The Dynamic Duo: Betzalel and Aholiav without yichus
1א
כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר תוחלת ממשכה מחלה לב ואמר רבי יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב המזבח עץ שלוש אמות גבה וכתיב וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה׳ פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבית המקדש קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חברו ויש אומרים אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לרבי יהודה ברבי אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ספר תורה לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות ספר תורה לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב כי הוא חייך וארך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דאמר רבי חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות: ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה׳ שנה טובה דכתיב תמיד עיני ה׳ אלקיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב ותחלימני ותחייני: אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקדוש ברוך הוא בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב כי קרא ה׳ לרעב וגו׳ שובע דכתיב וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אתו פרנס טוב דכתיב ויאמר ה׳ אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו׳ אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנאמר ראו קרא ה׳ בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקדוש ברוך הוא עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא וימלא אתו רוח אלקים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם ה׳ בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב בדעתו תהומות נבקעו אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנאמר יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה: אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדוייה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר והאלקים עשה שיראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן זה חלום רע הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה׳ וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים אמר רבי ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב והנה השמש והירח וגו׳

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: Famine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine; and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). Plenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you” (Ezekiel 36:29). And a good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).

With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the community and they agree to the appointment, as it is stated: “And Moses said unto the children of Israel: See, the Lord has called by name Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). The Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalel a suitable appointment in your eyes? Moses said to Him: Master of the universe, if he is a suitable appointment in Your eyes, then all the more so in my eyes.

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Nevertheless, go and tell Israel and ask their opinion. Moses went and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitable in your eyes? They said to him: If he is suitable in the eyes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and in your eyes, all the more so he is suitable in our eyes.

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was called by that name on account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels” (see Exodus 31:7–11), Moses went and reversed the order and told Bezalel: “Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle” (see Exodus 25–26). He said to Moses: Moses, our teacher, the standard practice throughout the world is that a person builds a house and only afterward places the vessels in the house, and you say to me: Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle. If I do so in the order you have commanded, the vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels” (see Exodus 36).

Moses said to Bezalel: Perhaps you were in God’s shadow [betzel El], and you knew precisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there.

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Bezalel knew how to join the letters with which heaven and earth were created. From where do we derive this? It is written here in praise of Bezalel: “And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); and it is written there with regard to creation of heaven and earth: “The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens” (Proverbs 3:19), and it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew” (Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.

On a similar note, Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one who already possesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding” (Daniel 2:21). Rav Taḥalifa, from the West, Eretz Yisrael, heard this and repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu. Rabbi Abbahu said to him: You learned proof for this idea from there; we learn it from here: As it is written in praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: “And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom” (Exodus 31:6).

2ב
דָּבָר אַחֵר, קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא רְאֵה קָרָאתִי, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא כְּשֶׁעָלָה משֶׁה לַמָּרוֹם הֶרְאָה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּל כְּלֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאָמַר לוֹ כָּךְ וְכָךְ עֲשֵׂה (שמות כה, לא): וְעָשִׂיתָ מְנֹרַת, (שמות כה, כג): וְעָשִׂיתָ שֻׁלְחָן, (שמות ל, א): וְעָשִׂיתָ מִזְבֵּחַ, כָּךְ כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה הַמִּשְׁכָּן. בָּא משֶׁה לֵירֵד סָבוּר שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ, קָרָא לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה מֶלֶךְ עֲשִׂיתִיךָ אֵין דֶּרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר, אֶלָּא גּוֹזֵר וַאֲחֵרִים עוֹשִׂים, אַף אַתָּה אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר אֶלָּא אֱמֹר לָהֶם וְהֵם עוֹשִׂין, וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ לְמִי יֹאמַר, אָמַר משֶׁה לְמִי אֹמַר, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי מַרְאֶה לָךְ, וּמֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵבִיא לוֹ סִפְרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהֶרְאָה לוֹ כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת שֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לַעֲמֹד מִבְּרֵאשִׁית עַד תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, דּוֹר וָדוֹר וּמְלָכָיו, דּוֹר וָדוֹר וּמַנְהִיגָיו, דּוֹר וָדוֹר וּנְבִיאָיו. אָמַר לוֹ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד הִתְקַנְתִּיו מֵאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה, וְכֵן בְּצַלְאֵל מֵאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הִתְקַנְתִּיו, הֱוֵי: רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל.

See that I have singled out Betzalel by name: It doesn't say, "I have singled out", but "see that I have singled out". When Moshe went up to be with God on high, Hakadosh Baruch Hu showed him each of the vessels of the Mishkan, and said, "thus shall you make it: make the menorah, make the table, make the altar, for each of the pieces of the Mishkan. When Moshe was getting ready to go down, he thought that he would make them, but God called to him and said, "I have made you into a king, it's not the way of a king to make anything, rather the king decrees and others create. Similarly for you, you don't have permission to make anything, rather you shall tell them and they will make them."

God didn't tell Moshe who would be responsible for making them, and asked God, "Who will make them?" God responded, "I will show you."

What did God do? God showed him the "the book of Adam Harishon", and showed him the inscriptions for each generation that will arise, from Bereishit until the time of the resurrection of the dead, each generation and its kings, each generation and its leaders, each generation and its prophets. God said to Moshe, "each one I have established from that moment (of creation), including Betzalel who I appointed at that time". This is why it says, "See that I have singled out by name Betzalel".

3ג

Bamidbar Rabbah 15:10
When G‑d told Moses, “Make a menorah of pure gold,” Moses said: “How should it be made?” and was told that it should be hammered out of a solid block. Nonetheless Moses found it difficult to understand, and when he came down [from Mount Sinai] he forgot how to make it. He went back up and said, “My master, how should it be made?” to which G‑d replied, “It should be hammered out of a solid block.” Again Moses found it difficult to comprehend, and when he came down from the mountain he forgot the details.

He went back up yet again and said, “My master! I have forgotten it.” G‑d showed him the process again, but he still found it difficult. G‑d then said, “Watch and do the same,” and took a menorah of fire and showed him how to make it. Yet Moses still couldn’t understand.

