'למות באוהלה של תורה' - קרב בבית המדרש
הדף מאת: בית מדרש פשיטא / פרויקט פשיטא
אנחנו רגילים לשמוע את הממרה 'תלמידי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם', אולם האם בית המדרש הוא אכן מקום של שלום? האם הוא צריך להיות מקום של שלום? דף הלימוד מציע מבט ביקורתי על אתוס המאבק והמלחמה המלווה את הרעיון של בית המדרש, ומנסה לבחון את מקומו - המצוי והרצוי - בתרבות היהודית ובימינו.
אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא:

אין סכין מתחדדת אלא בירך של חבירתה,

כך אין תלמיד חכם מתחדד אלא בחבירו
Rabbi Chama Bar Chanina opened with the following verse: Iron sharpens iron (Proverbs 27:17). Rabbi Chama Bar Chanina said: A knife will only become sharpened only at the side of another. So too, a Torah scholar can only become sharpened by a friend. "Iron sharpens iron and a person sharpens the face of his neighbor." This is referring to Jacob. When our father Jacob stood together (play on sharpened) with his friend, the Shekinah attached itself (or sharpened) to him. As it says "Behold Adonai stood upon him" (Genesis 38:13).
דיון
  • מה דעתכם על הדימוי שעולה ממקור זה?
  • מדוע, לדעתכם בחר רבי חמא דווקא בדימוי זה?
  • האם כך אתם מבינים את מה שמתחולל בבית המדרש?
אמר רבי חייא בר אבא: אפילו האב ובנו, הרב ותלמידו שעוסקין בתורה בשער אחד, נעשים אויבים זה את זה ואינם זזים משם עד שנעשים אוהבים זה את זה, שנאמר; "אֶת וָהֵב בְּסוּפָה", אל תקרי בְּסוּפָה, אלא בְּסוֹפָהּ.
The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase “enemies in the gate” with regard to Torah study? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Even a father and his son, or a rabbi and his student, who are engaged in Torah together in one gate become enemies with each other due to the intensity of their studies. But they do not leave there until they love each other, as it is stated in the verse discussing the places the Jewish people engaged in battle in the wilderness: “Therefore it is said in the book of the wars of the Lord, Vahev in Suphah [beSufa], and the valleys of Arnon” (Numbers 21:14). The word “vahev” is interpreted as related to the word for love, ahava. Additionally, do not read this as “in Suphah [beSufa]”; rather, read it as “at its end [besofa],” i.e., at the conclusion of their dispute they are beloved to each other.
דיון
  • ר' חייא מתאר תהליך: בתחילה אויבים, בסוף אוהבים. האם זהו תהליך הכרחי?
  • מה טיבה של אותה 'אהבה' שבאה בעקבות הלימוד?
פעם אחת היה ר' יוחנן רוחץ בירדן. ראהו ריש לקיש וקפץ אחריו לתוך הירדן.
אמר לו ר' יוחנן: כוחך לתורה.
אמר לו: יופיך לנשים.
אמר לו ר' יוחנן: אם תחזור בך אתן לך את אחותי שהיא יפה ממני. קיבל עליו. ביקש לחזור ולהביא כליו - ולא יכול לחזור.
הקריא והשנה לו ונעשה אדם גדול.
פעם אחת נחלקו חכמים בבית המדרש: הסיף והסכין והפגיון והרומח ומגל היד ומגל הקציר - מאימתי מקבלים טומאה? - משעת גמר מלאכתם. ומאימתי גמר מלאכתם? ר' יוחנן אמר: משיצרפם בכבשן, וריש לקיש אמר: משיצחצחם במים.
אמר לו ר' יוחנן לריש לקיש: ליסטים בליסטיותו יודע.
אמר ריש לקיש: ומה הועלת לי? שם קראו לי "רבי" וכאן קוראים לי "רבי".
אמר לו: הועלתי לך, שקרבתיך תחת כנפי השכינה. חלשה דעתו של ר' יוחנן וחלה ריש לקיש.
באה אשתו של ריש לקיש ובכתה, אמרה לו: עשה בשביל בני! אמר לה: "עזבה יתומיך אני אחיה" (ירמיה פרק מ"ט). - עשה בשביל אלמנותי! אמר לה: "ואלמנותיך עלי תבטחו" (ירמיה פרק מ"ט).
