BOOK OF SEEDS
LAWS CONCERNING CROSSBREEDING PLANTS.They comprise five affirmative precepts. The details are as follows: 1) not to sow diverse seeds together; 2) not to sow seeds of grain or herbs in a vineyard; 3) not to gender cattle of diverse species; 4) not to work with cattle of diverse species coupled together; 5) not to wear garments woven of diverse species (wool and linen).
LAWS OF GIFTS TO THE POOR.These comprise thirteen precepts, of which seven are affirmative, and six are negative precepts. The details are as follows: 1) to leave a corner (of the field); 2) not wholly to reap the corner; 3) to leave the gleanings; 4) not to gather the gleanings; 5) to leave gleanings in the vineyard; 6) not to gather the gleanings in the vineyard; 7) to leave the single grapes of the vineyard; 8) not to gather the single grapes of the vineyard; 9) to leave the forgotten sheaf; 10) not to turn back in order to take the forgotten sheaf; 11) to set aside tithe for the poor; 12) to give charity according to one's means; 13) not to harden one's heart against the poor.
LAWS OF DUES TO THE PRIEST.These comprise eight precepts, of which two are affirmative and six are negative precepts. Their details are as follows: 1) to set aside the primary due to the priest; 2) to set aside the due to the priest of the tithes; 3) not to set apart the dues to the priest and the tithes, out of order, but to do so in the order prescribed; 4) that a stranger (to the priest's family) shall not eat of the due to the priest; 5) that even one who resides with the priest, or even his hired labourer shall not eat of the due to the priest; 6) that the uncircumcised shall not eat of the due to the priest; 7) that the priest who is unclean shall not eat of the due to the priest; 8) that the profaned woman shall not eat of the due to the priest nor of anything that has been taken from the holy things.
(6) LAWS OF TITHES.These are comprised in one precept, namely, to set apart the first tithe of the produce every year when the fields are sown and give it to the Levites.
LAWS OF SECOND TITHES AND THE FRUIT OF THE FOURTH YEAR FROM THE PLANTING OF THE TREES.These comprise nine precepts, of which three are affirmative and six are negative precepts. Their detailed statement is as follows: 1) to set apart the second tithe; 2) not to expend the redemption money of this tithe for any necessaries but food, drink and oil for anointing the body; 3) not to eat the second tithe while in a state of uncleanness; 4) not to eat it while mourning for a deceased relative; 5) not to eat the second tithe of grain outside Jerusalem; 6) not to eat the second tithe of the vintage outside Jerusalem; 7) not to eat the second tithe of oil outside Jerusalem; 8) that the fruit of the fourth year after the trees were planted, shall be altogether holy, and the law is that it is to be eaten by its owner in Jerusalem and is to be treated in all respects like the second tithe; 9) to make the prescribed confession, (Deut. 26:13-15), when bringing the second tithe.
LAWS OF FIRST-FRUITS AND OTHER GIFTS TO THE PRIESTS OUTSIDE THE SANCTUARY.These comprise nine precepts, of which eight are affirmative and one is a negative precept. The following is their detailed statement: 1) to set apart first-fruits and bring them to the Sanctuary; 2) that the priest (to whom they are presented) shall not eat the first-fruits outside Jerusalem; 3) to read the prescribed declaration (Deut. 26:3 and 5-11), when presenting the first-fruits; 4) to set apart a cake of dough for the priest; 5) to give the shoulder, the two cheeks and the maw (of a beast killed for food) to the priest; 6) to give to the priest the first fleece (at the shearing); 7) to redeem the first-born, if a son, and to give the redemption-money to the priest; 8) to redeem the firstling of a donkey and give a Iamb in its stead, to the priest; 9) to break the neck of the firstling of a donkey, if the owner does not wish to redeem it.
LAWS OF THE SABBATICAL YEAR AND THE YEAR OF THE JUBILEE.These comprise twenty-two precepts, of which nine are affirmative, and thirteen are negative precepts. The detailed statement is as follows: 1) that the land shall remain untilled in the Sabbatical year; 2) that one should not engage in agricultural work in that year; 3) that one should not engage in arboricultural work in that year; 4) that one should not cut the aftermath which grows of itself after the manner of the reapers; 5) that one should not gather the fruit of the untended trees, after the manner of the workers who gather the fruit in vineyards and orchards; 6) that one should leave what the land produces (in the year) free to all; 7) that one should release all loans; 8) that one should not press or make demands upon the debtor; 9) that one should not refrain from making loans prior to the Sabbatical year, for fear of losing one's money; 10) to count the years by sevens; 11) to hallow the fiftieth year; 12) to sound the Shofar (ram's horn) on the tenth of Tishri (in that year), as a signal that slaves shall go out free; 13) that the soil shall not be tilled in that year; 14) not to cut the aftermath which grows of itself in this year after the manner of the reapers; 15) not to gather the fruits of the year of the untended trees after the manner of the workers who gather the fruit in vineyards and orchards; 16) to grant redemption of the land in this year. This is the law of land (in Palestine) whether inherited or acquired by
purchase; 17) that the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; 18) the law concerning houses in walled cities; 19) that the entire tribe of Levi shall not receive a heritage in the land of Israel, but cities to dwell in shall be given to them as a gift; 20) that the tribe of Levi shall
not take a share of the spoils of war; 21) to give to the Levites cities to dwell in, together with their suburbs; 22) that the suburbs of any of their cities shall never be sold (in perpetuity), but the Levites may redeem these suburbs at any time before the Jubilee or after the Jubilee. All the precepts included in this book are, accordingly, sixty-seven, of which thirty are affirmative, and thirty-seven are negative precepts.