So, G‑d said to him, “Go to Betzalel; he can make it.” And indeed, Moses asked Betzalel, and he immediately was able to make it. Moses was astonished: “G‑d showed it to me several times, yet I couldn’t understand how to make it; yet you, who never saw it, were able to make it on your own? Betzalel, you must have been standing betzel E‑l, in the shadow of G‑d, when He showed me how to make the menorah.”

Therefore, when the Temple was destroyed, the Menorah was hidden. And this is one of the five things that was hidden: the ark, the Menorah, the fire, the holy spirit, and the cherubs. When the Holy One Who is Blessed returns in [God]'s mercy and builds [God]'s house and sanctuary, [God] will bring them back to their place to make Jerusalem rejoice, as it says, "The arid desert shall be glad, The wilderness shall rejoice" (Isaiah 35:1), "It shall blossom abundantly, It shall also exult" (Isaiah 35:2).

4ד

Midrash
When Moses came down, he relayed to the Jewish people the details of how the Mishkan, its beams, the altar and the table were to be built. They asked, “Who will make all of these?” He replied, “Betzalel.” The people then started criticizing Moses, saying: “G‑d didn’t tell Moses to have Betzalel be the architect of the Mishkan; Moses picked him himself, because Betzalel is his relative . . .” To which Moses replied, “I did nothing on my own initiative; it was G‑d who told me to appoint Betzalel.”

5ה

Midrash
When the Israelites wished to do that deed, they said to Aaron, "Come make for us a lord." Hur, the son of Caleb, arose and chastised them. They immediately arose and killed him. [Tanchuma T'zaveh 10:10]

Why was Hur mentioned in this context (building the Mishkan)? When Israel wished to commit idolatry, he (Hur) offered his soul for the sake of God, and would not allow them (to sin). They rose against him and killed him. God said to him "By your life I will repay you." [Shmot Rabbah 48:3]

6ו

And King Shlomo sent and fetched Chiram from Tzor. He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naftali, and his father was a man of Tzor, a worker in brass, and he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and knowledge to work all works in brass. And he came to King Shlomo, and wrought all his work. (I Melakhim 7:13-14)

In II Divrei Ha-yamim it says:

The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father was a man of Tzor, skillful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to engrave any manner of engraving, and to work all kinds of artistic work; to do whatever shall be put to him, with your skillful men, and with the skillful men of my lord David your father. (2:13)

7ז

Bereishit Rabbati in his Torah Sheleima:

"Nor regards the rich more than the poor, for they are all the works of His hands" (Iyov34:19). This teaches that the great and the small are equal before him. And with respect to the Mikdash, Shlomo was from Yehuda and Chiram was from Dan. And similarly regarding the Messiah - his father is from Yehuda and his mother is from Dan. Therefore, Yehuda and Dan are called lion cubs, for the Messiah will issue from the two of them. (Shemot 31:3, no. 14)

8ח

And we know that for the building of the Mishkan two people were chosen, two tribes of Israel, from Yehuda and from Dan, the one likened to a lion cub, and the other to a serpent and a lion, teaching you how much the building of the Mishkan is likened to them. And also to allude to the attribute of mercy that is hinted at in the name Yehuda, and to the attribute of justice that is hinted at in the name of Dan. (An unkown Rishon)

9ט

Let him come and join him so that they not mock him, and so that nobody be arrogant, for the great and the small are equal before the Omnipresent, Betzalel from Yehuda and Aholiav from Dan, and he joins him. (Shemot Rabba 40:4)

10י

Rabbi Johanan said: From where do we know that a man should not change his occupation from the occupation of his ancestors? As it is said: “And King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. He was the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass.”The Master taught on this verse: [Although his father was from the tribe of Naphtali,] his mother was of the tribe of Dan, of whom it is written: “And, behold, with him I have placed Oholiab the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. (Arachin 16b).

11יא
(א) ועוד ולהורות כי יש חכמים רבים שהם קשים להורות אחרים והנה אהליאב הוא חבירו בכל המלאכות גם להורות לאחר בחכמה. על כן אמר על שניהם עושי כל מלאכה וחשבי מחשבות

This reiteration of God's selection of Betzalel adds the word, "lehorot", to teach. There are many wise people who have trouble teaching others. Here, it also mentions that Ahaliav, his partner, has been given these abilities so as to teach others through his wisdom. Therefore, it is said about both of them that they shall "do all the work and think the thoughts".

12יב

IBN EZRA
The Gaon said: Why were Betzalel and Aholiav chosen? And he answered: Because Betzalel was from the descendants of Yehuda, whom Yaakov compared to a lion cub (Bereishit 49:9). And Aholiav was from the descendants of Dan, whom Moshe compared to a lion cub (Devarim 33:22). A lion is narrow from behind, and so was the Mikdash (Middot4:7). This is a homiletical answer, for Betzalel and Aholiav did not build the Temple, and the width of the Mishkan which they made was uniform. There is, however, no basis for his question, for they were chosen because there was nobody in Israel like them. (Shemot31:1)

13יג

Ramban
"See, I have called by name Betzalel the son of Uri, the son of Chur." God said to Moshe: See, I have called by name. And Moshe said to Israel: See, God has called by name (Shemot 35:30). And the reason is that Israel in Egypt were crushed by work in mortar and in brick, and they never learned work in silver, gold, and precious stones; they never saw them at all.

It was a miracle that there was found among them someone who was of great knowledge in silver and gold and stone and wood, and artistry, and embroidery and weaving. For even among those who studied by masters, you will not find one who is proficient in all these arts. And those who know and are familiar with them, when their hands always come into contact with mortar and filth, they cannot do fine and intricate artwork.