ומת רבי שמעון בן לקיש. היה רבי יוחנן מצטער אחריו הרבה. ולא ירד לבית הועד. אמרו חכמים: מי ילך להניח דעתו? - ילך ר' אלעזר בן פדת ששמועותיו מחודדות. בא וישב לפניו. כל מה שהיה ר' יוחנן אומר - אמר לו ר' אלעזר בן פדת: "תניא דמסייעא לך" [=יש אמירת תנאים שתומכת בטענתך]. אמר לו ר' יוחנן: אתה כבן לקיש? בן לקיש כשהייתי אומר דבר - היה מקשה לי עשרים וארבע קושיות ואני מתרץ לו עשרים וארבע תירוצים - והשמועה נתרווחה מאליה; ואתה אומר "תניא דמסייעא לך" - וכי איני יודע שיפה אמרתי?! עמד וקרע את בגדיו ובכה ואמר: היכן אתה בן לקיש! היכן אתה בן לקיש! היה צועק והולך עד שנטרפה עליו דעתו. ביקשו עליו חכמים רחמים ומת.

הסברים
  • אשתו של ריש לקיש היא אחותו של רבי יוחנן
מושגים
  • ריש לקיש - כינויו של רבי שמעון בן לקיש. מגדולי אמוראי ארץ ישראל בדור השני, במחצית השניה של המאה השלישית לספירה. תלמיד חבר לר' יוחנן.
    מוצאו ממשפחה של תלמידי חכמים, אולם בצעירותו מכר עצמו ללודיים- הגלדיאטורים ובהמשך גם עמד בראש כנופיית שודדים.
    בתלמוד בבלי, בבא מציעא, דף פ"ד עמוד א, מסופר סיפור פגישתם של ריש לקיש ור' יוחנן שהוביל לשינוי משמעותי בדמותו של ריש לקיש.
  • רבי יוחנן - (מכונה גם בר נפחא) - גדול אמוראי ארץ ישראל בדור השני. שימש במשך כשמונים שנה כראש ישיבה בטבריה. תרומתו בתחומי ההלכה והאגדה ממלאים את דפי שני התלמודים, הבבלי והירושלמי, וכן את המדרשים. פעילותו משתרעת החל מהרבע הראשון של המאה השלישית לספירה ועד לסיומה של המאה כמעט. תרומתו של רבי יוחנן לחתימת התלמוד הירושלמי היא גולת הכותרת של חייו
Elijah the prophet encountered him and said to him: Until when will you inform on the nation of our God to be sentenced to execution? Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to Elijah: What should I do? It is the king’s edict that I must obey. Elijah said to him: Faced with this choice, your father fled to Asia. You should flee to Laodicea rather than accept this appointment. § With regard to these Sages, the Gemara adds: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would meet each other, it was possible for a pair of oxen to enter and fit between them, under their bellies, without touching them, due to their excessive obesity. A certain Roman noblewoman [matronita] once said to them: Your children are not really your own, as due to your obesity it is impossible that you engaged in intercourse with your wives. They said to her: Theirs, i.e., our wives’ bellies, are larger than ours. She said to them: All the more so you could not have had intercourse. There are those who say that this is what they said to her: “For as the man is, so is his strength” (Judges 8:21), i.e., our sexual organs are proportionate to our bellies. There are those who say that this is what they said to her: Love compresses the flesh. The Gemara asks: And why did they respond to her audacious and foolish question? After all, it is written: “Answer not a fool according to his folly, lest you also be like him” (Proverbs 26:4). The Gemara answers: They answered her in order not to cast aspersions on the lineage of their children. The Gemara continues discussing the bodies of these Sages: Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The organ of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, was the size of a jug of nine kav. Rav Pappa said: The organ of Rabbi Yoḥanan was the size of a jug of five kav, and some say it was the size of a jug of three kav. Rav Pappa himself had a belly like the baskets [dikurei] made in Harpanya. With regard to Rabbi Yoḥanan’s physical features, the Gemara adds that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: I alone remain of the beautiful people of Jerusalem. The Gemara continues: One who wishes to see something resembling the beauty of Rabbi Yoḥanan should bring a new, shiny silver goblet from the smithy and fill it with red pomegranate seeds [partzidaya] and place a diadem of red roses upon the lip of the goblet, and position it between the sunlight and shade. That luster is a semblance of Rabbi Yoḥanan’s beauty. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Was Rabbi Yoḥanan so beautiful? But doesn’t the Master say: The beauty of Rav Kahana is a semblance of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu; the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu is a semblance of the beauty of Jacob, our forefather; and the beauty of Jacob, our forefather, is a semblance of the beauty of Adam the first man, who was created in the image of God. And yet Rabbi Yoḥanan is not included in this list. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥanan is different from these other men, as he did not have a beauty of countenance, i.e., he did not have a beard. The Gemara continues to discuss Rabbi Yoḥanan’s beauty. Rabbi Yoḥanan would go and sit by the entrance to the ritual bath. He said to himself: When Jewish women come up from their immersion for the sake of a mitzva, after their menstruation, they should encounter me first, so that they have beautiful children like me, and sons learned in Torah like me. This is based on the idea that the image upon which a woman meditates during intercourse affects the child she conceives. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: Isn’t the Master worried about being harmed by the evil eye by displaying yourself in this manner? Rabbi Yoḥanan said to them: I come from the offspring of Joseph, over whom the evil eye does not have dominion, as it is written: “Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a fountain [alei ayin]” (Genesis 49:22); and Rabbi Abbahu says: Do not read the verse as saying: “By a fountain [alei ayin]”; rather, read it as: Those who rise above the evil eye [olei ayin]. Joseph’s descendants are not susceptible to the influence of the evil eye. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said that this idea is derived from here: “And let them grow [veyidgu] into a multitude in the midst of the earth” (Genesis 48:16). Just as with regard to fish [dagim] in the sea, the water covers them and the evil eye therefore has no dominion over them, as they are not seen, so too, with regard to the offspring of Joseph, the evil eye has no dominion over them. The Gemara relates: One day, Rabbi Yoḥanan was bathing in the Jordan River. Reish Lakish saw him and jumped into the Jordan, pursuing him. At that time, Reish Lakish was the leader of a band of marauders. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to Reish Lakish: Your strength is fit for Torah study. Reish Lakish said to him: Your beauty is fit for women. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: If you return to the pursuit of Torah, I will give you my sister in marriage, who is more beautiful than I am. Reish Lakish accepted upon himself to study Torah. Subsequently, Reish Lakish wanted to jump back out of the river to bring back his clothes, but he was unable to return, as he had lost his physical strength as soon as he accepted the responsibility to study Torah upon himself. Rabbi Yoḥanan taught Reish Lakish Bible, and taught him Mishna, and turned him into a great man. Eventually, Reish Lakish became one of the outstanding Torah scholars of his generation. One day the Sages of the study hall were engaging in a dispute concerning the following baraita: With regard to the sword, the knife, the dagger [vehapigyon], the spear, a hand sickle, and a harvest sickle, from when are they susceptible to ritual impurity? The baraita answers: It is from the time of the completion of their manufacture, which is the halakha with regard to metal vessels in general. These Sages inquired: And when is the completion of their manufacture? Rabbi Yoḥanan says: It is from when one fires these items in the furnace. Reish Lakish said: It is from when one scours them in water, after they have been fired in the furnace. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to Reish Lakish: A bandit knows about his banditry, i.e., you are an expert in weaponry because you were a bandit in your youth. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥanan: What benefit did you provide me by bringing me close to Torah? There, among the bandits, they called me: Leader of the bandits, and here, too, they call me: Leader of the bandits. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: I provided benefit to you, as I brought you close to God, under the wings of the Divine Presence. As a result of the quarrel, Rabbi Yoḥanan was offended, which in turn affected Reish Lakish, who fell ill. Rabbi Yoḥanan’s sister, who was Reish Lakish’s wife, came crying to Rabbi Yoḥanan, begging that he pray for Reish Lakish’s recovery. She said to him: Do this for the sake of my children, so that they should have a father. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to her the verse: “Leave your fatherless children, I will rear them” (Jeremiah 49:11), i.e., I will take care of them. She said to him: Do so for the sake of my widowhood. He said to her the rest of the verse: “And let your widows trust in Me.” Ultimately, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, Reish Lakish, died. Rabbi Yoḥanan was sorely pained over losing him. The Rabbis said: Who will go to calm Rabbi Yoḥanan’s mind and comfort him over his loss? They said: Let Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat go, as his statements are sharp, i.e., he is clever and will be able to serve as a substitute for Reish Lakish. Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat went and sat before Rabbi Yoḥanan. With regard to every matter that Rabbi Yoḥanan would say, Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat would say to him: There is a ruling which is taught in a baraita that supports your opinion. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: Are you comparable to the son of Lakish? In my discussions with the son of Lakish, when I would state a matter, he would raise twenty-four difficulties against me in an attempt to disprove my claim, and I would answer him with twenty-four answers, and the halakha by itself would become broadened and clarified. And yet you say to me: There is a ruling which is taught in a baraita that supports your opinion. Do I not know that what I say is good? Being rebutted by Reish Lakish served a purpose; your bringing proof to my statements does not. Rabbi Yoḥanan went around, rending his clothing, weeping and saying: Where are you, son of Lakish? Where are you, son of Lakish? Rabbi Yoḥanan screamed until his mind was taken from him, i.e., he went insane. The Rabbis prayed and requested for God to have mercy on him and take his soul, and Rabbi Yoḥanan died. § After this digression, the Gemara returns to the story of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. And although his flesh did not putrefy, even so Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, still did not rely on his own opinion, as he was worried that he may have erred in one of his decisions. He accepted afflictions upon himself as atonement for his possible sins. At night his attendants would spread out sixty felt bed coverings for him. In the morning, despite the bed coverings, they would remove sixty basins of blood and pus from underneath him. The following day, i.e., every morning, his wife would prepare for him sixty types of relish [lifda] made from figs, and he would eat them and become healthy. His wife, concerned for