The source of this document is the English translation of the original list of 365 questions in Rabbi Wohlgemuth’s original Sefer Mekorot that he gave to every one of his Beurei HaTefillah students at the start of their four-year shared journey in the study of Tefillah. These lessons covered Rabbi Isaiah Wohlgemuth's entire course material.

Rabbi Wohlgemuth understood the need for repetition and extension of subjects previously covered and introduced in an earlier grade. As their knowledge and understanding grew, the questions on classroom progress quizzes, and especially the final exam all 12th grade students had to pass to receive their diploma, were all taken from these 365 questions. Rabbi Wohlgemuth did not use them to test his students’ knowledge, but most importantly to reinforce their understanding and retention of the Tefillah topic.

Thanks to the efforts of Maimonides School 12th Grade Hebrew Language Class (2019 ) for their help in translating these questions of Rabbi Wohlgemuth’s final examination — Barak Cerf and his students: Elazer Cramer; Ben Fisher; Ayelet Fried; Danya Gewurz; Rafi Kaplan; Chaviva Liss; Ariella Nahoumi; Sophie Ana Paris; Kinneret Rosen; Talya Saltzman; Joshua Schoenberg; Michael Schwartz; Gavi Spellman; Daphna Spira; Eitan Traum.

Preliminary Blessings

    1. Can you say אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ (that Hashem sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us) on a Rabbinic mitzvah?
    2. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה... (Blessed are You…) How can a person bless Hashem?
    3. Why, in blessings, do we switch from the second person to the third person?
    4. Why do we use the phrase נְטִילַת יָדַיִם (lifting the hands) instead of רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם (washing the hands)?
    5. Why do we not begin the blessing of אֱלֹקַי נְשָׁמָה (“My God, the soul that You gave me”) with בָּרוּךְ? Explain according to the different opinions.
    6. What does וּמַפְלִיא לַעֲשוֹת mean?
    7. Why do we conclude the blessing with two ideas, רוֹפֵא כָל בָּשָֹר וּמַפְלִיא לַעֲשוֹת?
    8. How do we read it: חֲלָלִים or חֲלוּלִים?
    9. Should we skip over the word ״ הִיא" in אֱלֹקַי נְשָׁמָה שֶׁנָּתַתָּ בִּי טְהוֹרָה הִיא (My God, the soul that You gave me is pure)?
    10. Why is the text of the blessing repetitious אַתָּה בְרָאתָהּ. אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּהּ. אַתָּה נְפַחְתָּהּ בִּי. (You created it. You formed it. You breathed it into me)?
    11. What is the meaning of the ending phrase הַמַּחֲזִיר נְשָׁמוֹת לִפְגָרִים מֵתִים?

Morning Torah Blessings בִּרְכוֹת הַתּוֹרָה

    1. How many blessings on the Torah are there in the Morning Torah Blessings? (What are the opinions in the רִאשׁוֹנִים)?
    2. Why do we need more than one blessing?
    3. What is the best place in our prayers for the Morning Torah Blessings?
    4. Do we need to learn Torah immediately after saying the Morning Torah Blessings? Is it possible to have a distraction from learning Torah?
    5. What do we learn right after the Morning Torah Blessings? Why these specific study selections?
    6. Can we rely on the blessing of אַהֲבָה רַבָּה instead of the Morning Torah Blessings to fulfill our requirement?
    7. What is the variation of the רי"ף instead of לַעֲסוֹק בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה?
    8. Why do we not say a blessing after we learn Torah just like we do after reading the Torah in shul?
    9. Why don’t we introduce the Morning Torah Blessings with בָּרְכוּ like we do when we read the Torah?
    10. Are women exempt from the Morning Torah Blessings?
    11. Do we recite these blessings on all types of study: Biblical, Mishna, and Talmud?

Morning Blessings בִּרְכוֹת הַשַּׁחַר

    1. For what concept do we thank God in all these blessings?
    2. Which blessings were added after the completion of the Talmud, why?
    3. In which blessings is יִשְׂרָאֵל mentioned? Why?
    4. We usually say the Morning Blessings in the synagogue. Why? Explain according to the מְחַבֵּר and the רמ"א.
    5. Are the Morning Blessings considered blessings of שֶׁבַח or blessings of הוֹדָאָה?
    6. What is the conclusion of the blessing of הַמַּעֲבִיר שֵׁנָה (Who removes sleep)? Is this ending similar to the theme of the beginning?
    7. Is this blessing in the singular (מֵעֵינַי) or the plural (וְתַגְמְלֵנוּ)?
    8. וְכוֹף אֶת יִצְרֵנוּ לְהִשְׁתַּעְבֵּד לָךְ... Isn’t everything in God’s hands except for the fear of God?
    9. יְהִי רָצוֹן ...שֶׁתַּצִּילֵנִי מֵעַזֵּי פָּנִים וּמֵעַזּוּת פָּנִים What is the source of this prayer and which other prayers have a similar source?
    10. Why do we recite the blessings שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי נָכְרִי, שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי עָבֶד, שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי אִשָּׁה?
    11. What is a better formulation: שֶׁלֹּא עָשַׂנִי נָכְרִי (that we weren’t made non-Jews), or שֶׁעָשַׂנִי יִשְׂרָאֵל (that we were made Jews)? Compare the בְּרַייתָא in מְנָחוֹת with the תּוֹסֶפְתָּא.