And furthermore, he was a great authority in wisdom, in understanding and in knowledge, to understand the mystery of the Mishkan and all its vessels, why they were commanded and what they allude to. It is for this reason that God said to Moshe that he should see this wondrous matter, and know that He had filled him with the spirit of God to know all these things so that he can make the Mishkan. For it was His desire to make the Mishkan in the wilderness, and He created him for the sake of His glory, for He calls the generations from the beginning (Yeshayahu 41:4), in the manner of "Before I formed you in the belly I knew you, and before you did come out of the womb I sanctified you" (Yirmiyahu 1:5)…

And our Rabbis have a midrash about this: He showed him the book of Adam and said to him: I ordained each individual at that time, and Betzalel as well I ordained at that hour. As it says: See, I have called by name, Betzalel. And this is like what I have explained. They further said that Betzalel knew how to combine the letters with which heaven and earth were created. The idea is that the Mishkan alludes to these things, and he knows and understands His mystery. (Ramban, Commentary on Shemot 31:2)

14יד

The Malbim

"See, I have called by name." For he was given the name Betzalel because Moshe said to him: "You were in God's shadow (be-tzel El) and you knew," as Chazal have said. That is to say, the entire world is the shadow of God and an image of His wisdom. As I explained in Parashat Bereishit that the "image" (tzelem) of God is the "shadow" (tzel) of God… and the universe (the macrocosm), and corresponding to it, man (the microcosm), are shadows and images of God. And the Mishkan in which all the worlds were depicted, and so too all the pearls of man, was also a shadow of God. And all this was understood by Betzalel, and because of this it says that Betzalel knew how to join together the letters with which heaven and earth were created, and therefore he was called by the name Betzalel. God called him by this name, because he was prepared to build his holy edifice, as it says: "He lay up sound wisdom for the righteous" (Mishlei 2:7), that God prepared from the beginning righteous people who would arise in each generation, and be prepared for the great things that were to be done in their time.

15טו

Meshekh Chokhma

"See, I have called by name Betzalel the son of Uri, the son of Chur, of the tribe of Yehuda." The idea is that total devotion must be without examination and excessive intellection. Yehuda risked his life at the Sea, as it is stated in Tosefta Sota, and so too Chur risked his life at the Golden Calf. For examination will block the inner will and prevent a person from offering his life for the sanctification of God's name… It therefore says that because they did not engage in excessive examination and intellection, therefore, "He has filled him [with the spirit of God] in wisdom, and in understanding, etc." (Shemot 35:31). Understand this.

16טז

(ג) דָּבָר אַחֵר, רְאוּ קָרָא ה' בְּשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן אוּרִי בֶּן חוּר, מָה רָאָה לְהַזְכִּיר כָּאן חוּר, אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבִּקְּשׁוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים נָתַן נַפְשׁוֹ עַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְלֹא הִנִּיחָן, עָמְדוּ וַהֲרָגוּהוּ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ לְךָ.

Why does the Torah mention Betzalel's grandfather Chur? Because Betzalel was given the task of constructing the Mishkan as a reward for his gradfather Chur sacrificing his life to oppose the golden calf.

17יז
ואהליאב. מִשֵּׁבֶט דָּן מִן הַיְרוּדִין שֶׁבַּשְּׁבָטִים – מִבְּנֵי הַשְּׁפָחוֹת – וְהִשְׁוָהוּ הַמָּקוֹם לִבְצַלְאֵל לִמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְהוּא מִגְּדוֹלֵי הַשְּׁבָטִים, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּ' וְלֹא נִכַּר שׁוֹעַ לִפְנֵי דָל (איוב ל"ד):
ואהליאב AND OHOLIAB — he was of the tribe of Dan, of one of the lowest of the tribes, of the sons of the handmaids, and yet the Omnipresent placed him with regard to the work of the Tabernacle on a level with Bezalel although he was a member of one of the noble tribes (Judah)! in order to confirm what Scripture says, (Job 34:19) “He regardeth not the rich more than the poor” (Midrash Tanchuma 2:10:13).
18יח
ראו קרא. מהו ראו לפי שכשאמר משה לישראל שבצלאל יעשה המשכן היו ישראל מרננים אחרי משה ואומרים שכל הגדולה הוא נוטל לו ולמשפחתו אמר להם משה דעו וראו כי לא מדעתי אני עושה אלא מפי הקב"ה ואף משה עצמו בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה על מלאכת המשכן ועשית היה סבור לעשות הכל אמר לו הקב"ה לא כאשר עולה בדעתך אלא צדיק שנהרג על מעשה העגל דהיינו חור יבא בן בנו ויעשנו לפי שהמשכן כפרה על אותו מעשה וזהו שאמר לו הקב"ה ראה קראתי וגו':

ראו קרא, “see! He has called upon, etc.” What does the word: ראו mean here? When Moses had told the people that Betzalel would be the chief architect/craftsman, and that he would be constructing the Tabernacle, (beginning of chapter 31, where he had been told about Betzalel and Oholiov by name by G–d) there was murmuring among the Israelites who charged Moses with nepotism and assigning every position of importance to members of his family. He therefore repeated here that these men had not been chosen by him but by G–d, personally. In fact, Moses, personally, had originally thought that he himself had been charged with the whole task, seeing that G–d had said to him: ועשית , “you will make,” etc., chapter 25,17, and subsequently. The plural impersonal mode had been reserved for the construction of the Holy Ark (Exodus 25,10). G–d explained to him then already that on the contrary, not as he had thought, he would not build the Tabernacle but a descendant of Chur, who had given his life trying to stop the Jewish people from making a golden calf would be charged with that task. By doing so he would help atone for the murder of his grandfather and for the sin of the golden calf. This is why the Torah traces Betzalel’s ancestry to Chur, i.e. Betzalel son of Uri, son of Chur. (Compare Exodus 31,2)

19יט
ולהורות נתן וגו'. פירוש לצד שיש חכמים רבים שתהיה חכמתם בלבם לבד שלא ידעו ללמדה, לזה אמר ולהורות נתן בלבו השכיל חכמת הלימוד, עוד בא לשלול מה שכתוב בפ''ג דיומא (ל''ח) של בית גרמו לא רצו ללמד על מעשה לחם הפנים של בית אבטינם לא רצו וכו', והודיענו הכתוב כי על אלו יאמר (משלי י׳:ז׳) זכר צדיק לברכה כי היו מורים ומלמדים כל הרוצה:

ולהורות נתן בלבו, and He equipped his heart with the ability to teach, etc.There are many great scholars whose wisdom is locked up in their hearts due to their inability to transmit it successfully to outsiders. The ability to teach is a great gift, and this is why the Torah testifies that G'd granted this gift to Betzalel. There is also a moral lesson contained in this verse not to act like certain members of the family of Bet Gormu who wanted to preserve their monoply on the intricacies of preparing the show breads by not teaching their craft to any non-family member. The Talmud severely critised their behaviour (Yuma 38). People who do teach their crafts qualify for the blessing expressed by Solomon in Proverbs 10,7: "The memory of a righteous person is a source of blessing."

