Political Judaism
Separation of Israel and Judah / Decentralizition of Jewish Practice
1 א
(כו) וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יָרָבְעָ֖ם בְּלִבּ֑וֹ עַתָּ֛ה תָּשׁ֥וּב הַמַּמְלָכָ֖ה לְבֵ֥ית דָּוִֽד׃ (כז) אִֽם־יַעֲלֶ֣ה ׀ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֗ה לַעֲשׂ֨וֹת זְבָחִ֤ים בְּבֵית־יְהוָה֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְ֠שָׁב לֵ֣ב הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ אֶל־אֲדֹ֣נֵיהֶ֔ם אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֖ם מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה וַהֲרָגֻ֕נִי וְשָׁ֖בוּ אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֥ם מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָֽה׃ (כח) וַיִּוָּעַ֣ץ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיַּ֕עַשׂ שְׁנֵ֖י עֶגְלֵ֣י זָהָ֑ב וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם רַב־לָכֶם֙ מֵעֲל֣וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם הִנֵּ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶעֱל֖וּךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃ (כט) וַיָּ֥שֶׂם אֶת־הָאֶחָ֖ד בְּבֵֽית־אֵ֑ל וְאֶת־הָאֶחָ֖ד נָתַ֥ן בְּדָֽן׃ (ל) וַיְהִ֛י הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה לְחַטָּ֑את וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ הָעָ֛ם לִפְנֵ֥י הָאֶחָ֖ד עַד־דָּֽן׃ (לא) וַיַּ֖עַשׂ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית בָּמ֑וֹת וַיַּ֤עַשׂ כֹּֽהֲנִים֙ מִקְצ֣וֹת הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־הָי֖וּ מִבְּנֵ֥י לֵוִֽי׃
(26) And Jeroboam said in his heart: ‘Now will the kingdom return to the house of David. (27) If this people go up to offer sacrifices in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then will the heart of this people turn back unto their lord, even unto Rehoboam king of Judah; and they will kill me, and return to Rehoboam king of Judah.’ (28) Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold; and he said unto them: ‘Ye have gone up long enough to Jerusalem; behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’ (29) And he set the one in Beth-el, and the other put he in Dan. (30) And this thing became a sin; for the people went to worship before the one, even unto Dan. (31) And he made houses of high places, and made priests from among all the people, that were not of the sons of Levi.
2 ב

The Northern Kingdom, Kingdom of Israel, stands from 930 - 720 BCE

3 ג
(ג) וַיָּ֗שָׁב וַיִּ֙בֶן֙ אֶת־הַבָּמ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִבַּ֖ד חִזְקִיָּ֣הוּ אָבִ֑יו וַיָּ֨קֶם מִזְבְּחֹ֜ת לַבַּ֗עַל וַיַּ֤עַשׂ אֲשֵׁרָה֙ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֗ה אַחְאָב֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּשְׁתַּ֙חוּ֙ לְכָל־צְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֖ד אֹתָֽם׃
(3) For he built again the high places which Hezekiah his father had destroyed; and he reared up altars for Baal, and made an Asherah, as did Ahab king of Israel, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served them.
Fall of israel and Religous Conflict
4 ד
(ב) וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה רַ֗ק לֹ֚א כְּמַלְכֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָי֖וּ לְפָנָֽיו׃

(2) And he (Hoshea [king of Israel]) did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, yet not as the kings of Israel that were before him.

5 ה
(טז) וְלָקַחְתָּ֥ מִבְּנֹתָ֖יו לְבָנֶ֑יךָ וְזָנ֣וּ בְנֹתָ֗יו אַחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ן וְהִזְנוּ֙ אֶת־בָּנֶ֔יךָ אַחֲרֵ֖י אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽן׃ (יז) אֱלֹהֵ֥י מַסֵּכָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ׃
(16) and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods. (17) Thou shalt make thee no molten gods.
6 ו

