יחידים
1א
הדף מאת: רות קלדרון / עלמא
2ב
השיעור עוקב אחר השינוי שעבר המושג התנאי 'יחידים', שראשיתו - כפי שמעיד שמו - מנהיגים דתיים מקומיים שקיבלו על עצמם חומרות תענית בלא פרסום ובלא הכרה; המשכו במיסוד רבנִי שביטל את האפשרות לדתיות מקומית בלא תיווך, וניכס את המושג 'יחיד' לרבנן בלבד; וסופו בתובנה כי המעמד הרשמי 'רב', לא זו בלבד שאין בכוחו להוריד גשם, אלא רק בחולשת הדעת, רק כאשר הכבוד והמעמד מרוסקים - יורד המטר.
3ג
הִגִּיעַ שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן וְלֹא יָרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים, הִתְחִילוּ הַיְחִידִים מִתְעַנִּין שָׁלשׁ תַּעֲנִיּוֹת. אוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה, וּמֻתָּרִין בִּמְלָאכָה וּבִרְחִיצָה וּבְסִיכָה וּבִנְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל וּבְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה:
If the seventeenth of Marheshvan came and no rain fell, individuals begin to fast three fasts. They eat and drink after it gets dark and they are permitted to do work, to bathe, to anoint themselves with oil, to wear shoes, and to have marital relations.
4ד
עָבְרוּ אֵלּוּ וְלֹא נַעֲנוּ, מְמַעֲטִין בְּמַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן, בְּבִנְיָן וּבִנְטִיעָה, בְּאֵרוּסִין וּבְנִשּׂוּאִין וּבִשְׁאֵלַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, כִּבְנֵי אָדָם הַנְּזוּפִין לַמָּקוֹם. הַיְחִידִים חוֹזְרִים וּמִתְעַנִּים עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא נִיסָן.
If these passed and there was [still] no answer then they restrict engaging in business, and in building, planting, betrothal and marriage, and in greeting one another, as if they were people undesirable to God. The individuals go back to fasting anew until the end of Nisan. If Nisan passes and then rain falls this is a sign of a curse, as it is written, “It is the season of the wheat harvest. [I will pray to the Lord and He will send thunder and rain; then you will take thought and realize what a wicked thing you did in the sight of the Lord when you asked for a king” (I Samuel 12:17).
5ה
ירושלמי:
6ו
תלמוד ירושלמי, תעניות פרק א' הלכה ד'
אלו הם היחידים: אילו שהן מתמנין פרנסין על הציבור. מכיון שהוא מתמנה פרנס על הציבור הוא מתפלל ונענה. אלא מכיוון שהוא מתמנה פרנס על הציבור ונמצא נאמן כדיי הוא מצלייא ומתענייא.
7ז
תלמוד ירושלמי, מסכת תענית, פרק ד, דף ה עמוד א- דף ה עמוד ב
מקור: תרגום:
איתחמי לרבי אבהו: פנטקקה יצלי ואתי מיטרא, נחית מיטרא, שלח ר' אבהו ואיתיתיה א"ל מה אומנך? א"ל: חמש עבירן ההוא גוברא עביד בכל יום: מוגר זנייתה, משפר תייטרון, מעיל מניהון לבני, מטפח ומרקד קדמיהון ומקיש בבבויא קדמיהון.

א"ל: ומה טיבו עבדת?

א"ל: חד זמן הוה ההוא גברא משפר תייטרון, אתא חדא איתא וקמת לה חורי עמודא בכיי' ואמרית לה: מה ליך? ואמרה לי בעלה דההיא איתתא חביש, ואנא בעיא מיחמי מה מעביד ומפנינה.

וזבנית ערסי ופרוס ערסיי ויהבית לה טימיתיה. ואמרית לה: הא ליך פניי בעליך ולא תיחטיי.

א"ל: כדיי את מצלייא ומתעניא.
נראה לרבי אבהו [בחלום]: פנטקקה יתפלל ויבוא גשם. ירד גשם.
[ובחלומו פנטקקה התפלל שירדו גשמים ואכן ירדו גשמים.] שלח רבי אבהו [שליחים] והביאו את פנטקקה. אמר לו: מה מלאכתך?