20כ
ויעשו כל חכם לב. פירוש הגם שהעושים רבים הם אף על פי כן היתה המלאכה נעשית כאילו עשאה אדם אחד, והכוונה בזה כי כשיעשו המלאכה רבים על כל פנים ישתנה תואר מלאכת זה מזה ולא תדמה למלאכה שיעשנה כולה אומן אחד, והשמיענו הכתוב כי מלאכת המשכן שלימה היתה גם בבחינה זו כי הנותן חכמה בהמה השוה אותם בהתבוננות החכמה שוה ודומים כולם לאיש אחד, ולדרך זה יתיישב טעם אומרו בכל פרטי המעשים לשון יחיד ולא פירש מי הוא ופשיטא שאינו חוזר על בצלאל כי לא הוא עשה הכל והעד הנאמן (לקמן ל''ז א') ויעש בצלאל את הארון, אלא יכוין אל עושי המלאכה והזכירם בלשון יחיד לטעם שכתבתי:

ויעשו כל חכם לב, Every wise-hearted man (employed for that task) made the Tabernacle, etc. The reason that the word עשה "he made" is used at the end of the verse though many artisans were involved in the construction, indicates that the work was performed as if only a single individual had made it all. The miraculous feature was that the normal minor discrepancies between how different artisans perform the same type of work could not be noticed in the completed product though that product was a composite to which many people had contributed their skills. This is how we can explain the repeated use by the Torah of the singular when speaking of a number of people who performed work. The singular used by the Torah again and again cannot refer to Betzalel as he obviously did not perform all this work himself. The fact that the Torah mentioned in 37,1 that Betzalel made the Holy Ark is proof that he did not make everything else. The reason the completed Tabernacle appeared as the work of a single artisan was that G'd inspired the various artisans in the manner in which they carried out their assignments. They did not strive to display the artist's normal individuality but strove to be part of a team.

21כא

1. The Spirit of God

22כב

The midrash

"And I have filled him with the spirit of God" – from where is all this wisdom? From the Holy One, blessed be He, the spirit of God. And similarly you find regarding Yehoshua, who came from Yosef: "And Yehoshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom" (Devarim34:9). And similarly you find regarding Otniel the son of Kenaz, who came from Yehuda: "And the spirit of the Lord came upon him" (Shoftim 3:10). R. Chanina said: This is what it says: "But there is a spirit in man, [and the breadth of the Almighty gives them understanding]" (Iyov 32:8). All the understanding that Betzalel had came from the Almighty; thus: "And I have filled him with the spirit of God." (Shemot Rabba)

23כג

The Ibn Ezra writes in his long commentary:

"And I shall fill him," like "And Yehoshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom" (Devarim 34:9); and it is written: "And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him" (Yeshayahu 11:2). And it explains what the spirit of the Lord is, namely, "the spirit of wisdom and understanding" (ibid.)… Now Betzalel was filled with all wisdom, with mathematics, and geometry… and astronomy and nature, and the mystery of the soul. And he had an advantage over all the people of his generation, for he knew all forms of workmanship, for many of those who are wise in heart do not know even a single workmanship. Therefore it says: "And in all manner of workmanship," with a vav.

24כד

The Malbim

"And I have filled him with the spirit of God," a prophetic spirit and a holy spirit, as Onkelos translates: "And I have filled him with a prophetic spirit from before God." Because for the building of the Mishkan, besides having to know all types of workmanship, he had to understand the hidden secret of the building, which involves the attainment of all perfection and connection with the spirit of the living God that gives life to them and dwells among them. For this reason, He clothed him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, which are the three highest levels with which the world was created, as it is written: "The Lord by wisdom founded the earth" (Mishlei 3:19), and it is written: "Through wisdom a house is built" (ibid. 24:3), and as I have explained these matters at length in my commentary to Mishlei. And this was to comprehend the great Mishkan and all its mysteries; "and in all manner of workmanship" refers to the crafts with which he will actually build the Mishkan.

25כה

2. Wisdom, understanding and knowledge

26כו

Pirkei De-Rabbi Eliezer

"In wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge." The world was created by means of ten utterances, etc. They are included in the following three: "The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens. By his knowledge the depths were broken up" (Mishlei 3:19-20). And with these three, the Mishkan was built, as it says: "And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding and in knowledge" (Shemot 31:3). And with these three the Mikdash was built, as it says: "He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naftali, and his father was a man of Tzor, a worker in brass; and he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and knowledge" (I Melakhim 7:14). And with these three it will be built in the future, as it says: "Through wisdom a house is built, and by understanding it is established: and by knowledge are the chambers filled" (Mishlei 24:3-4). And with the three of them He will in the future give three good gifts to Israel, as it says: "For the Lord gives wisdom; out of His mouth come knowledge and understanding" (Mishlei 2:6). And the three of them were doubly given to the messianic king, as it says: "And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and the understanding, etc." (Yeshayahu11:2). (End of chapter 3)

27כז

The Netziv

"In wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge." It has already been explained (Shemot 25:8) that all of the worlds were included in the building of the Mishkan and its vessels. For this reason, the Shekhina rested within it, as it was at the beginning of the creation, when the Shekhina oversaw His world in general. Just as the world in general was created with these three attributes, as it is written: "The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens. By his knowledge the depths were broken up" (Mishlei 3:19-20) – in this way the Mishkan had to be built with these three attributes, and similarly the Mikdash in which the Shekhina would rest. And this is what we find in Midrash Rabba that Betzalel knew how to join together the letters with which heaven and earth were created. Thus is explained the words, "And I have filled him with the spirit of God," this word sometimes meaning that He created heaven and earth, as I have written at the beginning of Parashat Bereishit (1:1) and in other places.

28כח
וּבְצַלְאֵ֛ל בֶּן־אוּרִ֥י בֶן־ח֖וּר לְמַטֵּ֣ה יְהוּדָ֑ה עָשָׂ֕ה אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה ה' אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה׃

Rashi
And Betzalel the son of Uri the son of Chur of the tribe of Judah did all that the L-rd had commanded Moses, [even things which Moses had not "relayed" to Betzalel. Moses first charged Betzalel to make the appurtenances and then the mishkan, and Betzalel, in practice, reversed the order, this, ("making the house first and then the furnishing"), indeed, according with what the L-rd had commanded Moses.]

