Miktzat Ma'ase Torah
And you know that we have segregated ourselves from the rest of the people and we would avoid mingling in these affairs and associating with them in these things. And you know that there is not to be found in our actions deceit or betrayal or evil, for concerning [these we give [ . . . and further] to you we have written] that you understand the book of Moses [and the words of the prophets and of David [and the annals] [of eac]h generation...
[...] And it is written that [all] these [things] shall happen to you at the end of days, the blessing and the curse [. . . and you shall ass]ent in your heart and turn to me with all your heart [and with all your soul [ .. .at the e]nd [of time] and you shall be [...]
[And it is written in the book of] Moses and in [the words of the prop]hets that [blessings and curses] will come upon you which [...] [the bl]essings which c[ame upon] him in the days of Solomon the son of David and also the curses which came upon him from the [days of Jeroboam son of Nebat right up to the capture of Jerusalem and of Zedekiah, king of Judah 106 [that] he should bring them in [...].
And we are aware that part of the blessings and curses have occurred that are written in the b[ook ofMo]ses.And this is the end of days, when they will repent in Israel for [ever. . . ] and not backslide [...] but the wicked will act wickedly and [...] And [...] remember the kings of Israel and reflect on their deeds, how whoever of them who respected [the Torah] was freed from his afflictions; those who sought the Torah [were forgiven] their sins. Remember David, one of the "pious," and he, too, was freed from his many afflictions and was forgiven.
And also we have written to you some of the precepts of the Torah which we think are good for you and for your people, for in you [we saw] intellect and knowledge of the Torah. Reflect on all these matters and seek from him so that he may support your counsel and keep far from you the evil scheming and the counsel of Belial, so that at the end of tie, you may rejoice in finding that some of our words are true. And it shall be reckoned to you as just when you do what is upright and good before him, for your good and that of Israel.
Josephus Antiquities 9
Now there was one Jonathan, a very great friend of Hyrcanus’s, but of the sect of the Sadducees; whose notions are quite contrary to those of the Pharisees. He told Hyrcanus, that “Eleazar had cast such a reproach upon him according to the common sentiments of all the Pharisees: and that this would be made manifest if he would but ask them the question, what punishment they thought this man deserved? For that he might depend upon it, that the reproach was not laid on him with their approbation; if they were for punishing him as his crime deserved.” So the Pharisees made answer, that “He deserved stripes and bonds: but that it did not seem right to punish reproaches with death.” And indeed the Pharisees, even upon other occasions, are not apt to be severe in punishments. At this gentle sentence Hyrcanus was very angry: and thought that this man reproached him by their approbation. It was this Jonathan, who chiefly irritated him, and influenced him so far, that he made him leave the party of the Pharisees, and abolish the decrees they had imposed on the people; and to punish those that observed them. From this source arose that hatred, which he and his sons met with from the multitude. But of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses: and for that reason it is, that the Sadducees reject them: and say, that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word; but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our fore-fathers.
Gospel of Mark
7 Now when the Pharisees gathered to him, with some of the scribes who had come from Jerusalem, 2 they saw that some of his disciples ate with hands that were defiled, that is, unwashed. 3 (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands properly,[a] holding to the tradition of the elders, 4 and when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash.[b] And there are many other traditions that they observe, such as the washing of cups and pots and copper vessels and dining couches.[c]) 5 And the Pharisees and the scribes asked him, “Why do your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat with defiled hands?” 6 And he said to them, “Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written,
“‘This people honors me with their lips,
but their heart is far from me;
7 in vain do they worship me,
teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’
8 You leave the commandment of God and hold to the tradition of men.”
9 And he said to them, “You have a fine way of rejecting the commandment of God in order to establish your tradition! 10 For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother’; and, ‘Whoever reviles father or mother must surely die.’ 11 But you say, ‘If a man tells his father or his mother, “Whatever you would have gained from me is Corban”’ (that is, given to God)— 12 then you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or mother, 13 thus making void the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And many such things you do.”