Studying the Torah before תפילה and פסוקי דזימרא

    1. How do we explain וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ?
    2. Explain the difference of opinions between רש"י and רַבֵּינוּ תָּם on לֹא צְרִיכָא לְיוֹמִי?
    3. How do we fulfill this obligation every day before בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר? How you can fulfill this obligation according to רַבֵּינוּ תָּם?
    4. What do we study? Why do we learn these selections?
    5. What is the הַלֵּל שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם? Explain the different opinions of the רִאשׁוֹנִים.
    6. Why is one who reads the הַלֵּל הַמִּצְרִי everyday considered to be blaspheming? If so, what is the fundamental difference between הַלֵּל הַמִּצְרִי and הַלֵּל שֶׁל כָּל יוֹם?
    7. How do we prepare for prayer according to the מִשְׁנָה and the בְּרַייתָא in the beginning of פֶּרֶק אֵין עוֹמְדִין?
    8. Explain the significance of chapter קמה in the book of תְּהִלִּים. What are the important ideas in this psalm?
    9. Which verses were added to the beginning and end of this psalm? Why?
    10. Which verses are repeated in פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא? Why?
    11. In which cases do we skip פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא or part of it? Why?
    12. What are the parts of פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא? What and why do we add to them on שַׁבָּת?
    13. Where do we stand in פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא? Why?
    14. We recite a blessing before and after פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא. Where and in which topic is the blessing that follows פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא discussed in the Talmud?
    15. Do we stand for this blessing? Explain the different opinions of the פּוֹסְקִים.
    16. Why don’t we begin יִשְׁתַּבַּח with בָּרוּךְ?
    17. What is the central idea of this blessing?
    18. Is it permissible to interrupt between יִשְׁתַּבַּח and יוֹצֵר? (מנחות דף לו עמ' א and סוטה דף מד עמ' ב)

קריאת שמע and its Blessings

    1. What are the three פַּרְשִׁיּוֹת of קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע?
    2. Are they all a Torah obligation? Explain the different opinions of the רִאשׁוֹנִים.
    3. Do we say all of them in the קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע of עַרְבִית?
    4. Why do we add בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם... after the verse of שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל?
    5. Why do we extend the pronunciation of the word אֶחָד? For how long do we extend it?
    6. What is the halacha of לִמּוּד תָּם?
    7. Why do we add the word אֱמֶת to קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע?
    8. Why do we not recite them in the order that they appear in the תּוֹרָה?
    9. What if you would recite the פַּרְשִׁיּוֹת in a different order?
    10. Is it permissible to interrupt the recitation of קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע and its blessings?
    11. What are the halachot regarding interruptions in תְּפִילָּה and in פְּסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא?
    12. Why do the blessings of קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע begin with בָּרְכוּ?
    13. Why do we add הַמְבֹרָךְ to בָּרְכוּ אֶת ה'? (ברכות דף מט עמ' ב – דף נ עמ' א.)
    14. What are the הֲלָכוֹתof סְמִיכַת גְּאֻלָּה לִתְפִלָּה? Do we answer אָמֵן after בִּרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע?
    15. It seems like we do interrupt between גְּאֻלָּה and לִתְפִילָּה! Why are we allowed to do this? Is it so in שַׁחֲרִית and עַרְבִית as well?
    16. What is the fundamental difference between the blessings before שְׁמַע in שַׁחֲרִית and עַרְבִית?
    17. יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּבוֹרֵא חֹשֶׁךְ is based on a פָּסוּק. What is the פָּסוּק?
    18. Did חז"ל change this פָּסוּק? How? Why?
    19. In the בִּרְכוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע, why do we mention the attributes of the day at night and those of the night during the day?
    20. Are we allowed to recite the קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע in any language? Explain the different opinions of the תַּנָּאִים. What is the הֲלָכָה?
    21. Are we allowed to pray in any language?
    22. How much of קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע must be recited with כַּוָּנָה? How much of the עֲמִידָה must be recited with כַּוָּנָה?
    23. Explain the time boundaries of reciting קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע.


