אף על פי שסרח אין תורתו נמאסת?
1א
הדף מאת: איימי קליין ויואל לוי / תא שמע - מליץ
2ב
הלימוד עוסק בשאלה האם יש מקום לאפשר למורים מצטיינים שכשלו בהתנהגות לא מוסרית, ואף פלילית ופוגענית כלפי תלמידיהם, להמשיך ללמד. אף שלכאורה נראה שהתשובה על כך ברורה, המציאות מלמדת שלעתים השיקולים אחרים, ויש מקום לברר סוגיה רגישה זו. נראה כי כמו היום גם חז"ל הוטרדו בשאלה זו ותשובותיהם נופלות לכאן ולכאן.
3ג
דרש רבא: מאי דכתיב [=מהו שכתוב] (שיר השירים ו) 'אל גנת אגוז ירדתי לראות באבי הנחל' וגו'? למה נמשלו תלמידי חכמים? לאגוז, לומר לך מה אגוז זה, אף על פי שמלוכלך בטיט ובצואה אין מה שבתוכו נמאס, אף תלמיד חכם - אף על פי שסרח אין תורתו נמאסת.
When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: Rabbi Meir ate a half-ripe date and threw the peel away. In other words, he was able to extract the important content from the inedible shell. Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “I went down into the garden of nuts, to look at the green plants of the valley” (Song of Songs 6:11)? Why are Torah scholars compared to nuts? To tell you: Just as this nut, despite being soiled with mud and excrement, its content is not made repulsive, as only its shell is soiled; so too a Torah scholar, although he has sinned, his Torah is not made repulsive.
4ד
דיון
האם אתם מסכימים עם רבא שאפשר להפריד את האדם מתורתו?
5ה
דמדרינן ליה [=שמדירים אותו] ברבים. הניחא למאן דאמר [=זה נוח לדעת מי שאמר] נדר שהודר ברבים אין לו הפרה; אלא למאן דאמר [=אלא לדעת מי שאומר] יש לו הפרה - מאי איכא למימר [=מה יש לומר? (כיצד אפשר ליישב את הסתירה?] דמדרינן ליה [=שאנו מדירים אותו] על דעת רבים. דאמר אמימר, הלכתא [=הלכה היא], אפילו למאן דאמר [=אפילו לדעת מי שאומר] 'נדר שהודר ברבים יש לו הפרה' - על דעת רבים אין לו הפרה. והני מילי [=הדברים האלה אמורים] לדבר הרשות, אבל לדבר מצוה, יש לו הפרה, כי [=כמו] ההוא מקרי דרדקי [=מלמד תינוקות אחד] דאדריה [=שהדיר אותו] רב אחא על דעת רבים דהוה פשע בינוקי [=שהיה פושע בילדים], ואהדריה [=החזיר אותו] רבינא, דלא אישתכח דדייק כוותיה [=שלא נמצא מלמד אחר שהיה מדייק כמותו].