vs

7 ז
(ז) לֹ֣א יִהְיֶ֥ה־לְךָ֛֩ אֱלֹהִ֥֨ים אֲחֵרִ֖֜ים עַל־פָּנָֽ֗יַ׃ (ח) לֹֽ֣א־תַעֲשֶׂ֥ה־לְךָ֥֣ פֶ֣֙סֶל֙ ׀ כָּל־תְּמוּנָ֔֡ה אֲשֶׁ֤֣ר בַּשָּׁמַ֣֙יִם֙ ׀ מִמַּ֔֡עַל וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר֩ בָּאָ֖֨רֶץ מִתָּ֑֜חַת וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּמַּ֖֣יִם ׀ מִתַּ֥֣חַת לָאָֽ֗רֶץ׃
(7) Thou shalt have no other gods before Me. (8) Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.
Intergration of Israel into Judah
8 ח
(א) וַֽיְהִי֙ בִּשְׁנַ֣ת שָׁלֹ֔שׁ לְהוֹשֵׁ֥עַ בֶּן־אֵלָ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מָלַ֛ךְ חִזְקִיָּ֥ה בֶן־אָחָ֖ז מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה׃
(1) Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Hezekiah the son of Ahaz king of Judah began to reign.
9 ט
(ט) וַיִּקְבֹּ֗ץ אֶת־כָּל־יְהוּדָה֙ וּבִנְיָמִ֔ן וְהַגָּרִים֙ עִמָּהֶ֔ם מֵאֶפְרַ֥יִם וּמְנַשֶּׁ֖ה וּמִשִּׁמְע֑וֹן כִּֽי־נָפְל֨וּ עָלָ֤יו מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל֙ לָרֹ֔ב בִּרְאֹתָ֕ם כִּֽי־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהָ֖יו עִמּֽוֹ׃ (פ)
(9) And he gathered all Judah and Benjamin, and them that sojourned with them out of Ephraim and Manasseh, and out of Simeon; for they fell to him out of Israel in abundance, when they saw that the LORD his God was with him.
Retrospective Injection of Josiah
10 י
(א) וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ אִ֣ישׁ אֱלֹהִ֗ים בָּ֧א מִיהוּדָ֛ה בִּדְבַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל וְיָרָבְעָ֛ם עֹמֵ֥ד עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ לְהַקְטִֽיר׃ (ב) וַיִּקְרָ֤א עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ בִּדְבַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ מִזְבֵּ֣חַ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה הִנֵּֽה־בֵ֞ן נוֹלָ֤ד לְבֵית־דָּוִד֙ יֹאשִׁיָּ֣הוּ שְׁמ֔וֹ וְזָבַ֣ח עָלֶ֗יךָ אֶת־כֹּהֲנֵ֤י הַבָּמוֹת֙ הַמַּקְטִרִ֣ים עָלֶ֔יךָ וְעַצְמ֥וֹת אָדָ֖ם יִשְׂרְפ֥וּ עָלֶֽיךָ׃
(1) And, behold, there came a man of God out of Judah by the word of the LORD unto Beth-el; and Jeroboam was standing by the altar to offer. (2) And he cried against the altar by the word of the LORD, and said: ‘O altar, altar, thus saith the LORD: Behold, a son shall be born unto the house of David, Josiah by name; and upon thee shall he sacrifice the priests of the high places that offer upon thee, and men’s bones shall they burn upon thee.’
11 יא

Josiah lived from aprox. 641 - 609 BCE

Discovery of Dvarim
12 יב
(ח) וַ֠יֹּאמֶר חִלְקִיָּ֜הוּ הַכֹּהֵ֤ן הַגָּדוֹל֙ עַל־שָׁפָ֣ן הַסֹּפֵ֔ר סֵ֧פֶר הַתּוֹרָ֛ה מָצָ֖אתִי בְּבֵ֣ית יְהוָ֑ה וַיִּתֵּ֨ן חִלְקִיָּ֧ה אֶת־הַסֵּ֛פֶר אֶל־שָׁפָ֖ן וַיִּקְרָאֵֽהוּ׃
(8) And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe: ‘I have found the book of the Law in the house of the LORD.’ And Hilkiah delivered the book to Shaphan, and he read it.
Affirmation of "The Book"
13 יג
(ב) וַיַּ֣עַל הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָ֡ה וְכָל־אִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָה֩ וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵ֨י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם אִתּ֗וֹ וְהַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ וְהַנְּבִיאִ֔ים וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם לְמִקָּטֹ֣ן וְעַד־גָּד֑וֹל וַיִּקְרָ֣א בְאָזְנֵיהֶ֗ם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי֙ סֵ֣פֶר הַבְּרִ֔ית הַנִּמְצָ֖א בְּבֵ֥ית יְהוָֽה׃ (ג) וַיַּעֲמֹ֣ד הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ עַֽל־הָ֨עַמּ֜וּד וַיִּכְרֹ֥ת אֶֽת־הַבְּרִ֣ית ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה לָלֶ֜כֶת אַחַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ וְלִשְׁמֹ֨ר מִצְוֺתָ֜יו וְאֶת־עֵדְוֺתָ֤יו וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו֙ בְּכָל־לֵ֣ב וּבְכָל־נֶ֔פֶשׁ לְהָקִ֗ים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי֙ הַבְּרִ֣ית הַזֹּ֔את הַכְּתֻבִ֖ים עַל־הַסֵּ֣פֶר הַזֶּ֑ה וַיַּעֲמֹ֥ד כָּל־הָעָ֖ם בַּבְּרִֽית׃ (ד) וַיְצַ֣ו הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ אֶת־חִלְקִיָּהוּ֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן הַגָּד֜וֹל וְאֶת־כֹּהֲנֵ֣י הַמִּשְׁנֶה֮ וְאֶת־שֹׁמְרֵ֣י הַסַּף֒ לְהוֹצִיא֙ מֵהֵיכַ֣ל יְהוָ֔ה אֵ֣ת כָּל־הַכֵּלִ֗ים הָֽעֲשׂוּיִם֙ לַבַּ֣עַל וְלָֽאֲשֵׁרָ֔ה וּלְכֹ֖ל צְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וַֽיִּשְׂרְפֵ֞ם מִח֤וּץ לִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ בְּשַׁדְמ֣וֹת קִדְר֔וֹן וְנָשָׂ֥א אֶת־עֲפָרָ֖ם בֵּֽית־אֵֽל׃
(2) And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the LORD. (3) And the king stood on the platform, and made a covenant before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep His commandments, and His testimonies, and His statutes, with all his heart, and all his soul, to confirm the words of this covenant that were written in this book; and all the people stood to the covenant. (4) And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el.