29כט
ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל. וכן אמר משה לישראל ראו קרא ה' בשם בשביל שישראל היו במצרים פרוכים בעבודת חומר ולבנים ולא למדו מלאכת כסף וזהב ואבנים טובות ולכך הי' פלא שימצא בהם אדם חכם גדול בכסף ובזהב ובחרושת אבן וחושב ורוקם ואורג כי אף בלומדים לפני חכמים לא ימצא בהם בקי בכל האומניות כולם ועוד שהי' חכם גדול בתבונה ובדעת להבין סוד המשכן ובכל כליו למה ציוו ולמה ירמזו ולכך אמר בזה הלשון לשון תימה ורבותינו דרשו שהראה הקב"ה למשה ספרו של אדם הראשון ואמר לו כל אחד התקנתיו ואף בצלאל מאותו שעה התקנתיו. וי"מ ראה כלומר בעיני נראה שהוא טוב ראה גם אתה אם ישר בעיניך וכן אמר משה לישראל ראו קרא השם בעיניו ובעיני הוא טוב ראו גם אתם אם ישר בעיניכם:
ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל, “See, I have called by name, Betzalel.” Moses repeats this description of Betzalel’s qualifications when he says to them in This was necessary, as it was a miracle that a people who had been forced to perform basic slave labour for hundreds of years should have produced among themselves artisans capable of performing highly skilled work such as was envisioned for the making of the priestly garments, and for the furnishings of the Tabernacle. Betzalel, personally, had been endowed by G’d not only with the wisdom to carry out the physical work required, but he had been endowed with the spiritual insights necessary to comprehend the mystical aspects of the Tabernacle and everything connected with it. He was fully aware of the significance of both the materials used, the measurements G’d had commanded, and the manner in which the entire project represented a re-enactment of מעשה בראשית, the way in which G’d had created the universe. Our sages, in attempting to give us an inkling of all this, stated that G’d had shown Betzalel the book of Adam, the first human being. They meant that just as Adam, initially, had been on intimate terms with his Creator, so Betzalel had been endowed with something parallel, as much as this is possible in the present imperfect world. Some commentators interpret the word: “ראה” as meaning “I want you to know that in My eyes this man appears to be good.” Seeing that this is so, I want you, Moses, to relate to him in a similar manner.
30ל
ומעתה אל תתמה ממה שאמרו יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהם שמים וארץ, כי היו"ד רמז לחכמה והה"א שממנה אצילות, הוא"ו רמז לתבונה, וה"א אחרונה היא הדעת וזהו שאמר ואמלא אותו רוח אלקים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת.
Having learned all this you need not be surprised at the statement of our sages in Berachot 55 that Betzalel knew how to manipulate or combine the letters in the alphabet employed by G’d when he created the universe. The letter י alludes to חכמה, wisdom, whereas the letter ה alludes to the celestial region it derives from, עולם האצילות. The letter ו alludes to the emanation בינה, (the one next to חכמה), whereas the final letter ה in that name refers to the concept of דעת, [according to some Kabbalists a combination of the former two emanations, eliminating the emanation מלכות from the diagram we are more familiar with. Ed.] This is what the Torah had in mind (31,3) when G’d said of Betzalel ואמלא אותו רוח אלוהים בחכמה, ובתבונה, ובדעת, “I will fill him with divine spirit, with wisdom, insight, and knowledge.” The three words refer to the three emanations we have mentioned.
31לא
ובצלאל בן אורי בן חור וגו'. פרש״‎י אפילו דברים שלא אמר לו רבו כו׳‎ כגון צפוי ראשי העמודים.
'ובצלאל בן אורי בן חור וגו, “and Betzalel, son of Uri, son of Chur, etc.;” he also constructed items that his teacher Moses had not specifically instructed him to construct, as he was on the same spiritual wavelength as his teacher. [Our author had already made this point on Exodus 36,38. Ed.]
32לב
דע כי הש"י ברא העולמות בשמותיו ובצירופן, וכמו שאמרו רז"ל (ברכות נה, א) יודע היה בצלאל לצרף האותיות שבהם נבראו שמים וארץ. והנה הראשונים שהיו בצלם אלקים היה מקויים בהם ידע את שמי, והיו משתמשים בשמו בקדושה לעבדו ולאוהבו ולדבק בו, וזה היה עד אנוש שהיה בצלם וכדאיתא במדרש רבה שהבאתי למעלה. אבל מדור אנוש ואילך אז הוחל לקרוא בשם ה' (בראשית ד, כו), כלומר היו משתמשים בשם אבל חולין היה להם, וזהו שאמר הוחל לשון חולין. והיה זה עד דור המבול המה הגבורים אנשי השם והיו עוסקים בהשבעות שמות כדאיתא בזוהר (ח"א לז, א) נאמר כאן (בראשית ו, ד) אנשי השם, ונאמר התם (ויקרא כד, יא) ויקוב [וגו'] את השם, על כן לא היו יראים מהמבול ולא היו מאמינים שביד הקב"ה לבטל כחם, ועיין בזוהר באורך. אבל ענין ידיעתם את השם נעשה להם שממון, ויצדק ג"כ הפירוש הפשוטו אנשי שממון:
We must appreciate that when G–d created different worlds, He named, i.e. formed and defined them by means of a combination of the letters of the alphabet. Our sages say that Betzalel understood the mystery of the combinations of all of these letters which make up the names [definitions] of all things found in this world (Berachot 55 based on the word שם in Exodus 35,30). Early man, who was still בצלם אלוקים, was still able to understand the significance of the names of G–d, and used these names to serve Him in holiness and love in order to cleave to Him. This condition came to an end with the generation of Enosh, as we have explained earlier based on Bereshit Rabbah. When we read in Genesis 4,26 that during the lifetime of Enosh אז הוחל לקרא בשם ה', "then one began to profane the name of the Lord," the meaning is that people no longer used His Name in holiness but desecrated it. The expression הוחל indicates something that is profane, חולין. This situation continued until the advent of the deluge. When the Torah speaks about המה הגבורים אשר היו מעולם אנשי השם, "they were the heroes of old, men of the "Name" (Genesis 6,4), this means that these people used the name of G–d to manipulate the universe, as described in the Zohar, Sullam edition page 209. The expression אנשי השם in Genesis, and the expression ויקוב את השם in Leviticus 24,11, where the Torah refers to the blasphemer, suggests a similar misuse of the Holy Name of G–d in both instances. It was the ability of these people to use G–d's name in order to manipulate it that made them disregard the warnings of an impending deluge. All this is described at greater length in the Zohar. We find that the people of Jerusalem are described by the prophet Ezekiel 12,19 as also having displayed misplaced optimism concerning the prophecies of doom by Jeremiah. The people's very knowledge of G–d's name was what misled them. This is the justification for the reference in Ezekiel to these people as "dwellers in ruins" when in fact they were still dwelling in Jerusalem.
33לג
כבר כתבתי הש"י הוא נגלה ונסתר, נגלה מצד פעולותיו, ונסתר מצד מהותו, על כן שם ידו"ד אינו נהגה, כי הוא מורה על עצמותו. אבל במקדש נהגה, כי כביכול כל כך הקדושה בתוכיות המשכן לידע להתבונן התבוננות מה משם ידו"ד כמאן דארח מריח הנעלם. ובמדרש (שמו"ר לג, ו) ויקחו לי תרומה (שמות כה, ב), כביכול לי אתם לוקחים, ע"כ רומז למה שכתבתי. וזהו סוד לי לשמי, הוא שמו המיוחד. והענין כי היו במשכן ג"כ אלו שני עניינים, נגלה ונסתר. הנגלה, הוא פעולת המשכן וכליו כאשר צוה ה' את משה. הנסתר, הוא [שהיו] מחשבין סודות הענין כמו שכתבתי לעיל, לחשוב מחשבות, בסוד צירוף אותיות שבהם נבראו שמים וארץ. נמצא המשכן מצד פעולות הנגלות קודש, ומצד המחשבה הנסתרת קודש קדשים:
I have already written about G–d sometimes revealing Himself, other times remaining totally concealed. I had defined the very Being of G–d as manifested by His actions and, in contrast, His remaining concealed as part of His Essence. This is why G–d does not operate in public in His capacity as the Ineffable Name. In the Temple, however, an area which is holy, i.e. separate, secluded, G–d does operate in His capacity as the Ineffable Name, י-ה-ו-ה. Just as one can sometimes smell the fragrance of some flower or spice without actually seeing the source of the fragrance, so G–d's Ineffable Name operates within the confines of the Tabernacle and we become aware of this through its "fragrance." There is a Midrash which says that the words in 25,2: ויקחו לי תרומה, "They shall take a contribution for Me,” are to be understood as a metaphorical gift to G–d in His capacity as the Ineffable Name, the concealed. This had to be mentioned, since, when it comes to the Tabernacle, we deal with the revealed as well as with the concealed. The construction of the Tabernacle, its furnishings, all in accordance with G–d's instructions to Moses, represented the revealed dimension of the Tabernacle. The concealed dimension involved the planning, i.e. מחשבות that Betzalel had to have in order to be able to carry out all G–d's instructions. We referred to this earlier when we explained that Betzalel was able to manipulate the letters in the Torah in a manner similar to the way they had been used when the universe was created. We may therefore perceive of the Tabernacle as קודש, holy, in its visible dimension, and as קודש קדשים, holiest of holy, in its invisible dimension.