הסברים
  • הסוגייה דנה במצבים שבהם חכמים מתירים נדרים, ומביאה הדוגמה הנוכחית של מורה ילדים שהדיר אותו חכם מללמד מפני שהיה מכה אותם יותר מדי. לבסוף, החזירו מפני שלא מצאו מורה המדייק כמוהו.
The Gemara answers that we administer the vow to the priest in public. The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who says that a vow that was taken in public has no possibility of nullification by a halakhic authority, but according to the one who says it has the possibility of nullification, what can be said? The Gemara answers that we administer the vow to the priest based on the consent of the public, making it a type of vow that cannot be dissolved without their consent. As Ameimar said, the halakha is as follows: Even according to the one who says that a vow that was taken in public has the possibility of nullification, if it was taken based on the consent of the public, it has no possibility of nullification. The Gemara comments: And this matter applies only to when the nullification of a vow is in order to enable one to perform an optional matter, but to enable one to perform a matter of a mitzva, it has the possibility of nullification. This is like the incident involving a certain teacher of children, upon whom Rav Aḥa administered a vow based on the consent of the public to cease teaching, as he was negligent with regard to the children by hitting them too much. And Ravina had his vow nullified and reinstated him, as they did not find another teacher who was as meticulous as he was. § The mishna taught: And the witnesses sign the bill of divorce for the betterment of the world. The Gemara asks: Is the reason that the witnesses sign the bill of divorce for the betterment of the world? It is by Torah law that they must sign, as it is written: “And subscribe the deeds, and sign them, and call witnesses” (Jeremiah 32:44). Rabba said: No, it is necessary according to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, who says: Witnesses of the transmission of the bill of divorce effect the divorce, and not the witnesses who sign the bill of divorce, and by Torah law it does not need to be signed. Nevertheless, the Sages instituted signatory witnesses for the betterment of the world, as sometimes it occurs that the witnesses who witnessed the transmission of the bill of divorce die, or sometimes it occurs that they go overseas, and the validity of the bill of divorce may be contested. Since they are not present, there are no witnesses who can ratify the bill of divorce. Once the Sages instituted that the witnesses’ signatures appear on the bill of divorce, then the bill of divorce can be ratified by authenticating their signatures. Rav Yosef said: You can even say that it is according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, that signatory witnesses on the bill of divorce effect the divorce, and the mishna should be understood as follows: They instituted that the witnesses must specify their full names on bills of divorce and not merely sign the document, for the betterment of the world. As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 9:13): At first, the witness would write only: I, so-and-so, signed as a witness, but they did not state their full names. Therefore, the only way to identify the witness was to see if an identical signature could be found on a different document that had been ratified in court. Therefore, if another copy of a witness’s signature is produced from elsewhere, i.e., another court document, it is valid, but if not, then the bill of divorce is invalid even though it is possible that he was a valid witness, and as a result of this women were left unable to remarry. Rabban Gamliel said: They instituted a great ordinance that the witnesses must specify their full names on bills of divorce, stating that they are so-and-so, son of so-and-so, and other identifying features, for the betterment of the world. This made it possible to easily clarify who the witnesses were and to ratify the bill of divorce by finding acquaintances of the witnesses who recognized their signatures. The Gemara asks: But is it not sufficient to sign with a pictorial mark? But Rav drew a fish instead of a signature, and Rabbi Ḥanina drew a palm branch [ḥaruta]; Rav Ḥisda drew the letter samekh, and Rav Hoshaya drew the letter ayin; and Rabba bar Rav Huna drew a sail [makota]. None of these Sages would sign their actual names. The Gemara answers: The Sages are different, as everyone is well versed in their pictorial marks. The Gemara asks: Initially, with what did they publicize these marks, as they could not use them in place of signatures before people were well versed in them? The Gemara answers: They initially used their marks in letters, where there is no legal requirement to sign their names. Once it became known that they would use these marks as their signatures, they were able to use them as signatures even on legal documents. § The mishna taught that Hillel the Elder instituted a document that prevents the Sabbatical Year from abrogating an outstanding debt [prosbol]. We learned in a mishna there (Shevi’it 10:3): If one writes a prosbol, the Sabbatical Year does not abrogate debt. This is one of the matters that Hillel the Elder instituted because he saw that the people of the nation were refraining from lending to one another around the time of the Sabbatical Year, as they were concerned that the debtor would not repay the loan, and they violated that which is written in the Torah: “Beware that there be not a base thought in your heart, saying: The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand; and your eye be evil against your needy brother, and you give him nothing” (Deuteronomy 15:9). He arose and instituted the prosbol so that it would also be possible to collect those debts in order to ensure that people would continue to give loans. And this is the essence of the text of the prosbol: I transfer to you, so-and-so the judges, who are in such and such a place, so that I will collect any debt that I am owed by so-and-so whenever I wish, as the court now has the right to collect the debts. And the judges or the witnesses sign below, and this is sufficient. The creditor will then be able to collect the debt on behalf of the court, and the court can give it to him. The Gemara asks about the prosbol itself: But is there anything like this, where by Torah law the Sabbatical Year cancels the debt but Hillel instituted that it does not cancel the debt? Abaye said: The baraita is referring to the Sabbatical Year in the present, and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The verse states in the context of the cancellation of debts: “And this is the manner of the abrogation: He shall abrogate” (Deuteronomy 15:2). The verse speaks of two types of abrogation: One is the release of land and one is the abrogation of monetary debts. Since the two are equated, one can learn the following: At a time when you release land, when the Jubilee Year is practiced, you abrogate monetary debts; at a time when you do not release land, such as the present time, when the Jubilee Year is no longer practiced, you also do not abrogate monetary debts.
6ו
דיון
האם לדעתו של רב אחא יש הצדקה להחזיר את המורה?
7ז
ההוא צורבא מרבנן דהוו סנו שומעניה [=תלמיד חכם אחד היו עליו שמועות רעות].

