful, and in the day of adversity consider; God hath made even the one as well as the other, to the end that man should find nothing after him. All things have I seen in the days of my vanity; there is a righteous man that perisheth in his righteousness, and there is a wicked man that prolongeth his life in his evil-doing. Be not righteous overmuch; neither make thyself overwise; why shouldest thou destroy thyself? Be not overmuch wicked, neither be thou foolish; why shouldest thou die before thy time? It is good that thou shouldest take hold of the one; yea, also from the other withdraw not thy hand; for he that feareth God shall discharge himself of them all.
    6ו
    דיון
    שאלות
  • מהו העיוות, ומי עיוות, על פי פסוק יג'?
  • מי לדעת קהלת "יוּכַל לְתַקֵּן אֵת אֲשֶׁר עִוְּתוֹ"?
  • מה ניתן לעשות לאחר שנעשה עיוות, על פי קהלת? איזו דרך קיימת, אם בכלל?
  • 7ז
    (ט) וְיֹתֵר שֶׁהָיָה קֹהֶלֶת חָכָם עוֹד לִמַּד דַּעַת אֶת הָעָם וְאִזֵּן וְחִקֵּר תִּקֵּן מְשָׁלִים הַרְבֵּה
    And besides that Koheleth was wise, he also taught the people knowledge; yea, he pondered, and sought out, and set in order many proverbs.
    8ח
    דיון
    שאלות
  • במה שונה פסוק זה מהפסוקים לעיל?
  • כיצד מאפשרת החקירה והתקנת המשלים פתרון ודרך מוצא?
  • האם אתם מסכימים עם כיוון זה?
  • 9ט
    "וא"ר[=ואמר רבי] יצחק: ד' דברים מקרעין [=קורעים את] גזר דינו של אדם, אלו הן: צדקה, צעקה, שינוי השם ושינוי מעשה;"
    And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: A person’s sentence is torn up on account of four types of actions. These are: Giving charity, crying out in prayer, a change of one’s name, and a change of one’s deeds for the better. An allusion may be found in Scripture for all of them: Giving charity, as it is written: “And charity delivers from death” (Proverbs 10:2); crying out in prayer, as it is written: “Then they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and He brings them out of their distresses” (Psalms 107:28); a change of one’s name, as it is written: “As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be” (Genesis 17:15), and it is written there: “And I will bless her, and I will also give you a son from her” (Genesis 17:16); a change of one’s deeds for the better, as it is written: “And God saw their deeds” (Jonah 3:10), and it is written there: “And God repented of the evil, which He had said He would do to them, and He did not do it” (Jonah 3:10).
    10י
    דיון
    שאלות
  • האם, על פי התלמוד הבבלי יש תיקון למעשים שנעשו? מהן דרכיו התיקון?
  • מהי כוונת המילים "שינוי המעשה"? הציעו דוגמא מחייכם לשינוי המעשה, ש"קרע את גזר הדין" עבורכם?
  • מהו הקשר בין תיקון לאחריות על פי טקסט זה?
  • 11יא
    רב הוה ליה מילתא בהדי ההוא טבחא לא אתא לקמיה במעלי יומא דכפורי אמר איהו איזיל אנא לפיוסי ליה פגע ביה רב הונא אמר ליה להיכא קא אזיל מר אמר ליה לפיוסי לפלניא אמר אזיל אבא למיקטל נפשא אזל וקם עילויה הוה יתיב וקא פלי רישא דלי עיניה וחזייה אמר ליה אבא את זיל לית לי מילתא בהדך בהדי דקא פלי רישא אישתמיט גרמא ומחייה בקועיה וקטליה.

    תרגום:
    רב היה לו דבר עם אותו השוחט.
    לא בא לפניו.
    בערב יום הכיפורים אמר הוא:
    אלך אני לפייס אותו.
    פגש אותו רב הונא, אמר לו:
    להיכן הולך מר?
    אמר לו, הולך אני לפייס את השוחט.
    אמר לו: הולך אבא להרוג אדם.
    הלך ובא אצלו.
    היה יושב ומבקע עצמות של ראש.
    הרים עיניו, ואמר לו: אבא אתה, אין לי עניין ודבר עמך.
    באותו זמן היה בוקע את הראש, נשמטה עצם, הכתה אותו בצווארו, ומת.