אמר לו: חמש עברות אני עושה בכל יום: שוכר זונות, מנקה ומייפה את התאטרון [מקומן של הזונות], כובס את בגדיהן, מטפח ורוקד לפניהן ומקיש בתוף לפניהן.

אמר לו: ומה מעשה טוב עשית [שבזכותו הצלחת להוריד גשמים]

אמר לו: פעם אחת הייתי משפר את התיאטרון, באה אשה אחת ועמדה לה מאחורי העמוד ובכתה, ואמרתי לה: מה לך? ואמרה לי: בעלי חבוש [בבית האסורים], ואני מבקשת לראות מה אעשה ואפדנו [כלומר, להשכיר עצמה לזנות כדי להשיג כסף לפדותו] .

ואני [פנטקקה] מכרתי את מטתי ומצעי ונתתי לה את תמורתם, ואמרתי לה: הא לך, פדי את בעלך ולא תחטאי [בזנות].

אמרתי לו [ר' אבהו]: ראוי אתה להתפלל ולהיענות.
8ח
בבלי:
9ט
משנה: 'הגיע שבעה עשר במרחשון ולא ירדו גשמים- התחילו היחידים מתענין שלש תעניות..."

גמרא: "מאן יחידים? אמר רב הונא: רבנן.



לסוגיה המלאה באתר פשיטא

MISHNA: If the seventeenth of Marḥeshvan arrived and rain has not fallen, individuals, but not the entire community, begin to fast three fasts for rain. How are these fasts conducted? As the fast begins in the morning, one may eat and drink after dark, and one is permitted during the days of the fasts themselves to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing oil on one’s body, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. If the New Moon of Kislev arrived and rain has still not fallen, the court decrees three fasts on the entire community. Similar to the individual fasts, everyone may eat and drink after dark, and they are permitted to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing one’s body with oil, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Who are these individuals mentioned in the mishna? Rav Huna said: This is referring to the Sages, who are held to a higher standard and are expected to undertake fasts even when ordinary people do not. And Rav Huna further said: The individuals who fast the three fasts do so on a Monday, and on the next Thursday, and again on the following Monday.
10י
תנו רבנן: אל יאמר אדם תלמיד אני, איני ראוי להיות יחיד, אלא כל תלמידי חכמים יחידים.

אי זהו יחיד ואיזהו תלמיד? יחיד - כל שראוי למנותו פרנס על הצבור. תלמיד - כל ששואלין אותו דבר הלכה בלמודו ואומר ואפילו במסכת דכלה.

תנו רבנן: לא כל הרוצה לעשות עצמו יחיד - עושה, תלמיד - עושה, דברי ר' מאיר.

רבי יוסי אומר: עושה וזכור לטוב, לפי שאין שבח הוא לו אלא צער הוא לו.

תניא אידך: לא כל הרוצה לעשות עצמו יחיד עושה, תלמיד - עושה, דברי רבי שמעון בן אלעזר.

רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר: במה דברים אמורים? בדבר של שבח אבל בדבר של צער עושה וזכור לטוב, שאין שבח הוא לו אלא צער הוא לו.

הסברים
  • רש"י:
    'לא כל הרוצה לעשות עצמו יחיד'- לעניין תענית.
    'עושה' - דנראה מגסי הרוח.
    'ר' יוסי אומר כל אדם' - ואפילו שאינו תלמיד, עושה עצמו יחיד להתענות, וזכור לטוב דצער הוא לו ולא גסות.
    לישנא אחרינא גרסינן: לא כל הרוצה לעשות עצמו יחיד עושה, תלמיד עושה. כלומר: 'ולא כל הרוצה נמי לעשות עצמו תלמיד', להתנהג עצמו במידת תלמיד בחלוקו ובמיטתו, ולהתנאות בסודר של תלמידי חכמים ושאר דברים עושה, דכל הרוצה ליטול לו את השם לא ייטול.
The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should not say: I am only a student, and consequently I am unworthy to be considered an individual who fasts, as stated in the mishna. Rather, with regard to the fasts of individuals, all Torah scholars are individuals. The baraita elaborates: Who is an individual and who is a student? An individual is anyone who is learned in Torah and worthy to be appointed leader and teacher over the community. A student is any Torah scholar who is asked a matter of halakha in his studies and he says the correct answer, and this is the case even if he is familiar only with the tractate of the kalla month, i.e., the tractate the community studied that year. The Sages taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual and conduct himself accordingly may do so, and nor may everyone who wants to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: One may do so, and he is even remembered for good, as the conduct of a Torah student is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him. It is proper for one to take these obligations upon himself and he is not considered to be acting inappropriately. It is taught in another baraita: Not everyone who wishes to make himself an individual may do so, and nor may everyone who wishes to act like a student do so. This is the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In what case is this statement said? It is said with regard to a matter of praise, e.g., adorning oneself with the garments of a Torah scholar. However, with regard to a matter of pain, when Torah scholars act strictly, one may do so, and one who acts strictly is remembered for good, as it is not a source of praise for him, but it is a source of pain for him.
11יא
סיפורי חולשת הדעת
12יב
תלמוד בבלי, מסכת תענית, דף כד
מקור:

רב נחמן גזר תעניתא, בעא רחמי ולא אתא מיטרא.

אמר: שקלוה לנחמן חבוטו מן גודא לארעא.

חלש דעתיה, ואתא מיטרא.

תרגום:

רב נחמן גזר תענית, ביקש רחמים (התפלל) ולא בא המטר.

אמר : קחו את נחמן וחבטו אותו מהקיר לארץ.

חלשה דעתו ובא המטר.
13יג
מקור:

רב פפא גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא,

חלש ליביה, שרף פינכא דדיסא ובעי רחמי ולא אתא מיטרא.

אמר ליה רב נחנן בר אושפזתי: אי שריף מר פיכא אחריתי דדיסא- אתי מיטרא. איכסיף וחלש דעתיה, ואתא מיטרא.

תרגום:

רב פפא גזר תענית ולא בא המטר.

נחלש לבו, גמע צלחת דיסא, ביקש רחמים ולא בא המטר.

אמר לו רב נחמן: אם יאכל אדוני צלחת דיסא אחרת ירד גשם. התבייש וחלשה דעתו. ובא המטר.
was connected to the order of Nezikin, while they were largely unfamiliar with the rest of the Mishna, and we learn all six orders of the Mishna. And when Rav Yehuda reached tractate Uktzin, which discusses the extent to which various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of becoming ritually impure, which is the basis for the halakha that a woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, etc. (Teharot 2:1), and some say that when he reached the halakha that olives that are pickled with their leaves are ritually pure, etc., as they are no longer considered part of the fruit (Uktzin 2:1), he would say: Those are the disputes between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. He felt it was an extremely challenging passage, as difficult as the most complex arguments between Rav and Shmuel. And we, in contrast, learn tractate Uktzin in thirteen yeshivot, while, with regard to miracles, after declaring a fast to pray for a drought to end, when Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes as a sign of distress, the rain would immediately come, before he could remove his second shoe. And yet we cry out all day and no one notices us. Rabba continued: If the difference between the generations is due to inappropriate deeds, if there is anyone who has seen me do anything improper, let him say so. I am not at fault, but what can the great leaders of the generation do when their generation is not worthy, and rain is withheld on account of the people’s transgressions? The Gemara explains the reference to Rav Yehuda’s shoe. Rav Yehuda saw two people wasting bread, throwing it back and forth. He said: I can learn from the fact that people are acting like this that there is plenty in the world. He cast his eyes angrily upon the world, and there was a famine. The Sages said to Rav Kahana, son of Rav Neḥunya, the attendant of Rav Yehuda: The Master, who is frequently present before Rav Yehuda, should persuade him to leave by way of the door nearest the market, so that he will see the terrible effects of the famine. Rav Kahana persuaded Rav Yehuda, and he went out to the market, where he saw a crowd. He said to them: What is this gathering? They said to him: We are standing by a container [kuspa] of dates that is for sale. He said: If so many people are crowding around to purchase a single container of dates, I can learn from this that there is a famine in the world. He said to his attendant: I want to fast over this; remove my shoes as a sign of distress. He removed one of his shoes and rain came. When he began to take off the other shoe, Elijah came and said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: If you remove your other shoe, I will destroy the entire world so that you will not be further distressed. Rav Mari, son of Shmuel’s daughter, said: At that moment, I was standing on the bank of the Pappa River. I saw angels who appeared as sailors bringing sand and filling ships with it, and it became fine flour. Everyone came to buy this flour, but I said to them: Do not purchase this flour, as it is the product of miracles. Tomorrow, boats filled with wheat will come from Parzina, and you may purchase that produce. § The Gemara relates another story. Rava happened to come to the city of Hagrunya. He decreed a fast, but rain did not come. He said to the local residents: Everyone, continue your fast and do not eat tonight. The next morning he said to them: Whoever had a dream last night, let him say it. Rabbi Elazar of Hagronya said to them: The following was recited to me in my dream. Good greetings to a good master from a good Lord, Who in His goodness does good for His people. Rava said: I can learn from this that it is a favorable time to pray for mercy. He prayed for mercy and rain came. The Gemara relates another story that deals with prayer for rain. There was a certain man who was sentenced to be flogged by Rava’s court because he had relations with a gentile woman. Rava flogged the man