כִּסּוּי הַדָּם נוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, בְּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בְמֻקְדָּשִׁים. וְנוֹהֵג בְּחַיָּה וּבְעוֹף, בִּמְזֻמָּן וּבְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. וְנוֹהֵג בְּכוֹי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק. וְאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתוֹ בְיוֹם טוֹב. וְאִם שְׁחָטוֹ, אֵין מְכַסִּין אֶת דָּמוֹ:
The mitzva of covering the blood after slaughter is in effect both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael, both in the presence, i.e., the time, of the Temple and not in the presence of the Temple. And it is in effect with regard to non-sacred animals, but it is not in effect with regard to sacrificial ones. And it is in effect with regard to the slaughter of an undomesticated animal and a bird, with regard to animals and birds that are readily available in his home, and with regard to those that are not readily available and are hunted in the wild. And it is in effect with regard to a koy, because it is uncertain whether a koy is a domesticated animal and one is exempt from the covering of its blood or whether it is an undomesticated animal and one is obligated to cover it. And one may not slaughter a koy on a Festival, because covering its blood entails the performance of prohibited labor that is permitted only if there is a definite obligation to cover the blood. And if one slaughtered a koy on a Festival after the fact, one does not cover its blood until after the Festival.
הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט חֻלִּין בִּפְנִים, וְקָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ, חַיָּה וָעוֹף הַנִּסְקָלִים, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין. הַשׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְיָדוֹ, הַנּוֹחֵר, וְהַמְעַקֵּר, פָּטוּר מִלְּכַסּוֹת:
In the case of one who slaughters an undomesticated animal or a bird and it is discovered to be an animal with a wound that would have caused it to die within twelve months [tereifa]; and in the case of one who slaughters an undomesticated animal or a bird for the sake of idol worship; and in the case of one who slaughters a non-sacred animal or bird inside the Temple courtyard or a sacrificial bird outside the Temple courtyard; or in the case of one who slaughters an undomesticated animal or a bird that was sentenced to be stoned, e.g., for killing a person; in all these cases, even though it is prohibited to eat any of these animals or birds, Rabbi Meir deems one obligated to cover their blood, and the Rabbis deem one exempt from doing so because, in their opinion, slaughter that is not fit to render the meat permitted for consumption is not considered an act of slaughter. One who slaughters an animal or bird and it became a carcass by his hand, i.e., the slaughter was performed incorrectly, and one who stabs the animal or bird, and one who tears loose the windpipe and the gullet, are exempt from covering the blood, as no act of slaughter took place, and one is obligated to cover blood only after a valid slaughter.
חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ וַאֲחֵרִים רוֹאִין אוֹתָן, חַיָּב לְכַסּוֹת. בֵּינָן לְבֵין עַצְמָם, פָּטוּר מִלְּכַסּוֹת. וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ, שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ וַאֲחֵרִים רוֹאִין אוֹתָן, אָסוּר לִשְׁחֹט אַחֲרֵיהֶם. בֵּינָן לְבֵין עַצְמָן, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מַתִּיר לִשְׁחֹט אַחֲרֵיהֶן, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִים. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁאִם שָׁחַט, שֶׁאֵינוֹ סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים:
In the case of a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor who slaughtered an undomesticated animal or a bird, and others saw them and ensured that the slaughter was properly performed, in which case the slaughter is valid (see 2a), one who oversaw the slaughter is obligated to cover the blood. If they slaughtered the animals among themselves without supervision, one is exempt from the obligation to cover the blood. And likewise with regard to the matter of slaughtering a mother and its offspring on the same day, if a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor slaughtered an undomesticated mother animal and others saw them, it is prohibited to slaughter its offspring after them. If they slaughtered the mother animal among themselves, Rabbi Meir deems it permitted to slaughter its offspring after them and the Rabbis deem it prohibited. And the Rabbis concede that if one slaughtered the offspring thereafter that he does not incur the forty lashes, as it is possible the mother was not properly slaughtered.