    Of his own will, he goes to die; and he does not fulfill the will of his household, and he goes empty-handed to his household; and if only his entrance would be like his exit. And when he saw a line of people [ambuha] following after him out of respect for him, he said: “Though his excellency ascends to the heavens, and his head reaches to the clouds, yet he shall perish forever like his own dung; they who have seen him will say: Where is he?” (Job 20:6–7). This teaches that when one achieves power, it can lead to his downfall. When they would carry Rav Zutra on their shoulders during the Shabbat of the Festival when he taught, he would recite the following to avoid becoming arrogant: “For power is not forever, and does the crown endure for all generations?” (Proverbs 27:24). § It was further taught: “It is not good to respect the person of the wicked” (Proverbs 18:5), meaning, it is not good for wicked people when they are respected in this world and are not punished their sins. For example, it was not good for Ahab to be respected in this world, as it is stated: “Because he humbled himself before Me, I will not bring the evil in his days” (I Kings 21:29), and Ahab thereby lost his share in the World-to-Come. The opposite is also true. The complete verse states: “It is not good to respect the person of the wicked, to turn aside the righteous in judgment” (Proverbs 18:5), meaning: It is good for the righteous when they are not respected in this world and are punished in this world for their sins. For example, it was good for Moses that he was not respected in this world, as it is stated: “Because you did not believe in Me, to sanctify Me” (Numbers 20:12). The Gemara analyzes this: Had you believed in Me, your time still would not have come to depart the world. They said: Fortunate are the righteous because not only do they accumulate merit for themselves, but they accumulate merit for their children and their children’s children until the end of all generations; as there were several sons of Aaron who essentially deserved to be burned like Nadav and Avihu, as it is stated: “The sons of Aaron who were left” (Leviticus 10:16), implying that others were left as well although they deserved to be burned with their brothers. But the merit of their father protected them, and they and their descendants were priests for all time. On the other hand: Woe to the wicked, as not only do they render themselves liable, but they also render their children and children’s children liable until the end of all generations. For example, Canaan had many children who deserved to be ordained as rabbis and instructors of the public due to their great stature in Torah study, like Tavi, the servant of Rabban Gamliel, who was famous for his wisdom; but their father’s liability caused them to remain as slaves. Furthermore: Whoever accumulates merit for the public will not have sin come to his hand, and God protects him from failing; but whoever causes the public to sin has almost no ability to repent. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that whoever accumulates merit for the public will not have sin come to his hand? It is so that he will not be in Gehenna while his students are in the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “For You will not abandon my soul to the nether-world; neither will You suffer Your godly one to see the pit” (Psalms 16:10). On the other hand, whoever causes the public to sin has almost no ability to repent, so that he will not be in the Garden of Eden while his students are in Gehenna, as it is stated: “A man who is laden with the blood of any person shall hasten his steps to the pit; none will support him” (Proverbs 28:17). Since he oppressed others and caused them to sin, he shall have no escape. § The Gemara returns to interpreting the mishna. It states there that one who says: I will sin and I will repent, I will sin and I will repent, is not given the opportunity to repent.The Gemara asks: Why do I need the mishna to say twice: I will sin and I will repent, I will sin and repent? The Gemara explains that this is in accordance with that which Rav Huna said that Rav said, as Rav Huna said that Rav said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him. The Gemara is surprised at this: Can it enter your mind that it becomes permitted to him? Rather, say that it becomes to him as though it were permitted. Consequently, the sinner who repeats his sin has difficulty abandoning his sin, and the repetition of his sin is reflected in the repetition of the phrase. It is stated in the mishna that if one says: I will sin and Yom Kippur will atone for my sins, Yom Kippur does not atone for his sins. The Gemara comments: Let us say that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Yom Kippur atones for all transgressions of the Torah, whether one repented or did not repent. The Gemara answers: Even if you say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, it is different when it is on the basis of being permitted to sin. Even Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi agrees that Yom Kippur does not atone for the transgressions one commits only because he knows that Yom Kippur will atone for them. § It was taught in the mishna: Yom Kippur atones for sins committed against God but does not atone for sins committed against another person. Rav Yosef bar Ḥavu raised a contradiction before Rabbi Abbahu: The mishna states that Yom Kippur does not atone for sins committed against a fellow