אמר רב יהודה היכי ליעביד [=כיצד נעשה?] לשמתיה, צריכי ליה רבנן [=אם ננדה אותו הרי צריכים אותו חכמים]. לא לשמתיה, קא מיתחיל שמא דשמיא [=ואם לא ננדה אותו יתחלל שם שמים].

אמר ליה לרב בר בר חנה: מידי שמיע לך בהא [=האם שמעת דבר בענין זה?]

אמר ליה הכי [=כך] אמר ר' יוחנן: מאי דכתיב [=מה פירוש הכתוב] (מלאכי ב) 'כי שפתי כהן ישמרו דעת ותורה יבקשו מפיהו כי מלאך ה' צבאות הוא'? אם דומה הרב למלאך ה', יבקשו תורה מפיו. ואם לאו, אל יבקשו תורה מפיו.

שמתיה [=נידה אותו] רב יהודה.

לסוף איחלש רב יהודה [ועמד למות]. אתו רבנן לשיולי ביה [=באו חכמים לשאול לשלומו] ואתא איהו נמי בהדייהו [=וגם המנודה בא יחד אתם]. כד חזייה רב יהודה חייך [=כאשר ראה אותו רב יהודה, חייך]

אמר ליה: לא מסתייך דשמתיה לההוא גברא אלא אחוכי נמי חייך בי [=לא דייך שנידת את האיש ההוא (אותי), אלא אתה גם צוחק עלי?]

אמר ליה: לאו בדידך מחייכנא [=לא עליך אני צוחק] אלא דכי אזלינא לההוא עלמא בדיחא דעתאי דאפילו לגברא כוותך לא חניפי ליה [=אלא שכאשר אני הולך לעולם ההוא (לעולם הבא), שמח אני שאפילו לאדם גדול כמוך לא התחנפתי].

נח נפשיה [=נפטר] דרב יהודה. אתא [בא המנודה] לבי מדרשא. אמר להו שרו לי [=אמר להם: התירו לי את הנידוי].

אמרו ליה רבנן [=אמרו לו חכמים:] גברא דחשיב כרב יהודה ליכא הכא דלישרי לך [=אדם חשוב כר' יהודה אין כאן שיכול להתיר לך], אלא זיל לגביה דר' יהודה נשיאה דלישרי לך [=אלא לך אל ר' יהודה נשיאה בארץ ישראל, שיתיר לך].

אזל לקמיה [=הלך לפניו]. אמר ליה [ר' יהודה] לר' אמי, פוק עיין בדיניה, אי מיבעי למישרא ליה שרי ליה [=צא עיין בדינו, אם צריך להתיר לו התר לו (בשליחותי)]. עיין ר' אמי בדיניה, סבר למישרא ליה [=עיין ר' אמי בדינו וחשב להתיר לו].

עמד ר' שמואל בר נחמני על רגליו ואמר: ומה שפחה של בית רבי לא נהגו חכמים קלות ראש בנידויה שלש שנים, יהודה חברינו על אחת כמה וכמה? א"ר [=אמר ר'] זירא: מאי דקמן דאתא האידנא האי סבא בבי מדרשא [=מה קרה שבא עכשיו זקן זה (ר' שמואל בר נחמני) לבית המדרש]? דהא כמה שני לא אתא [=שהרי כמה שנים לא בא] שמע מינה, לא מיבעי למישרא ליה [=למד מכאן שאין צריך להתיר לו]. לא שרא ליה [=לא התיר לו].