    1. Is the mitzvah of תְּפִלָּה a Torah or a rabbinic obligation? Explain the differences of opinions in the רִאשׁוֹנִים.
    2. What are the three main sections of the תְּפִלָּה?
    3. How do we know that we must first mention praise before requests in the תְּפִלָּה?
    4. Explain the order of blessings according to the verses in the תנ"ך. (מגילה דף יז עמ' ב)
    5. Is it also possible to explain the order of blessings according to common sense?
    6. Why do we start the עֲמִידָה with the beracha of אָבוֹת?
    7. What are the halachot of the קְדוּשָׁה and every דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה?
    8. From where are these halachot derived?
    9. How many קְדֻשּׁוֹת are there in שַׁחֲרִית? Why do we need each of them?
    10. What are the differences between these קְדֻשּׁוֹת?
    11. Do we fulfill the all the halachot of דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקְדֻשָּׁה with each of these?
    12. Where do we mention גְּבוּרוֹת גְּשָׁמִים in the עֲמִידָה? Why?
    13. Where do we request rain in the ?עֲמִידָה Why?
    14. Where do we make Havdala? Why?
    15. How many instances of separation do we mention in אַתָּה חוֹנֵן? Are we allowed to add to them? Why do we also make havdala over a cup of wine?
    16. Where do we add עֲנֵנוּ in the עֲמִידָה on a fast day? Why in this place? Do we add it in all the תְּפִלּוֹת?
    17. What do we add to the עֲמִידָה during עֲשֶׂרֶת יְמֵי תְּשׁוּבָה, and what do we change?
    18. Where do add מֵעֵין הַמְּאֹרָע? Why?
    19. Where do we say עַל הַנִּסִּים? Why? Do we also add עַל הַנִּסִּים to בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן? Why does the Talmud specifically mention this?
    20. What is the הֲלָכָה if a person made a mistake in any of the cases mentioned above? Explain the reason for this and the different opinions.
    21. Where do we bow in תְּפִלָּה? What is the הֲלָכָה for the king and כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל? Why? How far do you bow?
    22. How do you take three steps back at the end of the עֲמִידָה (עוֹקְרִים אֶת רַגְלָיו)?
    23. How many blessings are in the עֲמִידָה of a regular day, on a Shabbat, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה and on a fast day? Representing what?
    24. What is מוֹדִים דְּרַבָּנָן, and why is it called this?
    25. Which פְּסוּקִים are added to the עֲמִידָה at the beginning and which at the end? Why?
    26. To which direction do we face in prayer, and from where do we derive this?
    27. What makes מוּסָף different from other תְּפִלּוֹת? Are there make-ups for מוּסָף? What are the הֲלָכוֹת for making up missed תְּפִלּוֹת?
    28. What is the מֵעֵין יח? Do we still pray the מֵעֵין יח today?
    29. What is תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ? What הֲלָכוֹת about תְּפִלַּת הַדֶּרֶךְ do we learn in the Gemara?
    30. Why is תְּפִלָּה also called the עֲמִידָה? Are you allowed to sit during this prayer?
    31. Which laws about prayer do we learn from this? See רמב"ם הִלְכוֹת תְּפִלָּה וּנְשִׂיאַת כַּפַּיִם פרק ה, especially halacha .
    32. Who do we stop in the middle of repeating the עֲמִידָה, and why?
    33. Are you allowed to praise Hashem? Are you allowed to add onto the praises that we say in prayers?
    34. Explain the time boundaries of reciting עֲמִידוֹת,


    1. What is the difference between תַּחֲנוּן and תְּפִלָּה?
    2. Was there always a fixed text for תַּחֲנוּן? Do we have a non-fixed text or do we say a set text for תַּחֲנוּן?
    3. How did they bow in תחנון during the times of the Talmud? How do we perform נְפִילַת אַפַּיִם today? Why?
    4. Why do we add וְהוּא רַחוּם on Monday and Thursday? Why do we stand?


    1. Why do we read the Torah in shul on Mondays and Thursdays?
    2. Who instituted this reading?
    3. Explain the הֲלָכוֹת of בִּרְכַּת הַגּוֹמֵל according to Psalm 107.


    1. How is the קַדִּישׁ called in the Talmud?
    2. Why is קַדִּישׁ in Aramaic?
    3. What is the importance of the קַדִּישׁ according to the Gemara?
    4. What is the meaning of יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּה?
    5. What do חֲזַ"ל say about answering יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּה with all one’s strength?
    6. At least how many קְדֵשִׁים do we recite each day?
    7. What’s the difference between the different קְדֵשִׁים?
    8. What was the original קַדִּישׁ?
    9. After which studies do we say קַדִּישׁ דְּרַבָּנָן? Do we require Aggadic texts to be able to say קַדִּישׁ דְּרַבָּנָן?
    10. When and why did they institute saying Mourner’s קַדִּישׁ?
    11. How does the text of the קַדִּישׁ differ according to the Vilna Gaon?