person, but isn’t it written: “If one man sin against another, God [Elohim] shall judge him [ufilelo]” (I Samuel 2:25). The word ufilelo, which may also refer to prayer, implies that if he prays, God will grant the sinner forgiveness. He answered him: Who is Elohim mentioned in the verse? It is referring to a judge [elohim] and not to God, and the word ufilelo in the verse indicates judgment. Atonement occurs only after justice has been done toward the injured party by means of a court ruling. Rav Yosef bar Ḥavu said to him: If so, say the following with regard to the latter clause of the verse: “But if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat [yitpallel] for him?” (I Samuel 2:25). This is difficult, since it has been established that the root pll is interpreted in this verse as indicating judgment, and therefore the latter clause of the verse implies that if one sins toward God there is no one to judge him. Rabbi Abbahu answered him: This is what the verse is saying: If one man sins against another, God [Elohim] shall forgive him [ufilelo]; if the sinner appeases the person against whom he has sinned, he will be forgiven. But if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat [yitpallel] for him? Repentance and good deeds. The root pll is to be interpreted as indicating forgiveness rather than judgment. § Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One who angers his friend, even only verbally, must appease him,as it is stated: “My son, if you have become a guarantor for your neighbor, if you have struck your hands for a stranger, you are snared by the words of your mouth…Do this now, my son, and deliver yourself, seeing you have come into the hand of your neighbor. Go, humble yourself [hitrapes] and urge [rehav] your neighbor” (Proverbs 6:1–3). This should be understood as follows: If you have money that you owe him, open the palm of [hater pisat] your hand to your neighbor and pay the money that you owe; and if not, if you have sinned against him verbally, increase [harbe] friends for him, i.e., send many people as your messengers to ask him for forgiveness. Rav Ḥisda said: And one must appease the one he has insulted with three rows of three people, as it is stated: “He comes [yashor] before men, and says: I have sinned, and perverted that which was right, and it profited me not” (Job 33:27). Rav Ḥisda interprets the word yashor as related to the word shura, row. The verse mentions sin three times: I have sinned, and perverted, and it profited me not. This implies that one should make three rows before the person from whom he is asking forgiveness. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: Anyone who asks forgiveness of his friend should not ask more than three times, as it is stated: “Please, please forgive the transgression of your brothers and their sin, for they did evil to you. And now, please forgive” (Genesis 50:17). The verse uses the word please three times, which shows that one need not ask more than three times, after which the insulted friend must be appeased and forgive. And if the insulted friend dies before he can be appeased, one brings ten people, and stands them at the grave of the insulted friend, and says in front of them: I have sinned against the Lord, the God of Israel, and against so-and-so whom I wounded. The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya insulted Rabbi Abba, causing the latter to have a complaint against him. Rabbi Yirmeya went and sat at the threshold of Rabbi Abba’s house to beg him for forgiveness. When Rabbi Abba’s maid poured out the dirty water from the house, the stream of water landed on Rabbi Yirmeya’s head. He said about himself: They have made me into a trash heap, as they are pouring dirty water on me. He recited this verse about himself: “Who lifts up the needy out of the trash heap” (Psalms 113:7). Rabbi Abba heard what happened and went out to greet him. Rabbi Abba said to him: Now I must go out to appease you for this insult, as it is written: “Go, humble yourself [hitrapes] and urge your neighbor” (Proverbs 6:3). It is related that when Rabbi Zeira had a complaint against a person who insulted him, he would pace back and forth before him and present himself, so that the person could come and appease him. Rabbi Zeira made himself available so that it would be easy for the other person to apologize to him. It is further related that Rav had a complaint against a certain butcher who insulted him.The butcher did not come before him to apologize. On Yom Kippur eve, Rav said: I will go and appease him. He met his student Rav Huna, who said to him: Where is my Master going? He said to him: I am going to appease so-and-so. Rav Huna called Rav by his name and said: Abba is going to kill a person, for surely that person’s end will not be good. Rav went and stood by him. He found the butcher sitting and splitting the head of an animal. The butcher raised his eyes and saw him. He said to him: Are you Abba? Go, I have nothing to say to you. While he was splitting the head, one of the bones of the head flew out and struck him in the throat and killed him, thereby fulfilling Rav Huna’s prediction. The Gemara further relates: Rav was reciting the Torah portion before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.
    12יב
    דיון
    שאלות
  • מדוע בחר רב ללכת ולהסתובב סביב השוחט? מה ביקש לעצמו? מה ביקש עבור השוחט ?
  • מדוע, לדעתכם, הוא המשיך ללכת אליו, גם לאחר שהוזהר על ידי תלמידו, רב הונא, שהוא הולך להרוג אדם? מדוע לא חזר בו?