What Defiles a Person
14 And he called the people to him again and said to them, “Hear me, all of you, and understand: 15 There is nothing outside a person that by going into him can defile him, but the things that come out of a person are what defile him.”[e] 17 And when he had entered the house and left the people, his disciples asked him about the parable. 18 And he said to them, “Then are you also without understanding? Do you not see that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile him,19 since it enters not his heart but his stomach, and is expelled?”[f] (Thus he declared all foods clean.) 20 And he said, “What comes out of a person is what defiles him. 21 For from within, out of the heart of man, come evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, 22 coveting, wickedness, deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride, foolishness. 23 All these evil things come from within, and they defile a person.”
ברית דמשק ג: 5-7
במצרים הלכו בשרירות לבם להיעץ על מצות אל ולעשות איש הישר בעיניו ויאכלו אם הדם ויכרת זכורם במדבר
Damascus Document 3:5-7
And in Egypt their sons walked in the stubbornness of their hearts plotting against God's precepts and each one was doing what was right in his own eyes; and ate blood and their males were cut off in the wilderness.
ברית דמשק 12:
אל ישקץ איש את נפשו בכל החיה והרמש לאכל מהם העגלי הדבורים עד כל נפש החיה אשר תרמוש במים והדגים אל יאכלו כי אם נקרעו חיים ונשפך דמם וכל החגבים במיניהם יבאו באש או במים עד הם חיים כי הוא משפט בריאתם
Damascus Covenant 12
No-one should defile his soul 12 with any living or creeping animal, by eating them, from the larvae of bees to every living 13 being which creeps in water. And fish they should not eat unless they have been opened up 14 alive, and their blood poured away. And all the locusts, according to their kind, shall be put into fire or into water 75 while they are still alive^ as this is the regulation for their species.
ברית דמשק ה:ז-יא
ולוקחים איש את בת אחיהם ואת בת אחותו ומשה אמר אל אחות אמך לא תקרב שאר אמך היא ומשפט עריות לזכרים הוא וכהם הנשים. ואם תגלה בת האח את ערות אחי אביה שאר
Damascus Document 5:7-1
And they marry each his brother’s daughter and his sister’s daughter. But Moses said, “Do not have sexual relations (tiqrav) with your mother’s sister, for she is your mother’s Áesh” (Lev 18:13). And the rules of incest are written with reference to males, and apply equally to women. So how can the brother’s daughter engage in sexual relations with her father’s brother, is she not (also) Áesh (a close relative)?
לוא יקח איש את אחות אביהו או את אחות אמו כי זמה היא. לוא יקח איש את בת אחיחו או בת אחותו כי תועבה היא
Temple Scroll 66:15-17
A man is not to take the sister of his father or the sister of his mother, because it is depravity. A man is not to take the daughter of his brother or the daughter of his sister because it is an abomination
"כאשר דבר אל ביד ישעיה ה̇נ̇ביא בן
אמוץ לאמר פחד ופחת ופח עליך יושב הארץ vacat
פשרו שלושת מצודות בליעל אשר אמר עליהם לוי בן יעקב אשר הוא תפש בהם בישראל ויתנם פניהם לשלושת מיני הצדק
הראשונה היא הזנות השנית ההון השלישית טמא המקדש העולה מזה יתפש בזה והניצל מזה יתפש בזה vacat
בוני החי̇ץ אשר הלכו אחרי צו הצו הוא מטיף אשר אמר הטף יטיפון הם ניתפשים בשתים בזנות לקחת שתי נשים בחייהם ויסוד הבריאה זכר ונקבה ברא אותם ובאי התבה שנים שנים באו אל התבה vacat ועל הנשיא כ̇תוב לא ירבה לו נשים ודויד לא קרא בספר התורה החתום אשר היה בארון כי לא נפתח בישראל מיום מות אלעזר
Damasus Covenant 4-5
And during all these years Belial will be set loose against Israel, as God has said by means of the prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz, saying: (Isaiah 24:17) «Panic, pit and net against you, earth-dweller». Its explanation: 15 They are Belial's three nets about which Levi, son of Jacob spoke, 16 by which he catches Israel and makes them appear before them like three types of justice. The first is fornication; the second, wealth; the third, 18 defilement of the temple. He who eludes one is caught in another and he who is freed from that, is caught 19 in another. The builders of the wall who go after Zaw - Zaw is the preacher 20 of whom he said: Mic 2:6 « Assuredly they will preach »- are caught twice in fornication: by taking 21 two wives in their lives, even though the principle of creation is Gen 1:27 «male and female he created them»,
and the ones who went into the ark Gen 7:9 «went in two by two into the ark». And about the prince it is written: 2 Deut ,7:17 «He should not multiply wives to himself^. However David had not read the sealed book of the law which was in the ark, for it had not been opened in Israel since the day of the death of Elazar.