שִׁיר שֶׁל יוֹם

    1. Why do we add psalms after תְּפִלָּה every day?
    2. Why were specific psalms chosen for each day of the week?

בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים

    1. Why do the priests bless people at the end of the עֲמִידָה?
    2. What is the connection between the בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים and the שִׂים שָׁלוֹם blessings?
    3. When do we say שִׂים שָׁלוֹם and when do we say שָׁלוֹם רָב?
    4. Why in the diaspora don’t the priests bless the people every day?
    5. In what way is the priestly blessing outside of the Temple different than the blessing in the Temple?
    6. Which הֲלָכוֹת do we learn in the ברייתא about the words in the pasuk: כֹּה תְּבָרְכוּ?
    7. Which הֲלָכָה does אביי learn from the words in the pasuk: אֱמֹר לָהֶם?
    8. Who calls to the כֹּהֲנִים to bless the people?
    9. What does a כֹּהֵן who does not go up violate?
    10. When in the עֲמִידָה does the כֹּהֵן go up to recite the blessing?
    11. Is every כֹּהֵן fit to bless the people?
    12. What is the innovation of רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן שַׁמּוּעַ?
    13. What do the priests say before and after the priestly blessing? Why?
    14. What is the significance of the priestly blessing according to רש"י and תּוֹסָפוֹת?
    15. What is the significance of the priestly blessing according to the רמב"ם?
    16. When the priests bless the people, what do the people say? Do they really say these verses?
    17. Why are the priests not allowed to wear sandals when they go up to bless the people?
    18. Why do we call out the words of the priestly blessing to the priests?
    19. Is בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים recited during מִנְחָה?
    20. What would happen in a congregation where everyone is a cohen?


    1. Is הַלֵּל a biblical or rabbinic commandment?
    2. Is the commandment of reading הַלֵּל mentioned in Prophets or Scriptures?
    3. Who said the first הַלֵּל and who recited it with him?
    4. On which days do we read a full הַלֵּל in Israel and in the diaspora?
    5. When do we say a partial הַלֵּל?
    6. Why do we not say a full הַלֵּל on every day of Passover?
    7. Why is there הַלֵּל on רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ?
    8. Why is there no הַלֵּל on רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה?
    9. Do we read הַלֵּל on פּוּרִים? Why?
    10. From which story in the Gemarra do we learn of the custom to read a partial הַלֵּל on רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ?
    11. Why did the people have this tradition?
    12. Which parts of הַלֵּל do we skip in a partial הַלֵּל? Why?
    13. Do we make a blessing on a custom? What are the different opinions among the רִאשׁוֹנִים about the bracha on הַלֵּל on רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ?
    14. Why is it customary to repeat the phrases from אוֹדְךָ כִּי עֲנִיתַנִי through אֱלֹקַי אֲרוֹמְמֶךָּ?
    15. Who were the people who said these verses according to the גְּמָרָא in פסחים?
    16. How is it possible that we split אָנָּא ה' הוֹשִׁעָה נָּא, אָנָּא ה' הַצְלִיחָה נָּא into two parts? Don’t we follow the rule כָּל פָּסוּק דְּלָא פָּסַק מֹשֶׁה לָא פָּסְקִינַן that we cannot divide any verse that מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּינוּ did not divide?
    17. Why is it customary to recite הַלֵּל on the Seder night in shul after מַעֲרִיב?
    18. Are women obligated to recite הַלֵּל?
    19. What did they call הַלֵּל in the time of the Mishna?
    20. How did they refer to הַלֵּל in the days of רָבָא?

רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה

    1. How many בְּרָכוֹת are there in מוּסָף on רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה and what are they?
    2. What is the difference of opinion about מַלְכֻיוֹת between רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי and רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא?
    3. How many פְּסוּקִים are there in מַלְכֻיוֹת, זִכְרוֹנוֹת and שׁוֹפָרוֹת? What does this represent?
    4. Are these פְּסוּקִים in the order that they are found in תנ"ך? What is strange about this sequence?
    5. Do we add to the number of these פְּסוּקִים? Why?
    6. Are there enough פְּסוּקִים about מַלְכֻיוֹת in the Torah?
    7. What are the central ideas of these בְּרָכוֹת?
    8. Who is the author of the introductions to these בְּרָכוֹת?
    9. How many blasts of the שׁוֹפָר are we obligated from the תּוֹרָה to hear? What are they?
    10. Why do we need to hear thirty blasts in order to fulfill the מִצְוָה מִדְּאוֹרַיְתָּא?
    11. How long is a תְּרוּעָה? How long is a תְּקִיעָה?
    12. Originally in which תְּפִלָּה was the שׁוֹפָר first blown?
    13. Why did חז"ל change it?
    14. Why did we also establish the תְּקִיעוֹת דִּמְיֻשָּׁב? Do we really sit for these blasts? What is Rambam’s opinion?
    15. When the שׁוֹפָר was blown during the recitation of the עֲמִידָה of מוּסָף, which kinds of shofar sounds were blown according to the old custom?
    16. What is the problem with this מִנְהָג? How did רַבֵּינוּ תָּם resolve this difficulty (תוספות - ראש השנה דף לג עמ' ב, ד"ה שיעור)?
    17. How do we observe blowing the שׁוֹפָר during the recitation of the עֲמִידָה of מוּסָף today?
    18. What was the basis for the old traditions?
    19. According to our custom, how many shofar blasts do we blow?
    20. Do we also blow the שׁוֹפָר during the silent עֲמִידָה?
    21. Is רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ mentioned in the prayers of רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה?
    22. Do you say מוֹעֲדִים לְשִׂמְחָה חַגִּים וּזְמַנִּים לְשָׂשׂוֹן on רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה as we do in the עֲמִידָה of the other holidays?
    23. Where in the Gemarra is the source of the prayer of אָבִינוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ found?

יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים

    1. Explain the mitzvah of the וִדּוּי in general and specifically on יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים.
    2. Why do we also say וִדּוּי on עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים during מִנְחָה?
    3. Explain the idea of וִדּוּי עִם חֲשֵׁכָה.
    4. Where does the individual recite וִדּוּי and where does the שָׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר recite וִדּוּי?
    5. How can you explain this difference?
    6. What can we learn about the text of וִדּוּי in מַסֶּכֶת יומא?
    7. Our וִדּוּי consists of two main sections. What is the difference between them?
    8. Do we say both sections in every תְּפִלָּה? Why do we do this?
    9. How many וִדּוּיִים do we say on יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים? What is the significance of this number?
    10. Why do we say the וִדּוּי according to the order of the Aleph-Bet?
    11. Do we say the וִדּוּי out loud?
    12. סְלִיחוֹת are an integral part of the tefilot of יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. What is the central part of סְלִיחוֹת?
    13. How and where is the concept mentioned in the Talmud. Explain every word?
    14. We have a custom to start saying סְלִיחוֹת before רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. How many days before רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה do we start to recite סְלִיחוֹת? Why?
    15. What is the Sephardic custom about when to start saying סְלִיחוֹת? Why?
    16. What are the different parts and the general structure of סְלִיחוֹת?
    17. סְלִיחוֹת contains many פְּסוּקִים of תַּחֲנוּנִים. What is the problem with adding these פְּסוּקִים?

נְטִילַת לוּלָב

    1. According to the Mishnah, where in הַלֵּל do we shake the לוּלָב?
    2. How do we know that we shake it in those places?
    3. What is our custom today?
    4. Today, does the חַזָּן shake the לוּלָב according to the opinion that the תּוֹסָפוֹת bring?
    5. Do we shake the לוּלָב when we recite the בְּרָכָה? What do the תּוֹסָפוֹת say about this? If so, why do we shake the לוּלָב during הַלֵּל according to that opinion?
    6. How does the position of the רמב"ם differ on this matter?
    7. Which directions do we shake the לוּלָב? Why?
    8. In which hand do we hold the לוּלָב and which hand do we hold the אֶתְרוֹג? Why?
    9. Why do we make a blessing on the לוּלָב but do not mention the other species in the brachah?
    10. What is the difficulty regarding עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָהּ with respect to the brachah עַל נְטִילַת לוּלָב?
    11. We don’t say the שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ blessing on the לוּלָב on the second day of סֻכּוֹת even though we do say it in קִדּוּשׁ on the second night. What is the difference?
    12. Where in קִדּוּשׁ do we say שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ on the second night of סֻכּוֹת? Explain the positions of the רא"ש and the גר"א.