  • האם, לדעתכם, ייתכן שאי מעשה, אלא המחשבה על תוצאותיו ועל השלכותיו, הם, למעשה, התיקון האמיתי?
  • האם הרב או השוחט לקחו אחריות על המריבה ביניהם? מהי המשמעות של לקיחת אחריות, על פי סיפור זה?
  • 13יג
    איזו היא תשובה גמורה - זה שבא לידו דבר שעבר בו, ואפשר בידו לעשות, ופירש ולא עשה מפני התשובה, לא מיראה ולא מכשלון כוח. כיצד: הרי שבא על אישה בעבירה, ולאחר זמן נתייחד עימה והוא עומד באהבתו בה ובכוח גופו, ובמדינה שעבר בה, ופירש ולא עבר - זה הוא בעל תשובה גמורה. הוא ששלמה אומר "וזכור, את בוראך, בימי, בחורותיך" (קוהלת יב,א).
    What is complete repentance? He who once more had in it in his power to repeat a violation, but separated himself therefrom, and did not do it because of repentance, not out of fear or lack of strength. For example? One who knew a woman sinfully, and after a process of time he met her again privately, and he still loving her as theretofore, and he being in a state of potency, and the meeting is in the same land where the sin was first committed, if he parted without sinning, he has attained complete repentance. Of such Solomon said: "Remember then thy Creator in the days of thy youth" (Ecc. 12.1). Even if he made no reparation save in his old age, at a time when it was already impossible for him to repeat his misdeeds, although it is not the best repentance, it still is of help to him and he is considered a penitent. Moreover, though he continued a life of sin but did repent on his dying day, and did die a penitent, all of his sins are forgiven, even as it is said: "While the sun, or the light, or the moon, or the stars, be not darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain" (Ibid. 12.2), yea, that is the day of death. Deduct herefrom that if he remembered his Creator and did repent ere he died, he was forgiven.1Ibid. 86b; Kiddushin, 40b; Shabbat, 151a. C.
    14יד
    דיון
    שאלות
  • מיהו בעל תשובה גמורה, על פי הרמב"ם? מה נדרש מאדם זה?
  • האם תוכלו לשתף במקרה שבו גם אתם שבתם תשובה גמורה, לפי הרמב"ם?
  • כיצד מתייחס הרמב"ם לקהלת? האם הוא מסכים אתו? האם הוא מתנגד לדבריו?
  • מה מחדש הרמב"ם לגבי מקומה של התשובה בין העבר לבין העתיד?
  • 15טו
    אגדה סינית [מקור לא ידוע] עיבד: אברהם שטאל, בתוך: מפתח הל"ב לשעת חינוך, משרד החינוך, 2008
    אגדה סינית
    לפני שנים רבות חי בסין חכם גדול ושמו צ'אנג. היו לו תלמידים רבים, אחד מהם היה קונג, שנודע כעצלן. יום אחד קרא לו צ'אנג ואמר: "בני אתה מבזבז את זמנך. אינך לומד. מעתה כל יום שאינך לומד אתקע מסמר אחד בקיר. בסוף השנה תספור את המסמרים ותדע כמה ימים בזבזת". בסוף השנה, היו בקיר 365 מסמרים! ראה קונג את המסמרים הרבים ורצה לתקן את דרכו. בא אל צ'אנג ואמר:"מורי, עכשיו אלמד". ואמנם שקד על לימודיו. התחיל צ'אנג מוציא את המסמרים מהקיר. בכל יום היה מוציא מסמר אחד. בסוף השנה אמר קונג בשמחה: "מורי, כבר אין אף מסמר בקיר! הרי שתיקנתי מה שקלקלתי". הסתכל צ'אנג בעצב על הקיר ואמר: "נכון בני. מסמרים בקיר-אין, אך החורים נשארו בו".
    16טז
    דיון
    שאלות
  • מהו היחס לתיקון על פי המשל הסיני?
  • מהו המחיר שמשלם התלמיד על עבור עוונותיו?
  • האם המסר של המשל תואם את דברי קהלת "מעוות לא יוכל לתקון" או סותר אותם?
  • האם הוא תואם את דבריו של קהלת במבטו על העבר ועל העתיד?
  • האם גם לכם נותרו ב"חורים בקיר", לאחר שתיקנתם עוול שגרמתם?
  • 18 יח