3 Some Pharisees came to him to test him. They asked, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any and every reason?”
4 “Haven’t you read,” he replied, “that at the beginning the Creator ‘made them male and female,’[a] 5 and said, ‘For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh’[b]? 6 So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate.”
7 “Why then,” they asked, “did Moses command that a man give his wife a certificate of divorce and send her away?”
8 Jesus replied, “Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because your hearts were hard. But it was not this way from the beginning. 9 I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another woman commits adultery.”
10 The disciples said to him, “If this is the situation between a husband and wife, it is better not to marry.”
11 Jesus replied, “Not everyone can accept this word, but only those to whom it has been given. 12 For there are eunuchs who were born that way, and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchs by others—and there are those who choose to live like eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. The one who can accept this should accept it.”
Wars of the Jews 2:161
Moreover, there is another order of Essens, (8) who agree with the rest as to their way of living, and customs, and laws, but differ from them in the point of marriage, as thinking that by not marrying they cut off the principal part of human life, which is the prospect of succession; nay, rather, that if all men should be of the same opinion, the whole race of mankind would fail. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not many out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
ברית דמשק, 4Q270
או ישחט בהמה וחיה עברה אשר ישכב עם אשה הרה מקיץ דמו או יקרב אל בת אחיו
Or slaughters an animal carrying a live fetus or who sleeps with a pregnant woman because of the heat [?] of his blood or approaches the daughter of his brother
10 On a Sabbath Jesus was teaching in one of the synagogues, 11 and a woman was there who had been crippled by a spirit for eighteen years. She was bent over and could not straighten up at all. 12 When Jesus saw her, he called her forward and said to her, “Woman, you are set free from your infirmity.” 13 Then he put his hands on her, and immediately she straightened up and praised God.
14 Indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, the synagogue leader said to the people, “There are six days for work. So come and be healed on those days, not on the Sabbath.”
15 The Lord answered him, “You hypocrites! Doesn’t each of you on the Sabbath untie your ox or donkey from the stall and lead it out to give it water? 16 Then should not this woman, a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan has kept bound for eighteen long years, be set free on the Sabbath day from what bound her?”
מקצת מעשה תורה
ואף על טהרת החטאת השוחט אותה והסורף אותה והאוסף את אפרה והמזה מי החטאת לכול אלה להעריבות השמש ולהיות טהורים שא יהיה הטהר מזה על הטמא
Miktzat Ma'ase Torah
And also in what pertains to the purity of the heifer of the sin-offering that whoever slaughters it and whoever burns it and whoever collects its ash and whoever sprinkles the water of purification. At sunset, all these ought to be pure so that a pure man sprinkles on the impure.
מגילת המקדש נב
ושור ושה אותו ואת בנו לוא תזבח ביום אחד ולוא תכה אם על בנים
Temple Scroll 52
And you shall not slaughter a cow or a ewe and its young on the same day, and you shall not kill a mother with its young.
מגילת המקדש נ
ואשה כי תהיה מלאה וימות ילדה במעיה כול הימים אשר הוא בתוכה מת תטמא כקבר כל בית אשר תבוא אליו יטמא
Temple Scroll 50
And if a woman is pregnant and her child dies in her womb, all the days which he is dead within her she shall be impure like a grave; every house which she enters will be unclean.