34לד
ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל בן אורי בן חור כו' (שמות לה, ל). פקח עיניך וראה מי שזוכה להיות מנהיג בישראל איך צריך להיות מלא בחכמה ותבונה ודעת, וגם צריך להיות הגון בעני אלקים ואדם. בפרק הרואה (ברכות נה, א) א"ר יוחנן אין מעמידין פרנס על הציבור אלא א"כ נמלכין בציבור, שנאמר (שמות לה, ל) ויאמר משה אל בני ישראל ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל בן אורי, א"ל הקב"ה כו' עיין שם. וקשה במה שאמרו ישראל אם לפני הקב"ה ולפניך הגון, האי ולפניך כיודא ועוד לקרא. עוד קשה לפנינו לא כל שכן, מה זה כל שכן, לימא כן הוא כדבריך:
ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל בן אורי בן חור. Anyone who is a leader of the Jewish people has to be endowed with superior wisdom and needs to be approved for his task by both G–d and the people whom he represents. Rabbi Yochanan made the appointment of communal leaders subject to a referendum (Berachot 55). He based this ruling on the verse quoted above (31,2). If the leader has found G–d's approval, why would he also need the people's approval? The Talmud describes there that G–d asked Moses if Betzalel was acceptable to him to which Moses replied "If he is acceptable to You how can he not be acceptable to me?" G–d explained that Betzalel must also have his approval. When Moses subsequently asked the Israelites if Betzalel was acceptable to them they answered that if he was the choice of both G–d and Moses he must certainly be their choice also. Israel's response seemed to lack logic, especially the statement that if a leader was acceptable to G–d he must be even more acceptable to them!
35לה
ההגון מתחלק לג' עניינים. אחד מעשה הגון, שהוא באמת הגון והכל מודים בו שהוא הגון. ב' לפעמים מעשה הגון כלפי שמיא, והרואה סובר שאינו הגון, אם מחמת חסרון ידיעתו או באיזה סיבה, וכבר אמרו רז"ל (נזיר כג, ב) גדולה עבירה לשמה ממצוה שלא לשמה. הרי שני מיני הגון לענין מעשה הנגלה. עוד שלישית הכוונה הגונה לשם שמים ולא על מנת שיקראהו רבי כו' וכיוצא באלה. על זה אמר משה רבינו ע"ה להקב"ה, רבש"ע, אם לפניך הגון דהיינו בחינה שלישית דברים המסורים ללב שהיה יכול להיות שנסתרו אינו כנגלה ועל כל זה הוא הגון, מכל שכן לפני הנגלה אני רואה הגון:
Actually, when we speak about a person being הגון, suitable for a certain task, such suitability consists of three aspects. Firstly, a person's performance must meet the standards expected of him. Secondly, sometimes a person performs a task in a manner totally satisfactory to G–d, but the people who observe the work performed are not satisfied that the work meets the specifications (because they are not sufficiently expert). Our sages have already taught us that there are occasions when a violation of one of G–d's commandments which was motivated by lofty ideals may rank ethically higher than a performance of a commandment in an off-handed manner (Horiyot 10). These two aspects of suitability are visible to all. There is a third aspect, namely the intention of the person carrying out the task as a representative of the community which is not visible to anyone except G–d. When Moses said to G–d that if Betzalel was acceptable to Him he would be acceptable to him, Moses, he referred to that part of acceptability which only G–d knows about, namely, whether Betzalel was properly motivated. A man free from defect in areas which are not subject to human scrutiny will certainly take care to be free from defects in matters subject to scrutiny by his peers.
36לו
ישראל אמרו, אם לפני הקב"ה הגון כשעושה מעשה טוב גלוי לפניו שאז נסתרו כנגלו, ואתה מעיד שכל מעשיו טובים הנגלות הם הגונות, אף מה שנראה לנו לפעמים באיזה מעשה שאינו הגון ואתה מעיד שכולם הגונים ואנחנו טועים, והקב"ה מעיד כל טוב שעושה נסתרו כנגלו:
The Israelites told Moses that if Betzalel's suitability had passed G–d's standards in areas that only G–d was competent to judge, and had passed Moses's standards in an area which Moses was competent to judge, then they were prepared to accept him even if in their own judgment he committed errors. They were willing to concede that in such a case their own judgment must be at fault.
37לז
בפרק הרואה (ברכות נה, א) א"ר יוחנן ג' הקב"ה מכריז עליהם בעצמו, ואלו הן, רעב, שבע, פרנס כו' עיין שם. וצריך לטעם למה בשלשת אלו מכריז בעצמו. הגם כי נוכל למצוא טעם בשובע כי מפתח מטר אינו ביד שליח, ד' דברים אין נמסרין ביד שליח רק ביד הקב"ה בעצמו, והסימן מפת"ח (תנחומא וירא לה). והטעם כי קשין מזונותיו של אדם כקריעת ים סוף (פסחים קיח, א), וים סוף אי אפשר ע"י שליח, אבל אינך תרתי האיך מתורצים:
On the same folio of the Talmud as that mentioned above, Rabbi Yochanan said that there are three fateful events which G–d announces personally. They are: "famine, good harvests, and the name of a good economic leader of the people." He brings scriptural proof for each one of these three. The verse cited to support the announcement by G–d of a suitable economic leader is our verse appointing Betzalel.
38לח
נלע"ד שלפעמים שהם תמוהים בעיני הנבראים, על כן הקב"ה מכריז בעצמו. כענין עידי פסולי דרבנן שהם כשרים מדאורייתא, צריכין הכרזה. ברעב, (תהלים י, טו) שבור זרוע רשע, א"ר אלכסנדרי כנגד מפקיעי שערים כו' (מגילה יז, ב). הרי תמוה הוא שבע ומרעיב, שבע כל העולם כולו ניזון בשביל חנינא בני, וחנינא בני די לו בקב חרובין (תענית י, א). פרנס, לפעמים אין נראה בעיני אדם שזה יעלה לגדולה יותר מזה, על כן הקב"ה מכריז בכבודו ובעצמו על שלשה אלה להודיע [ש]ממנו ומאתו יתברך יצאו והוא יודע טעמם יפקוד וגו':
Why does G–d make a point of making these three announcements personally? We understand that the provision of a good harvest is something that G–d announces personally, because He did not entrust the key to rain to an intermediary, [it is one of three keys that G–d did not hand over to an intermediary Taanit 2 Ed.] The reason is that providing a livelihood for all creatures is as difficult a task as that of splitting the sea of reeds, something that could not be entrusted to an intermediary. Why did G–d reserve the right for Himself not to entrust such announcements as who would be leader, or that there would be a famine to an intermediary such as a prophet? I believe the reason is that if such events were to be announced by an intermediary the people would have such difficulty in justifying these choices that they would be deprived of their moral value. We find something analogous in Sanhedrin 26 where public announcements are to be made about who is unfit as a witness according to Rabbinic strictures, though according to Mosaic law such a person's testimony would be acceptable. Rabbi Alexandri in Megillah 17 interprets Psalms 10,15: שבור זרוע רשע, "break the arm of the wicked," as a reference to the price gouging that occurs during famine. G–d personally announced that the world's sustenance was due to the merit of Chanina who personally lived on the most frugal diet possible. People do not always understand why certain persons have achieved economic distinction and others have not. It is therefore necessary for G–d to announce that those persons who have achieved such wealth have done so because of G–d's own considerations and not because of their own innate ability.
39לט
ויאמר משה אל ה' לאמר (שמות לה, ד). קשה מאי לאמר, ורש"י כתב מה שכתב. האר"י כתב אפילו ריש גרגותא משמיא (ברכות נח, א), והקב"ה מכריז בכל רקיעים. וזהו לאמר רצה לומר בכל הרקיעים יהיה האמירה היינו ההכרזה:
We find that Moses was most insistent that G–d personally proclaim who would look after Israel's temporal needs; the Torah quotes Moses as using strong language in this regard in Numbers 27,15. Moses' request is introduced with the most unusual wording: וידבר משה אל ה' לאמור, Both the word וידבר, and the word לאמור are unusual. To whom did Moses expect G–d to relay his words? The Ari zal suggests that Moses was adamant that all the various layers of the heavens be informed who Israel's פרנס, economic leader would be.
40מ
לחשוב מחשבות לעשות (שמות לא, ד). רומז בעת עשיית המצות ישוטט במחשבתו בסודן ובטעמן בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת:

