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How Many Messiahs? And When?

Source Sheet by Meggie Kwait
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Created August 12, 2015 · 1016 Views · נוצר 12 August, 2015 · 1016 צפיות ·

  1. (א) וָאֶשָּׂ֥א אֶת־עֵינַ֖י וָאֵ֑רֶא וְהִנֵּ֖ה אַרְבַּ֥ע קְרָנֽוֹת׃ (ב) וָאֹמַ֗ר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י מָה־אֵ֑לֶּה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י אֵ֤לֶּה הַקְּרָנוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר זֵר֣וּ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֔ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִירוּשָׁלָֽם׃ (ס) (ג) וַיַּרְאֵ֣נִי יְהוָ֔ה אַרְבָּעָ֖ה חָרָשִֽׁים׃ (ד) וָאֹמַ֕ר מָ֛ה אֵ֥לֶּה בָאִ֖ים לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לֵאמֹ֗ר אֵ֣לֶּה הַקְּרָנ֞וֹת אֲשֶׁר־זֵ֣רוּ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֗ה כְּפִי־אִישׁ֙ לֹא־נָשָׂ֣א רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ אֵ֙לֶּה֙ לְהַחֲרִ֣יד אֹתָ֔ם לְיַדּ֞וֹת אֶת־קַרְנ֣וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֗ם הַנֹּשְׂאִ֥ים קֶ֛רֶן אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ יְהוּדָ֖ה לְזָרוֹתָֽהּ׃ (ס)
    (1) And I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold four horns. (2) And I said unto the angel that spoke with me: ‘What are these?’ And he said unto me: ‘These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.’ (3) And the LORD showed me four craftsmen. (4) Then said I: ‘What come these to do?’ And he spoke, saying: ‘These—the horns which scattered Judah, so that no man did lift up his head—these then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it.’
  2. אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו' (זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ב) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי (מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו: 

    R. Hana b. Abba stated: It was said at the house of the Rav: There are four things that the Holy One, blessed be He, regrets having created, and they are the following: Exile, the Chaldeans, the Ishmaelites and the Evil Inclination. “Exile”: as it is written, “Now, therefore, what am I doing here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away in vain” (Isaiah 52:5). “The Chaldeans” as it is written, “Behold the land of the Chaldeans — this is the people that was not” (Isaiah 23:13). “The Ishmaelites,” as it is written, “The tents of the robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure since God brought them with His hand” (Job 12:6). “The Evil Inclination”, since it is written, “And her that I have afflicted” (Micah 4:6). R. Yohanan said, Were it not for following three Scriptural verses, the feet of the enemies of Israel would have sunk. One is the verse, “And her that I have afflicted”; the other is the verse, “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are you in My hand, O House of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6); and the third, “And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh” (Ezekiel 36:26). R. Papa observed: The following verse as well, “And I will put My spirit into you” (Ezekiel 36:27).... “And the Lord showed me four craftsmen” (Zechariah 2:3). Who are these ‘four craftsmen’? R. Hana b. Bizna said in the name of R. Shimon Hasida: The Messiah the son of David, the Messiah the son of Joseph, Elijah and the Righteous Priest. R. Sheshet objected: If so, was it correct to write, “These are the horns which scattered Judah,” whereas these come to restore them. He said to him: ] Go to the end of the verse: “These have come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horns against the Land of Judah, to scatter it. He said to him: Why should I argue with Hana in Aggada? And this shall be peace: when the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise up against him seven shepherds and eight princes among men” (Micah 5:4). Who are the “seven shepherds”? — David in the middle, Adam, Seth and Methuselah on his right, and Abraham, Jacob and Moses on his left. And who are the “eight princes among men”? — Yishai, Shaul, Shmuel, Amos, Zephaniah, Zedekiah, the Messiah, and Elijah. 

  3. "The redemption of Israel will come about through the mystic force of the letter “Vav” [which has the numerical value of six], namely, in the sixth millennium.... Happy are those who will be left alive at the end of the sixth millennium to enter the Shabbat, which is the seventh millennium; for that is a day set apart for the Holy One on which to effect the union of new souls with old souls in the world (Zohar, Vayera 119a)."

  4. R. Katina said, “Six thousand years the world will exist and one [thousand, the seventh], it shall be desolate (haruv), as it is written, ‘And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day’ (Isa. 2:11)... R. Katina also taught, “Just as the seventh year is the Shmita year, so too does the world have one thousand years out of seven that are fallow (mushmat), as it is written, ‘And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day’ (Isa. 2:11); and further it is written, ‘A psalm and song for the Shabbat day’ (Ps. 92:1) – meaning the day that is altogether Shabbat – and also it is said, ‘For a thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past’ (Ps.90:4) (Sanhedrin 97a).”

  5. "Six eons for going in and coming out, for war and peace. The seventh eon is entirely Shabbat and rest for life everlasting." (Pirke d'Rabbi Eliezer,1st-3rd Century)

  6. "If one of the multitude refuses to believe [that angels are incorporeal] and prefers to believe that angels have bodies and even that they eat, since it is written (Genesis 18:8) 'they ate', or that those who exist in the World to Come will also have bodies—we won't hold it against him or consider him a heretic, and we will not distance ourselves from him. May there not be many who profess this folly, and let us hope that he will go no farther than this in his folly and believe that the Creator is corporeal...


    It appears to us on the basis of these verses (Daniel 12:2,13) that those people who will return to those bodies will eat, drink, copulate, beget, and die after a very long life, like the lives of those who will live in the Days of the Messiah."

    (Maimonides, "The Treatise on Resurrection")

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