מקצת מעשי תורה
ואף על החרשים שלוא שמעו חוק ומשפט וטהרה ולא ישמעו משפטי ישראל כי שלוא ראה ולוא שמע לוא ידע לעשות והמה באים לטהרת המקדש
The Halakhic Letter (Miktzat Maase Torah)
And also concerning the deaf who have not heard the law and the precept and the purity regulation, and have not heard the precepts of Israel, for whoever neither sees nor hears, does not know how to behave. But these are approaching the purity of the Temple.
אבות דרבי נתן נוסחא ב פרק י
אנטיגנוס איש סוכו קבל משמעון הצדיק הוא היה אומר אל תהיו כעבדים המשמשין את הרב על מנת לקבל פרס אלא היו כעבדים המsשמשין את הרב על מנת שלא לקבל פרס ויהי מורא שמים עליכם ואתם ...
ב' תלמידים היו לו צדוק וביתוס וכיון ששמעו את הדבר הזה שנו לתלמידיהם. ותלמידיהן אמרו דבר מפי רבן ולא אמרו פירושו. אמרו להן אילו הייתם יודעים שתחיית המתים מתן שכרן של צדיקים לעתיד לבוא היו אומרין כן. הלכו ופירשו להן ויצאו מהם שתי משפחות צדוקים וביתוסים [וצדוקים לשם צדוק ובייתוסים] לשם בייתוס:
Avot de-Rabbi Natan, version 2:10
Antigonos, man of Sokho, received from Shimon the Righteous. He would say, "Do not be as servants who are serving the master in order to receive a reward, rather be as servants who are serving the master not in order to receive a reward; and may the fear of Heaven be upon you."
Tzadok and Boethus had two students, and when they heard this, they taught it to their students. The students transmitted the teachings of their master, but they did not say the explanation. They said to them: If you knew that resurrection was the future reward for the righteous, wouldn't you have said so? They went and separated [from the community]. From them come the two families, Tzadok and Boethus.
6 Then Paul, knowing that some of them were Sadducees and the others Pharisees, called out in the Sanhedrin, “My brothers, I am a Pharisee, descended from Pharisees. I stand on trial because of the hope of the resurrection of the dead.” 7 When he said this, a dispute broke out between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 8 (The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, and that there are neither angels nor spirits, but the Pharisees believe all these things.
From Shaye Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh
Abstract: After the destruction of the second temple in 70 C.E. the rabbis gathered in Yavneh and launched the process which yielded the Mishnah approximately one hundred years later. Most modern scholars see these rabbis as Pharisees triumphant who define “orthodoxy,” expel Christians and other heretics, and purge the canon of “dangerous” books. The evidence for this reconstruction is inadequate. In all likelihood most[, certainly at least some,] of the rabbis were Pharisees, but there is no indication that the rabbis of the Yavnean period were motivated by a Pharisaic self-consciousness or were dominated by an exclusivistic ethic. In contrast the ma- jor goal of the Yavnean rabbis seems to have been not the expulsion of those with whom they disagreed but the cessation of sectarianism and the creation of a society which tolerated, even encouraged, vigorous debate among members of the fold. The Mishnah is the first work of Jewish antiquity to ascribe conflicting legal opinions to named individuals who, in spite of their disagreements, belong to the same fraternity. This mutual tolerance is the enduring legacy of Yavneh.
“Pharisaic triumph” is not a useful description of the events at Yavneh. Perhaps many, if not most, of the sages there assembled were Pharisees or the descendants of Pharisees, but they made little of their ancestry. Their interest was the future, not the past. There is little evidence for “witch- hunting” in general and anti-Christian activity in particular.61 The sages were not a party triumphant which closed the ranks, defined orthodoxy, and expelled the unwanted. Yavneh was a grand coalition of different groups and parties,62 held together by the belief that sectarian self-identification was a thing of the past and that individuals may disagree with each other in matters of law while remaining friends. Those who refused to join the coalition and insisted on sectarian self-definition were branded minim and cursed. Those rabbis who could not learn the rules of pluralism and mutual tolerance were banned.