his health, would not allow him to go to the study hall, so that the Rabbis would not push him beyond his limits. In the evening, he would say to his pains: My brothers and my friends, come! In the morning he would say to them: Go away, due to the dereliction of Torah study that you cause me. One day his wife heard him inviting his pains. She said to him: You are bringing the pains upon yourself. You have diminished the money of my father’s home due to the costs of treating your self-imposed afflictions. She rebelled against him and went back to her father’s home, and he was left with no one to care for him. Meanwhile, there were these sixty sailors who came and entered to visit Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. They brought him sixty servants, each bearing sixty purses, and prepared him sixty types of relish and he ate them. When they had encountered trouble at sea, these sailors had prayed to be saved in the merit of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Upon returning to dry land, they presented him with these gifts. One day, the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, said to her daughter: Go and check on your father and see what he is doing now. The daughter came to her father, who said to her: Go and tell your mother that ours is greater than theirs, i.e., my current financial status is greater than that of your father’s household. He read the verse about himself: “She is like the merchant-ships; she brings her food from afar” (Proverbs 31:14). As he was unhindered by his wife from going to the study hall, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, ate and drank and became healthy and went out to the study hall. The students brought sixty questionable samples of blood before him for inspection, to determine whether or not they were menstrual blood. He deemed them all ritually pure, thereby permitting the women to engage in intercourse with their husbands. The Rabbis of the academy were murmuring about Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and saying: Can it enter your mind that there is not one uncertain sample among them? He must be mistaken. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, said to them: If the halakha is in accordance with my ruling, let all the children born from these women be males. And if not, let there be one female among them. It turned out that all of the children were males, and they were called Elazar in his name. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lamented and said concerning the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: How much procreation has this evil woman prevented from the Jewish people. She caused women not to have children by preventing her husband from going to the study hall and rendering his halakhic rulings. As Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was dying, he said to his wife: I know that the Rabbis are angry at me for arresting several thieves who are their relatives, and therefore they will not properly tend to my burial. When I die, lay me in my attic and do not be afraid of me, i.e., do not fear that anything will happen to my corpse. Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Rabbi Yonatan’s mother told me that the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, told her: I laid him in the attic for no less than eighteen years and for no more than twenty-two years. His wife continued: When I would go up to the attic I would check his hair, and when a hair would fall out from his head, blood would come and appear in its place, i.e., his corpse did not decompose. One day I saw a worm emerging from his ear, and I became very distressed that perhaps his corpse had begun to decompose. My husband appeared to me in a dream and said to me: It is no matter for concern. Rather, this is a consequence for a sin of mine, as one day I heard a Torah scholar being insulted and I did not protest as I should have. Therefore, I received this punishment in my ear, measure for measure. During this period, when two people would come for adjudication of a dispute, they would stand by the doorway to the home of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. One litigant would state his side of the matter, and the other litigant would state his side of the matter. A voice would issue forth from his attic, saying: So-and-so, you are guilty; so-and-so, you are innocent. The Gemara relates: One day, the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was quarreling with a neighbor. The neighbor said to her as a curse: This woman should be like her husband, who was not buried. When word spread that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried, the Rabbis said: This much, i.e., now that the matter is known, to continue in this state is certainly not proper conduct, and they decided to bury him. There are those who say that the Sages found out that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried when Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, his father, appeared to them in a dream and said to them: I have a single fledgling among you, i.e., my son, and you do not wish to bring it to me by burying him next to me. Consequently, the Sages went to tend to his burial. The residents of Akhbaria, the town where the corpse of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was resting, did not allow them to do so, as they realized that all the years that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had been resting in his attic, no wild beast had entered their town. The townspeople attributed this phenomenon to his merit and