נפק כי קא בכי ואזיל [=יצא המנודה כשהוא בוכה והולך]. אתא זיבורא וטרקיה אאמתיה ושכיב [=באה צרעה ועקצה אותו באמתו (באבר) ומת]. עיילוהו למערתא דחסידי ולא קיבלוהו [=הכניסוהו לקברו למערה שבה קוברים חסידים, ולא קיבלו אותו]. עיילוהו למערתא דדייני וקיבלוהו [הכניסו אותו למערה של דיינים ושם קיבלו אותו]. מאי טעמא [מה טעם]? דעבד [=שעשה] כר' אילעאי. דתניא [=ששנויה ברייתא]: ר' אילעאי אומר: אם רואה אדם שיצרו מתגבר עליו, ילך למקום שאין מכירין אותו וילבש שחורים ויתעטף שחורים ויעשה מה שלבו חפץ, ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא.
If a student ostracized someone else due to an insult to his dignity, and not because the ostracized person was guilty of some transgression, his decree of ostracism is valid, as it is taught in a baraita: One who is ostracized by the teacher is considered ostracized with regard to the student. However, one who is ostracized by the student is not considered ostracized with regard to the teacher. The Gemara attempts to draw an inference from a careful reading of this baraita: He is not considered ostracized with regard to the teacher, which implies that he is considered ostracized with regard to everyone else. The Gemara clarifies the case: For what reason was he ostracized? If it was for a matter relating to Heaven, i.e., because he sinned, then why, if he was ostracized by the student, should he not be considered ostracized with regard to the teacher? Doesn’t the verse state: “There is no wisdom or understanding or counsel against the Lord” (Proverbs 21:30)? This means that when a sin is committed and God’s name is desecrated, all other considerations are ignored, even the eminence and knowledge of the teacher, and therefore he too must treat the offender as ostracized. Rather, is it not that the Gemara is referring to a case where the student ostracized the other person due to an insult to his own dignity? Therefore, it is apparent that his decree of ostracism is valid and binding upon all, with the exception of his teacher. Rav Yosef said: A Torah scholar may execute judgment for himself with regard to a matter about which he is certain, and he is not required to first go to court and have the case decided for him. The same applies when another person behaves in a disrespectful manner toward him; he is permitted to go ahead on his own and ostracize him. There was a certain Torah scholar who gained a bad reputation due to rumors about his conduct. Rav Yehuda said: What should be done? To excommunicate him is not an option. The Sages need him, as he is a great Torah authority. Not to excommunicate him is also not an option, as then the name of Heaven would be desecrated. Rav Yehuda said to Rabba bar bar Ḥana: Have you heard anything with regard to this issue? He said to him: Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek Torah at his mouth; for he is a messenger [malakh] of the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 2:7)? This verse teaches: If the teacher is similar to an angel [malakh] of the Lord, then seek Torah from his mouth, but if he is not pure and upright, then do not seek Torah from his mouth; even if he is knowledgeable about Torah, do not learn from him. Based on this statement, Rav Yehuda ostracized that Torah scholar. In the end, after some time had passed, Rav Yehuda took ill and was on the verge of death. The Sages came to inquire about his well-being, and the ostracized scholar came along with them as well. When Rav Yehuda saw him, that scholar, he laughed. The ostracized scholar said to him: Was it not enough that you excommunicated that man, i.e., me, but now you even laugh at me? Rav Yehuda said to him: I was not laughing at you; rather, I am happy as I go to that other world that I did not flatter even a great man like you, but instead I treated you fairly in accordance with the halakha. Rav Yehuda died. The ostracized scholar came to the study hall and said to the Sages: Release me from the decree of ostracism. The Sages said to him: There is no man here as eminent as Rav Yehuda who can release you from the ostracism. Rather, go to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia in Eretz Yisrael, as only he can release you. That scholar came before Rabbi Yehuda Nesia. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia said to Rabbi Ami: Go and examine his case. If it is necessary to release him from his decree of ostracism, release him on my behalf. Rabbi Ami examined his case and thought at first to release him from his ostracism. But Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani rose up on his feet and said: If the maidservant in the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once ostracized another person, and the Sages did not relate frivolously to her decree of ostracism and did not revoke it until three years had passed, all the more so, with regard to a decree of ostracism placed by Yehuda our colleague, we must take it seriously and not release this scholar. Rabbi Zeira said: What caused this Elder, Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, to come before us in the study hall today though for many years he did not come, and now he comes precisely during this discussion. Learn from this that it is not necessary to release him from his decree of ostracism, as this combination of events is certainly not a coincidence. Rather, it should be viewed as an instructive sign from Heaven. Consequently, Rabbi Ami did not release him from the ostracism, and the ostracized scholar left in tears. A wasp came and stung the ostracized scholar on his penis and he died. Because he was a great Torah scholar, they took him into the caves in which the pious are interred in order to bury him there, but the caves did not accept him. A snake stood at the entrance of the caves and did not let them pass. They then took him into the caves of the judges, and they accepted him. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that he was accepted there? The Gemara answers: Even though he sinned, he still acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Ilai, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Ilai says: If a person sees that his evil inclination is gaining control over him and he cannot overcome it, then he should go to a place where he is not known. He should wear black, and he should wrap his head in black, as if he were a mourner. Perhaps these changes will influence him, so that he not sin. Even if these actions do not help, he should at least do as his heart desires in private and not desecrate the name of Heaven in public. Although this person had sinned, he did so in private and in a manner that did not publicly desecrate God’s name, and therefore it was fitting that he be given an honorable burial. The Gemara asks: What is the story mentioned by Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani involving the maidservant in the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? It was related that the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s house saw a certain man who was striking his adult son. She said: Let that man be excommunicated, due to the fact that he has transgressed the injunction: “You shall not place a stumbling block before the blind” (Leviticus 19:14), as it is taught in a baraita that the verse states: “You shall not place a stumbling block before the blind,” and the verse speaks here of one who strikes his adult son, as the son is likely to become angry and strike his father back, thereby transgressing the severe prohibition against hitting one’s parent. Similarly, it was related that Reish Lakish was guarding an orchard for payment when a certain man came and ate some figs that were growing there. Reish Lakish raised his voice and yelled at him, but this man paid no attention to him and kept eating. Reish Lakish said: Let that man be in a state of excommunication. The man eating the figs said to him: On the contrary, let that man, i.e., Reish Lakish, be in a state of excommunication, for even if I have become liable to you for payment, as I have eaten of the figs without permission, have I become liable to you for excommuncation? With that statement, the man left. Reish Lakish went to the study hall to inquire about the halakha with regard to this man. The other Sages said to him: His decree of ostracism is valid, but your decree of ostracism is not. In other words, that man was correct and Reish Lakish should not have ostracized him in response to his actions. Reish Lakish then asked: If so, what is the remedy for this decree of ostracism? The Sages answered him: Go to him so that he may release you from it. Reish Lakish replied: I do not know him. They said to him: Go then to the Nasi, so that he may release you from the ban, as it is taught in a baraita: If one was ostracized, but he does not know who ostracized him, he should go to the Nasi, and the Nasi may release him from his decree of ostracism. The Gemara continues: Rav Huna said that in Usha it was enacted: If the president of the court sinned, he is not ostracized. Although this would be the appropriate punishment, he is not ostracized, so as not to cause a desecration of God’s name. Rather, they say to him the words of the verse: “Keep your honor and stay at home” (II Kings 14:10). That is to say, to preserve your dignity, it would be best