הגדה של פסח

    1. How is the time of saying קִדּוּשׁ on the סֵדֶר night different from the time of saying קִדּוּשׁ on שַׁבָּת? Why?
    2. At the סֵדֶר, everyone is required to drink a cup of wine, not just the person who makes קִדּוּשׁ. Why?
    3. What is everyone required to eat and drink while leaning? Why?
    4. Divide the סֵדֶר into 4 parts corresponding to the 4 cups.
    5. Explain the idea of the fifth cup.
    6. Why do we eat כַּרְפַּס (the first dipping)?
    7. How much כַּרְפַּס do we eat? Why?
    8. In what do we dip the כַּרְפַּס? Explain the difference of opinions in the רִאשׁוֹנִים.
    9. Why do we have two cooked foods on the seder plate? What did they use in the time of the Talmud? What do we traditionally use now? Why?
    10. Explain the Mishnaic different opinions about חֲרֹסֶת.
    11. How many מַצּוֹת do we eat? Explain the difference of opinions in the רִאשׁוֹנִים.
    12. Why do we need a פְּרוּסָה?
    13. How do you capture the interest of children?
    14. Explain the four questions.
    15. How does the explanation of the רמב"ם differ from the usual explanation of the four questions?
    16. How are these four questions different from the other questions mentioned in the Mishna?
    17. How many and which questions were there in the time of the Beit HaMikdash according to the רמב"ם?
    18. Which segment of the הַגָּדָה is based on the idea: “the father should teach the child according to the child’s abilities”?
    19. Explain the disagreement between Rav and Shmuel on: מַתְחִיל בִּגְנוּת וּמְסַיֵּם בְּשֶׁבַח.
    20. דּוֹרֵשׁ מֵאֲרַמִּי אוֹבֵד אֲבִי what is the explanation of the verbדּוֹרֵשׁ and, therefore, what do we do?
    21. What is the disagreement between מְפָרְשֵׁי הַמִּקְרָא and חז"ל on the meaning of the words אֲרַמִּי אוֹבֵד אֲבִי?
    22. What are the differences between the מִצְווֹת of telling the story of leaving Egypt and the mitzvah of remembering Egypt? From which פְּסוּקִים do we derive these מִצְווֹת?
    23. According to רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל who does not fulfill his obligation regarding the seder?
    24. “In every generation one is obligated to view oneself as if he himself left Egypt.” How is the version of the רמב"ם different? What observances in the seder fulfill this halacha?
    25. Why do we divide the recitation of the הַלֵּל into two parts during the סֵדֶר?
    26. Why do we not say a blessing before הַלֵּל in the סֵדֶר?
    27. Explain the difference of opinions between בֵּית הִלֵּל and בֵּית שַׁמַּאי about the reciting of הַלֵּל in מַגִּיד? What are their reasons?
    28. Why did רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא add on to the בִּרְכַּת גְּאֻלָּה of רַבִּי טַרָפוֹן?
    29. There those that switch from מִן הַזְּבָחִים וּמִן הַפְּסָחִים to מִן הַפְּסָחִים וּמִן הַזְּבָחִים when the סֵדֶר falls on Saturday night. Is it good to do this?
    30. Are you allowed to drink additional wine between the four cups of wine? Explain the הֲלָכוֹת and reasons.
    31. What are the בִּרְכוֹת הַשִּׁיר? Explain רַבִּי יְהוּדָה and רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן's explanations.
    32. According to the רשב"ם you say one concluding בְּרָכָה over הַלֵּל and a different concluding בְּרָכָה over הַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל. What are these בְּרָכוֹת? Why did the רשב"ם think this?
    33. What is our practice? Do we agree with the opinion of the רשב"ם?
    34. Are women obligated in the מִצְוֹת of the סֵדֶר?
    35. Why do we not recite a בִּרְכַּת הַמִּצְוָה on the מִּצְוָה of סִפּוּר יְצִיאַת מִצְרַיִם?


    1. From where do we learn that the box of the tefila שֶׁל רֹאשׁ is divided into four sections?
    2. Which box of the תְּפִלִּין is holier: the one for the שֶׁל רֹאשׁ or the one for the שֶׁל יָד?
    3. Is one allowed to use the box of the שֶׁל יָד for the שֶׁל רֹאשׁ or the opposite?
    4. What are the differences between the תְּפִלִּין of רש"י and the תְּפִלִּין of רַבֵּינוּ תָּם?
    5. How do רש"י and רַבֵּינוּ תָּם explain the בְּרַייתָא?
    6. How can you tell from their outer appearance if the תְּפִלִּין are according to רש"י or רַבֵּינוּ תָּם?
    7. What are the different parts of תְּפִלִּין?
    8. What are the הֲלָכוֹת לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי in the laws of תְּפִלִּין?
    9. How long should the רְצוּעוֹת of the תְּפִלִּין be?
    10. What is the shape of the knot of the תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ and תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל יָד? Explain רש"י's opinion and that of תּוֹסָפוֹת.
    11. When do we recite the בְּרָכוֹת for putting on תְּפִלִּין?
    12. What are the בְּרָכוֹת for putting on תְּפִלִּין?
    13. What בְּרָכָה do we recite on the תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ? Explain the opinions of רש"י and רַבֵּינוּ תָּם?
    14. סָח בֵּין תְּפִלָּה לִתְפִלָּה עֲבֵרָה הִיא בְּיָדוֹ (when putting on the tefilin, it is a sin to talk between putting on the first tefila and the second); Explain the issue in light of מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה the Cohen who addresses the people (before they go to war).
    15. Why do we put on תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל יָד first?
    16. Is it relevant to wear תְּפִלִּין at night? Explain the opinions of the רִאשׁוֹנִים?
    17. Why do we remove the תְּפִלִּין שֶׁל רֹאשׁ first?
    18. Explain the concept of אֵין מַעֲבִירִין עַל הַמִּצְווֹת as it relates to תְּפִלִּין.
    19. Explain the opinions of רַבִּי יוֹסִי הַגְּלִילִי and רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא regarding: וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־הַחֻקָּה הַזֹּאת לְמוֹעֲדָהּ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה
    20. How do we learn that we place the תְּפִלִּין on the left hand?
    21. What is the rule for a left handed person?
    22. How do we know that יָדְךָ is referring to the bicep?
    23. How do we know that בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ refers to גֹּבַהּ שֶׁבָּרֹאשׁ (from the beginning of the hair to the top of the head)?
    24. Does a person actually have to tie the תְּפִלִּין on his arm? Explain the opinions of רַבִּי אֵלִיָּהוּ and רַבֵּינוּ תָּם.
    25. Do we put on תְּפִלִּין during חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד?