and he died as a result. When this matter was heard in the house of the Persian King Shapur, he wanted to punish Rava for imposing the death penalty, as he thought, without the king’s permission. Ifra Hormiz, mother of King Shapur, said to her son: Do not interfere and quarrel with the Jews, as whatever they request from God, their Master, He gives them. He said to her: What is this that He grants them? She replied: They pray for mercy and rain comes. He said to her: This does not prove that God hears their prayers, as that occurs merely because it is the time for rain, and it just so happens that rain falls after they pray. Rather, if you want to prove that God answers the prayers of the Jews, let them pray for mercy now, in the summer season of Tammuz, and let rain come. Ifra Hormiz sent a message to Rava: Direct your attention and pray for mercy that rain may come. He prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. He said before God: Master of the Universe, it is written: “O God, we have heard with our ears, our fathers have told us, what work You did in their days, in days of old” (Psalms 44:2), but we have not seen it with our own eyes. As soon as he said this, rain came until the gutters of Meḥoza overflowed and poured into the Tigris River. Rava’s father came and appeared to him in a dream and said to him: Is there anyone who troubles Heaven so much to ask for rain out of its season? In his dream, his father further said to him: Change your place of rest at night. He changed his place, and the next day he found that his bed had been slashed by knives. The Gemara relates: Rav Pappa decreed a fast, but rain did not come. His heart became weak from hunger, so he swallowed [seraf ] a bowl [pinka] of porridge, and prayed for mercy, but rain still did not come. Rav Naḥman bar Ushpazti said to him: If the Master swallows another bowl of porridge, rain will come. He was mocking Rav Pappa for eating while everyone else was fasting. Rav Pappa was embarrassed and grew upset, and rain came. The Gemara tells another story about prayer for rain. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was traveling along a road when it began to rain. He said before God: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable, because they needed rain, but Ḥanina is suffering, as he is getting wet. The rain ceased. When he arrived at his home, he said before God: Master of the Universe, the entire world is suffering that the rain stopped, and Ḥanina is comfortable? The rain began to come again. Rav Yosef said, in reaction to this story: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have against that of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa? As we learned in a mishna: After leaving the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur, the High Priest would recite a brief prayer in the outer chamber. The Gemara asks: What would he pray? Ravin bar Adda and Rava bar Adda both say in the name of Rav Yehuda that this was his prayer: May it be Your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot. The Gemara expresses surprise at this request: Is heat a good matter? On the contrary, it is unfavorable. Why should he request that the year be hot? Rather, say that he recited the following: If the upcoming year is hot, may it also be rainy and moist with dew, lest the heat harm the crops. The High Priest would also pray: And let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presence. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, in the name of Rav Yehuda, concluded the wording of this prayer: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judea. And may Your nation Israel not depend upon each other for sustenance, nor upon another nation. Instead, they should be sustained from the produce of their own land. Evidently, the High Priest’s prayer that God should not listen to the prayer of individual travelers was disregarded in the case of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa. § The Gemara continues to discuss the righteous Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa and the wonders he performed. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Each and every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained by the merit of My son Ḥanina ben Dosa, and yet for Ḥanina, My son, a kav of carobs, a very small amount of inferior food, is sufficient to sustain him for an entire week, from one Shabbat eve to the next Shabbat eve. The Gemara relates: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s wife would heat the oven every Shabbat eve and create a great amount of smoke,
15 טו