they did not want to lose this protection. One day, which was Yom Kippur eve, everyone in the town was preoccupied with preparations for the Festival. The Rabbis sent a message to the residents of the adjacent town of Biri instructing them to help remove the body of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, from the attic, and they removed his bier and brought it to his father’s burial cave. They found a serpent [le’akhna] that had placed its tail in its mouth and completely encircled the entrance to the cave, denying them access. They said to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth to allow a son to enter next to his father. It opened its mouth for them and uncoiled, and they buried Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, alongside his father. The Gemara continues: After this incident, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sent a messenger to speak with the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and propose marriage. She sent a message to him in response: Shall a vessel used by someone sacred, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, be used by someone who is, relative to him, profane? There, in Eretz Yisrael, they say that she used the colloquial adage: In the location where the master of the house hangs his sword, shall the contemptible shepherd hang his basket [kultei]? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sent a message back to her: Granted that in Torah he was greater than I, but was he greater than I in pious deeds? She sent a message back to him: Whether he was greater than you in Torah I do not know; but I do know that he was greater than you in pious deeds, as he accepted afflictions upon himself. The Gemara asks: With regard to Torah knowledge, what is the event that demonstrated the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The Gemara answers: When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, the leading Sages of the generation, were sitting on benches [asafselei] teaching Torah along with the other Sages, the youthful pair Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would sit before them on the ground out of respect. These two young students would engage in discussions with the Sages, in which they would raise difficulties and answer them brilliantly. Seeing the young scholars’ brilliance, the leading Sages said: From their waters we drink, i.e., we are learning from them, and they are the ones sitting on the ground? Benches were prepared for Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and they were promoted to sit alongside the other Sages. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to the other Sages present: I have a single fledgling among you, i.e., my son Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and you are seeking to take it from me? By promoting my son to such a prestigious position at such a young age, his chances of being adversely affected by the evil eye are greatly increased. They demoted Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to sit on the ground, at his father’s request. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said to the Sages: Should one who has a father to care for him, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, be demoted so that he may live, while the other one, who does not have a father to care for him, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, should be allowed to die? Upon hearing his argument, the Sages also demoted Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, without explaining to him the reason for his demotion. He became offended and said to them: You are equating Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to me, by demoting us together. In fact, I am much greater than he. As a result of that incident, the relationship of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi changed. Up until that day, when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would state a matter of Torah, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would support him by citing proofs for his opinion. From this point forward, when they were discussing a subject and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would say: I have an argument to respond, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would preempt him by saying to him: Such and such is what you have to respond, and this is the refutation of your claim. Now that you asked these questions, you have surrounded us with bundles of refutations that have no substance, i.e., you have forced us to give unnecessary answers. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would anticipate Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s comments and immediately dismiss them as having no value. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi became offended. He came and told his father what had transpired. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said to him: My son, do not let his actions offend you, as he is a lion, son of a lion, and you are a lion, son of a fox. Rabbi Elazar’s father, Rabbi Shimon, was a renowned Sage, and therefore Rabbi Elazar’s sagacity is not surprising. In any event, this incident demonstrates the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to knowledge of Torah. The Gemara concludes: This incident is the background to a statement which Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: There are three prototypical modest people, and they are: Father, i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel;
דיון
  • כיצד אתם מבינים את הסיפור? מה הוביל לסיומו הטרגי?