if you were to stay at home, resign your position, and refrain from further public appearances. If he sins again, he is ostracized, due to the desecration of God’s name that would ensue were people to think that he was spared his rightful punishment due to his high position. The Gemara comments: This opinion disagrees with that of Reish Lakish, for Reish Lakish said: If a Torah scholar sins, he is not ostracized at all in public, as it is stated: “Therefore, shall you fall in the day, and the prophet also shall fall with you in the night” (Hosea 4:5). This is explained to mean: If a prophet or any other important person sins, his offense should be concealed like the night and not punished in public. With regard to this issue, it was related that when a Torah scholar would become liable to be punished with excommunication before Mar Zutra the Pious, Mar Zutra would first excommunicate himself as a mark of respect for the Torah scholar, and afterward he would ostracize the Torah scholar. This self-imposed excommunication was meant only as a show of honor to the other Torah scholar, and therefore when Mar Zutra would enter his house of lodging, he would release his own excommunication, and afterward he would release the other’s excommunication. Rav Giddel said that Rav said: A Torah scholar may ostracize himself, and he may similarly release himself from self-imposed ostracism. Rav Pappa said: I have good coming to me, for I am praiseworthy, as I have never ostracized a Torah scholar. The Gemara asks about this: If so, when a Torah scholar was liable to be ostracized, what would he do? The Gemara answers: He did as they do in the West, Eretz Yisrael, where they appoint a court to give a Torah scholar lashes, but they do not appoint a court to ostracize him. That is to say, lashes were preferred over ostracism. The Gemara proceeds with a discussion that explains the severity of the punishment of excommunication: What is the meaning of the word excommunication [shamta]? Rav said: This word is a contraction of the expression there is death [sham mita], alluding to the deathly aspect of excommunication. And Shmuel said: Shamta means that he will be a desolation [shemama yiheyeh], and it is effective upon him like fat smeared on an oven. Just as some of the fat will always remain absorbed in the walls of the oven, so too some aspect of the curse contained in the excommunication will continue to adhere to him even after the excommunication has been nullified. The Gemara comments: And this opinion disagrees with the opinion of Reish Lakish, for Reish Lakish said: Just as ostracism enters the two hundred and forty-eight organs of one’s body when it is first pronounced, so too when it leaves, it leaves from his two hundred and forty-eight organs. The following allusion is offered in support of the opinion of Reish Lakish: When it enters, it enters all the organs, as it is written: “And the city shall be a curse [ḥerem]” (Joshua 6:17), and the numerical value [gimatriyya] of the word ḥerem, a concept similar to ostracism, is two hundred and forty-eight. Therefore, the verse alludes to the fact that a decree of ostracism penetrates one’s two hundred and forty-eight organs. When it leaves, it leaves all the organs, as it is written: “In wrath remember mercy [raḥem]” (Habakkuk 3:2), and the numerical value of the word raḥem is also two hundred and forty-eight, thereby teaching that when the decree of ostracism is revoked, it disappears entirely. The Gemara continues discussing the power of a ban. Rav Yosef said: Cast an excommunication on the tail of a dog and it, the excommunication, will do its work and harm the dog. It was related that there was a certain dog that would eat the shoes of the Sages, and they did not know who it was causing this damage. They thought that it was a person, and so they excommunicated whoever was doing it. Soon thereafter, the dog’s tail caught fire and got burnt. This shows that excommunication can have a harmful effect even on a dog. It was further related that there was a violent person who caused suffering to a certain Torah scholar. This Torah scholar came before Rav Yosef to ask what he should do. Rav Yosef said to him: Go and ostracize him. This Torah scholar said to him: I am afraid of him, that he will harass me even more. Rav Yosef said to him: Take out, i.e., publish a written ostracism against him. The Torah scholar said to him: All the more so I am fearful of him, for if I publicize the matter he will certainly come after me. Rav Yosef said to him to do as follows: Take the written ostracism and place it in a jug,
8ח
דיון
1. מה היא משמעותה של לבישת שחורים?