קַבָּלַת שַׁבָּת and the תְּפִלָּה of לֵיל שַׁבָּת

    1. In what ways the sages of the Talmud prepare for Shabbat? How did they accept Shabbat?
    2. The famous poem לְכָה דּוֹדִי is based on which custom of the Talmudic sages?
    3. How do we accept the Shabbat? What is the earliest time we can take in Shabbat?
    4. What is מֵעֵין שֶׁבַע?
    5. Do we mention the holiday in מֵעֵין שֶׁבַע when it falls out on שַׁבָּת? Explain the reason. What other inconsistencies are there in מֵעֵין שֶׁבַע?
    6. What is the importance of reciting וַיְכֻלּוּ on שַׁבָּת evening?
    7. How many times do we say וַיְכֻלּוּ on שַׁבָּת evening?
    8. How many times do we accept the sanctity of שַׁבָּת on שַׁבָּת evening? How? Where?
    9. Why do many shuls have the custom of making קִדּוּשׁ on a cup of wine?
    10. What is the problem with this?

קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה וְהַהַפְטָרָה (Most of the following Questions are Based on מַסֶּכֶת מגילה)

    1. Why did מֹשֶׁה establish the תּוֹרָה reading on Mondays and Thursdays (בבא קמא דף פב עמ' א)
    2. What did עֶזְרָא add to this תַּקָּנָה?
    3. Why did he establish reading the תּוֹרָה on שַׁבָּת at מִנְחָה?
    4. What do we learn from the pasuk וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶת מֹעֲדֵי ה' אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל? (מגילה דף לא עמ' א)
    5. In Israel, they completed the cycle of reading the תּוֹרָה in three years. How is this described in מגילה דף כט עמ' ב?
    6. Now, the standard custom is to complete the reading of the תּוֹרָה in one year. There is a relation between the times of the year and the תּוֹרָה portions. Explain the mnemonic devices on this topic according to Seder Rav Amram. (פיקוד פסח - מנה ועצור - צום וצלי - קום ותקע)
    7. When do we read the תּוֹרָה portion that includes the תּוֹכָחָה according to the decrees of עֶזְרָא? Why? (מגילה דף לא עמ' ב)
    8. Originally, each person who was called up to the Torah read from the תּוֹרָה themselves. Why did they decree that the בַּעַל קוֹרֵא reads for everyone? Should the person called to the תּוֹרָה read along with the בַּעַל קוֹרֵא in an undertone? Why?
    9. Originally, the first person who was called up to the Torah recited the first berachah, and the last person called up recited the final berachah. Why, now, does each person recite both blessings before and after his reading?
    10. How do we know that the reader must stand?
    11. Explain: תְּרֵי קָלֵי לָא מִשְׁתַּמְּעֵי?
    12. On Mondays and Thursdays, we read three עֲלִיּוֹת: corresponding to what?
    13. We read at least 10 verses: corresponding to what?
    14. What is the exception to this rule where we only read 9 verses?
    15. We do not start an עֲלִיָּה within three verses from the beginning of a section and we don’t end an עֲלִיָּה within three verses from the end of the section. Why?
    16. Other than on Mondays and Thursdays, how many people are called up to the Torah? Why?
    17. Are we allowed to add additional עֲלִיּוֹת on שַׁבָּת? Why?
    18. Are we allowed to add additional עֲלִיּוֹת on יוֹם טוֹב? Explain the difference of opinions of the רִאשׁוֹנִים.
    19. When do we read the four פַּרְשִׁיּוֹת (שְׁקָלִים etc.)? Why at these times?
    20. What are the Torah readings on each of the three major holidays? Why?
    21. What are the Torah readings for רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה and יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים? Why?
    22. Are these readings also mentioned in the Mishna in מגילה דף ל עמ' ב? Explain the issues.
    23. What is the Torah reading for יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים at מִנְחָה? (Why? Give the explanations.)
    24. What is the Torah reading for שְׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת? What are the meanings of כָּל הַבְּכוֹר, מִצְוֹת וְחֻקִּים, וּבְכוֹר (See מגילה דף לא עמ' א רש"י ד"ה קורין כל הבכור)?
    25. According to the Mishna in מְגִלָּה what do we read on a fast day? Do we observe this practice? What is the opinion of the Rambam?
    26. What do we read on תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב according to the Gemara in מגילה and what is our practice?
    27. What is different about the reading of the last eight verses of the תּוֹרָה? (בבא בתרא דף טו עמ' א)
    28. How do we know that a כהן gets the first aliyah? (גיטין דף כט)
    29. What do you do if there is no כהן, or if there is no לוי in the synagogue?
    30. We take out a second תורה on holidays to read the מוסף offerings (סדר רב עמרם). Why do we not do this on שבת?
    31. What was the תֻּרְגְּמָן? Why do we not translate the reading nowadays?
    32. Why was the reading of the הַפְטָרָה established? Bring the various opinions!
    33. What is the meaning of the Hebrew word הַפְטָרָה?
    34. What is the connection between the reading of the הַפְטָרָה and the reading of the Torah? (what doesדדמי ליה mean? – מגילה דך כט עמ' ב)
    35. What is the הַפְטָרָה for שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה according to the Talmud and according to our practice? (Explain the reason)?
    36. What is the minimum number of verses read in the הַפְטָרָה and why is that the minimum?
    37. When might we read less than this, and why?
    38. How many Blessings do we recite before and after the הַפְטָרָה, and why?
    39. What is the significance of these blessings?
    40. What was the text of the Berachah וְנֶאֱמָנִים etc. according to מסכת סופרים?
    41. Why is a minyan required for the reading of the הַפְטָרָה?
    42. Why is a minyan required for the reading of the תּוֹרָה?
    43. What are the ג' דְּפֻרְעָנוּתָא?
    44. What are the ג' דְּנֶחָמְתָּא?
    45. What are the ב' דִּתְיוּבְתָּא?
    46. When do we read the הַפְטָרָה in Mincha but not in Shacharit? Why? (מגילה דף כא עמ' א תוספות ד"ה הקורא)
    47. Do we read a הַפְטָרָה on Shabbat during Mincha? (מגילה דף כא עמ' א, שבת דף כד עמ' א)
    48. Are we permitted to skip from section to section in the reading of the תּוֹרָה or הַפְטָרָה?
    49. Do we mention the holiday in the Berachot of the הַפְטָרָה on שבת when it falls out during the intermediate days of a festival? (שלחן ערוך אורח חיים סי' תצ)
    50. How many blessings are recited after the הַפְטָרָה on a fast day? Why?
    51. How many blessings are recited after the הַפְטָרָה on יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים during Mincha? (שלחן ערוך אורח חיים סי' תרכב)