  • אילו אסוציאציות מעורר בכם הסיפור?
  • איך אתם מבינים את ההבדל בין הלימוד של ר' יוחנן עם ריש לקיש, לבין הלימוד שלו עם ר אלעזר בן פדת? איזה לימוד אתם מעדיפים?
  • איך אתם מבינים את תפקידה של האשה/אחות בסיפור?
אדמיאל קוסמן, 'רבי יוחנן וריש לקיש: דמות האל בבית המדרש - 'גבריות מול 'נשיות', מתוך: מסכת גברים: רב והקצב ועוד סיפורים, הוצאת כתה הוצאה לאור עמודים 47-49 בדילוגים
זעקה זו היא זעקתו של ריש לקיש המתקומם עתה כנגד רבו בתחושה כי על אף העובדה שבאופן פורמלי הוא קיים את חלקו באותה עסקה שנעשתה במי הנהר, הרי שבאופן עמוק ופנימי היה כאן אלמנט של פיתוי ורמאות - והוא לא קיבל את מה שציפה לו מרבי יוחנן ומבית המדרש שאליו פנה בשלב מאוחר של חייו. למה ציפה ריש לקיש באותה פגישה ראשונית, ומדוע התאכזב כל כך ממה שש'קיבל' מרבי יוחנן רבו?

סיפורנו פתח ב'מבט' ששלח ריש לקיש אל רבי יוחנן שרחץ במי הירדן, ול'מבט' הראשוני זה נודעת משמעות רבה. המספר מסר לנו כבר בשלב זה של הסיפור כי במבט זה חלה טעות: ריש לקיש דימה אז את רבי יוחנן לאישה, אך משהתקרב אליו מצאו לאכזבתו 'גבר'. מעתה נבין כי טעות זיהוי זו מלווה את תחושבת ההחמצה של ריש לקיש לאורך כל שנותיו הרבות בבית המדרש. ריש לקיש סבר כי בהסכמתו לעסקה זו הוא מקבל עליו להמיר בעזרת רבי יוחנן מורו ה'נשי', אורח חיים כוחני באורח חיים רוחני; ובעבורו, בעבור ריש לקיש, רבי יוחנן היה ונותר לעולם כבתמונת הפתיחה הראשונית ביותר : 'אישה'.

נשיות זו שאליה שאף כ"כ ריש לקיש היתה הרצון למצוא בדמותו של מורו ובחיי בית המדרש בכלל פן נשי, רך ועוטף, אמהי, סולח ומוחל, שאינו עסוק כל העת - כבחייו ה'גבריים' הקודמים - במלחמות ה'רומח'. ריש לקיש חשב שהוא ממיר חייים של תחרות כוחנית, של מאבק היררכי מי יהיה יותר 'רבי', גברא רבא, מחברו - במקום שבו מצוי אורח חיים שונה לחלוטין...

למדנו אפוא כי עלבון חד-פעמי זה שהטיח רבי יוחנן בתלמידו ריש לקיש לא היה אלא 'קצה הקרחון' של תחושת אכזבה עמוקה ביותר של ריש לקיש מאורח החיים הזה מפח נפש זה נבע, כאמור, מכך שהוא לא מצא ברבי יוחנן מורו את שדימה למצוא מתחילה כאשר דימהו באותו 'מבט ראשון' לאישה - מי שילמדו דרך חיים שונה, דרך חיים 'נשית' אשר עשייתה הדתית אינה מבוססת על חיי הרומח שבהם בילה את שנותיו הראשונות בחברת השודדים. ברם, עתה, לאחר שהשקיע בעסקה זו את כל כולו לא עומד מולו אלא 'רבי' שהוא 'גבר שבגברים' תקיף שבתקיפים, לוחם עז שאינו מניח לעולם את כלי זינו...

© כל הזכויות שמורות למחבר
דיון
  • מה דעתכם על פרשנותו של קוסמן לסיפור?
  • איזה בית מדרש אתם מעדיפים? מה לדעתכם העדיפו חכמי התלמוד?
  • נסו לחשוב על יתרונות וחסרונות לכל אחת מהשיטות האידיאלוגיות הללו.
ריש לקיש - מבריון רחוב לבית המדרש , אתר פשיטא
דיון
  • מי משך את מי לעולמו, על פי פירוש זה?