2. מה הם התנאים הדרושים להתרת נידוי?
9ט
אמר רבי יצחק כל המספר אחרי המת כאלו מספר אחרי האבן. איכא דאמרי דלא ידעי [יש אומרים שאין המתים יודעים], ואיכא דאמרי דידעי ולא איכפת להו [=ויש אומרים שהם יודעים ולא אכפת להם]. איני? [=האומנם כך?] והא אמר רב פפא, חד אישתעי מילתא בתריה דמר שמואל, ונפל קניא מטללא ובזעא לארנקא דמוחיה [=אחד סיפר דברים של גנאי אחרי מר שמואל, ונפל קנה מן התקרה ושבר את גולגלתו]. שאני צורבא מרבנן, דקודשא בריך הוא תבע ביקריה [=שונה תלמיד חכם, שהקב"ה עצמו תובע את כבודו]. אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי: כל המספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמים נופל בגיהנם שנא' (תהילים קכה) 'והמטים עקלקלותם יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון שלום על ישראל'. אפילו בשעה ששלום על ישראל יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון. תנא דבי [=שנו בשמו של] ר' ישמעאל: אם ראית תלמיד חכם שעבר עבירה בלילה, אל תהרהר אחריו ביום, שמא עשה תשובה. שמא סלקא דעתך? [שמא?] אלא ודאי עשה תשובה, והני מילי [=ודברים אלה] בדברים שבגופו, אבל בממונא עד דמהדר למריה [=בממון עד שיחזיר לבעליו].
On this subject, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who speaks negatively after the deceased it is as if he speaks after the stone. The Gemara offers two interpretations of this: Some say this is because the dead do not know, and some say that they know, but they do not care that they are spoken of in such a manner. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Pappa say: There was once someone who spoke disparagingly after the death of Mar Shmuel and a reed fell from the ceiling, fracturing his skull? Obviously, the dead care when people speak ill of them. The Gemara rejects this: This is no proof that the dead care. Rather, a Torah scholar is different, as God Himself demands that his honor be upheld. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said similarly: One who speaks disparagingly after the biers of Torah scholars and maligns them after their death will fall in Gehenna, as it is stated: “But those who turn aside unto their crooked ways, the Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity; peace be upon Israel” (Psalms 125:5). Even if he speaks ill of them when there is peace upon Israel, after death, when they are no longer able to fight those denouncing them (Tosafot); nevertheless the Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity, to Gehenna. On a similar note, it was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: If you saw a Torah scholar transgress a prohibition at night, do not think badly of him during the day; perhaps he has repented in the meantime. The Gemara challenges this: Does it enter your mind that only perhaps he has repented? Shouldn’t he be given the benefit of the doubt? Rather, he has certainly repented. The Gemara notes: The idea that one must always give a Torah scholar the benefit of the doubt and assume that he has repented refers specifically to matters affecting himself, but, if one witnesses a Torah scholar committing a transgression involving the property of another, one is not required to give him the benefit of the doubt. Rather, he should not assume that he has repented until he sees him return the money to its owner. Since matters relating to the respect due Torah scholars were raised, the Gemara continues, citing Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who said: There are twenty-four places in which the court ostracizes over matters of respect due the rabbi, and we learned them all in our Mishna. Rabbi Elazar said to him: Where are those cases to be found? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: When you look, you will find them.
10י
דיון
1. אילו מדדים מספקים כדי לוודא חזרתו של מורה בתשובה?