    1. In the עֲמִידָה why do we add עַל הַנִּסִּים to בִּרְכַּת הַהוֹדָאָה?
    2. In בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן why do we add עַל הַנִּסִּים to בִּרְכַּת הָאָרֶץ?
    3. It is taken for granted in the Gemara (שבת דף כד עמ' א) that we add עַל הַנִּסִּים to the עֲמִידָה, but there is a doubt whether or not we should add it to בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן. Why?
    4. What is the הֲלָכָה if you accidentally skip עַל הַנִּסִּים in בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן?
    5. What is the הֲלָכָה if you accidentally skip עַל הַנִּסִּים in the עֲמִידָה?
    6. Why is the הֲלָכָה of בִּרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן different than the הֲלָכָה of the עֲמִידָה?
    7. Which is correct, saying עַל הַנִּסִּים or וְעַל הַנִּסִּים?
    8. Some versions say בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּבַזְּמַן הַזֶּה instead of בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה. What are the different nuances of these phrases?
    9. Many רִאשׁוֹנִים added the request כְּשֵׁם שֶׁעָשִׂיתָ to עַל הַנִּסִּים. Why do we not do this?
    10. עַל הַנִּסִּים was written in Hebrew except for one Aramaic word: פֻּרְקָן. Why?
    11. The miracle of חֲנֻכָּה and the commandment of lighting candles are not mentioned in עַל הַנִּסִּים. Why?
    12. In עַל הַמִּחְיָה (בִּרְכַּת מֵעֵין שָׁלֹשׁ), we don’t mention חֲנֻכָּה as we mention שַׁבָּת or יוֹם טוֹב. Why?
    13. עַל הַנִּסִּים for חֲנֻכָּה is longer than for פּוּרִים. Why?
    14. Do we recite הַלֵּל on חֲנֻכָּה and on פּוּרִים? Explain the difference.
    15. What Torah reading portion do we read on חֲנֻכָּה?
    16. Why was this portion chosen?
    17. What is the disagreement between the מְחַבֵּר and the רמ"א about the readings for רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ and חֲנֻכָּה when they coincide? What is the reason for this dispute?
    18. How many סִפְרֵי תּוֹרָה do we take out on שַׁבָּת חֲנֻכָּה when רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ coincides with שַׁבָּת? What do we read in each? Why in this order?
    19. When שַׁבָּת חֲנֻכָּה falls out on רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, why do we read the הַפְטָרָה of חֲנֻכָּה and not the הַפְטָרָה of רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ?
    20. According to the רמ"א, when do we recite the בְּרָכוֹת for lighting the Chanukah candles?
    21. According to מַסֶּכֶת סוֹפְרִים, what is the order of reciting the בְּרָכוֹת for lighting the Chanukah candles?
    22. How can we accommodate both of these opinions as of the second day of חֲנֻכָּה?
    23. When do we light the Chanukah candles at home?
    24. When do we light the Chanukah candles in shul?
    25. When do we light the Chanukah candles on Friday night? About what do we have to be careful?
    26. When do we light the Chanukah candles at home on מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת and why?
    27. When do we light the Chanukah candles in shul on מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת and why?