  • מה דעתכם על הפירוש שניתן בסרט לסיפור?
ר' חיים מוולוז'ין, בפירושו למשנה אבות פרק א' משנה ד'
דברי ר' חיים מוולוז'ין, בפירושו לדברי המשנה "יהי ביתך בית ועד לחכמים, והוי מתאבק בעפר רגליהם":

הנה הלימוד נקרא מלחמה, כמו שאמרו "מלחמתה של תורה", אם כן גם התלמידים לוחמים יקראו... ואסור לו לתלמיד לקבל דברי רבו כשיש לו קושיות עליהם, ולפעמים יהיה האמת עם התלמיד, וכמו שעץ קטן מדליק את הגדול. וזה שאמר "יהי ביתך בית ועד לחכמים והוי מתאבק", מלשון "ויאבק איש עמו" (בראשית לב, כד), שהוא ענין התאבקות מלחמה, כי מלחמת מצוה היא. וכן אנו נגד רבותינו הקדושים אשר בארץ ונשמתם בשמי מרום, המחברים המפורסמים, וספריהם אתנו, הנה על ידי הספרים אשר בבתינו, בתינו הוא בית ועד לחכמים אלה, הוזהרנו גם כן וניתן לנו רשות להתאבק וללחום בדבריהם ולתרץ קושייתם, ולא לישא פני איש, רק לאהוב האמת. אבל עם כל זה יזהר בנפשו מלדבר בגאוה וגודל לבב, באשר מצא מקום לחלוק, וידמה כי גדול הוא כרבו או כמחבר הספר אשר הוא משיג עליו, וידע בלבבו כי כמה פעמים לא יבין דבריו וכוונתו, ולכן יהיה אך בענוה יתירה, באמרו "אם איני כדאי אך תורה היא" וכו'. וזהו שאמר "הוי מתאבק" כנ"ל, אך בתנאי - "בעפר רגליהם", רוצה לומר בענוה והכנעה ולדון לפניהם בקרקע.
דיון
  • מה דעתכם על תפיסתו של ר' חיים מוולוז'ין? האם גם לדעתכם ראוי להילחם על האמת?
  • האם תוכלו לחשוב על צורה אחרת לשמור בה על 'האמת'?
הרב אליעזר פאפו, 'אורות אלים' דף ב' עמוד ב' (פירוש על מסכת שבת דף סג ע"א) סלוניקי תקפ"ג
...שמקודם שתיכנסו ללמוד בחברותא, תסכימו בדעתכם בכל תוקף שלא לענות סרה אפילו אם הלומד עימכם יצא מן השורה, ועוד גדר לזה - שלא תתקעו עצמכם לדבר הלכה, רוצה לומר שאם תאמרו איזה דבר שנראה בעיניכם שהוא הגון, וחבריכם רוצים לדחות אותו בקש, אל תחושו לומר קבלו דעתי.

וכן שאתם מתווכחים עם חבריכם ויראה לכם שאינם מודים על האמת, אל תכנסו בעובי הקורה להיות חוזר בדברים, כי ברוב דברים לא יחדל פשע ולהג הרבה יגיעת בשר, רק תגלו דעתכם פעם אחת, השומע ישמע והחדל יחדל, ואין צריך לומר שאין להקשות על הדרש, וכל מה שיאמרו מילי דדרשא תענו מודים מודים, ואפילו אם יהיה הדבר ידוע לכם תעשו עצמכם כאילו לא ידעתם...

מושגים
  • 'פלא יועץ'- הרב אליעזר פאפו - (1770 - 1828) יליד סרייבו שבבוסניה, אז חלק מן האימפריה העותומאנית. משנת 1819 ועד מותו כיהן כרב הקהילה הספרדית של סיליסטרה שבבולגריה. נודע בספר המוסר שחיבר - 'פלא יועץ', הבנוי מפרקים העוסקים בנושאים שונים ומסודרים לפי סדר האלף-בית. מספריו: 'עצות רבניות', 'אלף המגן', 'משטר חיים מוסרי', 'אורח חיים' ו'בית תפילה'.
דיון
  • מה דעתכם על דבריו של ר' אליעזר פאפו? איזה מין בית מדרש הוא מציע?
  • האם הייתם רוצים ללמוד בבית מדרש שכזה?