2. כמה זמן השהייה ראוי לתת למורה במקרים שונים של פגיעה בתלמידים?
11יא
רמב"ם משנה תורה, הלכות תלמוד תורה
פרק ב

ב מכניסין את התינוקות להתלמד כבן שש כבן שבע, לפי כוח הבן ובניין גופו; ופחות מבן שש, אין מכניסין אותו. ומכה אותן המלמד להטיל עליהן אימה. ואינו מכה אותן מכת אויב מוסר אכזרי; לפיכך לא יכה אותן בשוטים ולא במקלות, אלא ברצועה קטנה.

ג ויושב ומלמדן כל היום כולו, ומקצת מן הלילה - כדי לחנכן ללמוד ביום ובלילה. ולא ייבטלו התינוקות כלל, חוץ מערבי שבתות וערבי ימים טובים בסוף היום ובימים טובים; אבל בשבת, אין קורין לכתחילה, אבל שונין לראשון. ואין מבטלין התינוקות ואפילו לבניין בית המקדש.

ד [ג] מלמד תינוקות שהוא מניח את התינוקות ויוצא, או שהוא עושה מלאכה אחרת עימהן, או שהוא מתרשל בתלמודן - הרי הוא בכלל 'ארור, עושה מלאכת ה' רמייה' (ירמיהו מח, י). לפיכך אין ראוי להושיב מלמד אלא בעל יראה, מהיר לקרות ולדקדק. [ד] ומי שאין לו אישה - לא ילמד תינוקות, מפני אימותיהן שהן באין אצל בניהן; וכן האישה לא תלמד תינוקות, מפני אבותיהן שהן באין אצל הבנים.

פרק ד

א אין מלמדין דברי תורה אלא לתלמיד הגון נאה במעשיו או לתם. אבל אם היה הולך בדרך לא טובה, מחזירין אותו למוטב, ומנהיגין אותו בדרך ישרה ובודקין אותו; ואחר כך מכניסין אותו לבית המדרש ומלמדין אותו. אמרו חכמים, כל השונה לתלמיד שאינו הגון, כאילו זרק אבן למרקוליס, שנאמר 'כצרור אבן, במרגמה כן נותן לכסיל כבוד' (משלי כו,ח): ואין 'כבוד' אלא תורה, שנאמר 'כבוד חכמים ינחלו' (משלי ג,לה). וכן הרב שאינו הולך בדרך טובה - אף על פי שחכם גדול הוא, וכל העם צריכין לו - אין מתלמדין ממנו עד שיחזור למוטב, שנאמר 'כי שפתי כוהן ישמרו דעת, ותורה יבקשו מפיהו כי מלאך ה' צבאות הוא' (מלאכי ב,ז). אמרו חכמים, אם דומה הרב למלאך ה' צבאות, תורה יבקשו מפיהו; ואם לאו, אל יבקשו תורה מפיהו.

ד הרב שלימד ולא הבינו התלמידים, לא יכעוס עליהם וירגז, אלא חוזר ושונה הדבר אפילו כמה פעמים, עד שיבינו עומק ההלכה. וכן לא יאמר התלמיד הבנתי, והוא לא הבין, אלא חוזר ושואל, אפילו כמה פעמים. ואם כעס עליו רבו ורגז - יאמר לו: רבי, תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך ודעתי קצרה.

פרק ה

ט ראה את רבו עובר על דברי תורה, אומר לו לימדתנו רבנו כך וכך. וכל זמן שמזכיר שמועה בפניו, אומר לו כך לימדתנו רבנו. ואל יאמר דבר שלא שמע מרבו, עד שיזכיר שם אומרו. וכשימות רבו - קורע כל בגדיו עד שהוא מגלה את ליבו ואינו מאחה לעולם.

יב כשם שהתלמידים חייבין בכבוד הרב, כך הרב צריך לכבד את תלמידיו ולקרבן. כך אמרו חכמים, יהי כבוד תלמידך חביב עליך כשל חברך. וצריך אדם להיזהר בתלמידיו ולאוהבן, שהם הבנים המהנין בעולם הזה ולעולם הבא.
Children should be enrolled for instruction at the age of six or seven years, in proportion to the strength of the child and his physique. A child under six years should not be sent to school. The teacher may inflict punishment upon the school children that they may fear him; but he must not smite them with hatred and cruelty; he should, therefore, not strike them with rods or sticks but with a small strap. He should instruct them during the entire day and part of the evening, so that they be brought up to study by day and by night. Children should not stop school at all save on the eves of Sabbaths and holidays, and during holidays. On the Sabbath no new lessons should be given but lessons may be repeated. School children should not be rendered idle even for the sake of building the Holy Temple.2Baba Batra, 21b; Ketubot, 50a; Nedarim, 37a. C. See Ta’anit 3b. G. A teacher of school children who leaves the children and departs from the school, or who engages himself in another kind of work while he is with them, or who is negligent in teaching them, behold, he is included among those of whom it is said: "Cursed be he that doeth the work of the Lord with a slack hand" (Jer. 48.10). It is, therefore, improper to appoint any teacher save one who is God fearing, diligent in reading and grammar.3Baba Batra, 21b. C. He who has no wife shall not instruct small children on account of the mothers who come to visit their children; and a woman shall not instruct small children on account of the fathers who come to visit their children.4Kiddushin, 82a. C.
13 יג