לחשוב מחשבות לעשות. There is a hint here that one should contemplate the deeper significance of the commandment one is in the process of performing.

41מא
או יבואר, דסמך בפרשה זה אזהרת שבת לצווי מלאכת המשכן כמו שכתב רש"י ז"ל, נראה בסייעתא דשמיא דענין שמירת שבת הוא שידע האדם שהקדוש ברוך הוא ברא העולם בששת ימים ובשביעי שבת וינפש, כנאמר (שמות לא, יז) כי ששת ימים עשה ה' את השמים ואת הארץ. כי לזה סמך אזהרת שבת, דידע האדם שהקדוש ברוך הוא ברא העולם בששת ימים כנ"ל למלאכת המשכן שנאמר בו שעשאה בצלאל שהוא ידע בכוונתיה ופרטותיה שברא הקדוש ברוך הוא העולם בששת ימים כמאמר רבותינו ז"ל (ברכות נה.) יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהם שמים וארץ עד כאן לשונו. וכיון דידע צירוף האותיות של בריאת שמים וארץ האמין אמונה שלימה שהקדוש ברוך הוא ברא העולם בששת ימים. לזה סמך אזהרת שבת שהוא גם כן אזהרה שידעו הכל באמונה שלימה שהקדוש ברוך הוא ברא העולם בששת ימים וביום השביעי שבת וינפש:

Construction of the Tabernacle in the desert was an act that ‎paralleled the creation of heaven and earth and corresponded to ‎all known aspects of the order in which G’d created the universe, ‎‎(B’rachot 55). Seeing that this was so, Betzalel, the chief ‎architect of the project was granted the wisdom to understand ‎how the letters of the aleph bet were to be used in carrying ‎out all the details of the task entrusted to him.
Nowadays, this ‎ability of Betzalel at the time of his building the Tabernacle, has ‎been granted to the righteous Torah scholars of varying degrees, ‎who are able to reveal insights into the Torah that have not ‎previously been revealed. By doing so, they become partners of ‎G’d in His creation of the universe. Betzalel also imposed ‎restrictions on himself in his use of the gift G’d gave him, so as ‎not to preempt the Torah scholars throughout the ages and to ‎thereby prevent them from revealing new insights. This is what is ‎meant by the word ‎והותר‎, “there was an overabundance,” i.e. ‎there was enough holy spirit that had been provided to enable ‎Betzalel and his assistants to build the Tabernacle, but instead of ‎exhausting it at the time, Betzalel, in his modesty, was content to ‎leave a surfeit of it to be used by Torah scholars, who in a way are ‎also Torah “architects,” to delight their audiences with their ‎insights in their respective generations.‎

42מב
אלה פקודי המשכן כו' (שמות לח, כא). יבואר כאשר כתבנו לעיל, דמלאכת המשכן היה בה חכמת אלקות וצירוף אותיות ושמות הקדושים כמו בבריאת שמים וארץ כמו שאמרו חכמינו ז"ל יודע היה בצלאל כו'. והנה במעשה בראשית כתיב (בראשית א, א) בראשית ברא אלקים, כמו שאמרו חכמינו ז"ל (ב"ר יב) מתחילה עלה במחשבה וכו', ואחר כך כתיב (בראשית ב, ד) אלה תולדות השמים והארץ בהבראם כתיב בה"א זעירא זה מרמז על שם אדנ"י, ואחר כך כתיב ביום עשות ה' אלקים, הוא יחוד הוי"ה אלקים כמו כן יחוד משה ובצלאל במלאכת המשכן במספר אשר נפקד ונמנה שכוון משה ליחד בתחילה במלאכת המשכן שם אלקים. וזהו שנרמז בכתוב אלה פקודי המשכן, ראשי תיבות אפ"ה שהוא פ"ו בגימטריה אלקים, וס"ת הי"ן שהוא בגימטריא ס"ה שהוא מספר שם אדנ"י, ואחר כך בשם הוי"ה ברוך הוא שם מ"ה הקדוש הנרמז בכתוב משכן העדות שראשי תיבות מ"ה וס"ת ת"נ שהוא יו"ד פעמים מ"ה, שיחוד הכל על ידי שמותיו הקדושים אשר נבראו בהם שמים וארץ. וזה שכתוב אשר פקד על פי משה, שהוא התבונן בכל אלה:
Exodus 38,21. “These are the accounts of the Tabernacle of ‎the Testimony that were rendered according to the ‎commandment of Moses, etc.;” we have already written ‎previously that the construction of the Tabernacle required holy ‎spirit and the knowledge of how G’d used the aleph bet, i.e. ‎the letters of the Torah and their respective combinations that ‎G’d used when He created heaven and earth. (based on ‎‎Yevamot 47). The subject has been elaborated on further in ‎‎Bereshit Rabbah section 12,14 which quotes the school of ‎Shammai saying that the idea to create the universe crystallized ‎in G’d’s mind at night whereas the execution occurred by day, ‎and that the letter ‎ה‎ written in smaller script in Genesis 2,4 in ‎the word ‎בהבראם‎ is an allusion to the attribute ‎א-ד-נ-י‎, one of G’d’s ‎names, whereas afterwards in the same verse when the Torah ‎writes ‎ביום עשות ה' אלוקים ארץ ושמים‎, “on the day that ‎‎<ihashem< i=""> made earth and heaven,” the apparent repetition is ‎an allusion to the fact that G’d is unique and the exclusive ‎Creator. [Our author must have had a different version of ‎the Bereshit rabbah, as the second comment concerning the ‎attribute ‎א-ד-נ-י‎ is not found in my updated version of that ‎‎Midrash. Ed.]
The uniqueness of both Moses and Betzalel paralleled the ‎description of unique attributes possessed by the Creator. ‎Initially, the instructions given by Moses to Betzalel were similar ‎to G’d’s formulating the thought of creating a universe, whereas ‎the execution paralleled the words ‎ביום עשות ה' אלוקים‎, G’d in His ‎capacity as Hashem carrying out His plan to create the ‎universe. The numerical value of the first letters of the opening ‎words in our portion, ‎אלה פקודי המשכן‎ i.e. ‎א'פ'ה'‏‎ have a combined ‎value of 86, equivalent to the letters in the name of G’d when it is ‎spelled ‎א-ל-ה-י-ם‎, i.e. His attribute of ‎א-ד-נ-י‎, the word signifying ‎the attribute of Justice. The respective last letters in the same ‎sequence of words are ‎ה'י'נ‎ equaling 65, or the numerical value of ‎the attribute ‎א-ד-נ-י‎. When we examine the respective first and ‎final letters in the second half of the introductory verse of our ‎portion, i.e. ‎משכן העדות‎, we find that the letters ‎מ'ה‎ correspond to ‎the holy name of G’d consisting of 45 letters, whereas the final ‎letters in these words, i.e. ‎ת'נ‎ or 450 i.e. ten times the value of the ‎opening letters. This suggests that whereas Betzalel was indeed ‎granted great insights, it was Moses, ‎אשר פקד על פי משה‎ who had ‎the highest level of understanding how to manipulate all the ‎letters in the names of G’d‏.