שָׁחַט מֵאָה חַיּוֹת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, כִּסּוּי אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן. מֵאָה עוֹפוֹת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, כִּסּוּי אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן. חַיָּה וָעוֹף בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, כִּסּוּי אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שָׁחַט חַיָּה, יְכַסֶּנָּה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשְׁחֹט אֶת הָעוֹף. שָׁחַט וְלֹא כִסָּה וְרָאָהוּ אַחֵר, חַיָּב לְכַסּוֹת. כִּסָּהוּ וְנִתְגַּלָּה, פָּטוּר מִלְּכַסּוֹת. כִּסָּהוּ הָרוּחַ, חַיָּב לְכַסּוֹת:
If one slaughtered one hundred undomesticated animals in one place, one covering of the blood suffices for all the animals and there is no obligation to cover the blood of each animal separately. Likewise, if one slaughtered one hundred birds in one place, one covering of the blood suffices for all the birds. If one slaughtered an undomesticated animal and a bird in one place, one covering for all of the blood is sufficient. Rabbi Yehuda says: If one slaughtered an undomesticated animal, he should cover its blood immediately and only thereafter he should slaughter the bird. If one slaughtered an undomesticated animal or bird and did not cover the blood, and another person saw the uncovered blood, the second person is obligated to cover the blood. If one covered the blood and it was then uncovered, he is exempt from covering it again. If the wind blew earth on the blood and covered it, and it was consequently uncovered, he is obligated to cover the blood.
דָּם שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמַיִם, אִם יֶשׁ בּוֹ מַרְאִית דָּם, חַיָּב לְכַסּוֹת. נִתְעָרֵב בְּיַיִן, רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְאִלּוּ הוּא מָיִם. נִתְעָרֵב בְּדַם הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ בְדַם הַחַיָּה, רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְאִלּוּ הוּא מָיִם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין דָּם מְבַטֵּל דָּם:
In a case of the blood of an undomesticated animal or bird that was mixed with water, if there is in the mixture the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. If the blood was mixed with wine one views the wine as though it is water, and if a mixture with that amount of water would have the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. Likewise, if the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird was mixed with the blood of a domesticated animal, which one does not have to cover, or with blood of the undomesticated animal that did not flow from the neck and does not require covering, one views the blood as though it is water. Rabbi Yehuda says: Blood does not nullify blood. Therefore, even if the undomesticated animal’s blood, which one must cover, is not recognizable in this mixture, he is obligated to cover the mixture nevertheless.
דָּם הַנִּתָּז וְשֶׁעַל הַסַּכִּין, חַיָּב לְכַסּוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם דָּם אֶלָּא הוּא. אֲבָל יֵשׁ שָׁם דָּם שֶׁלֹּא הוּא, פָּטוּר מִלְּכַסּוֹת:
With regard to blood that spurts outside the pit over which the animal was slaughtered, or onto a wall, and blood that remained on the slaughtering knife, one is obligated to cover it. Rabbi Yehuda said: When is this the halakha? When no blood remains there from the slaughter except that blood. But if blood remains there from the slaughter that is not that blood, he is exempt from covering it.
בַּמֶּה מְכַסִּין, וּבַמָּה אֵין מְכַסִּין. מְכַסִּין בְּזֶבֶל הַדַּק, וּבְחֹל הַדַּק, בְּסִיד, וּבְחַרְסִית, וּבִלְבֵנָה וּבִמְגוּפָה שֶׁכְּתָשָׁן. אֲבָל אֵין מְכַסִּין לֹא בְזֶבֶל הַגַּס, וְלֹא בְחוֹל הַגַּס, וְלֹא בִלְבֵנָה וּמְגוּפָה שֶׁלֹא כְתָשָׁן, וְלֹא יִכְפֶּה עָלָיו אֶת הַכֶּלִי. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, דָּבָר שֶׁמְּגַדֵּל בּוֹ צְמָחִין, מְכַסִּין בּוֹ. וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְגַדֵּל צְמָחִין, אֵין מְכַסִּין בּוֹ:
With what substances may one cover the blood and with what substances may one not cover the blood? One may cover the blood with fine granulated manure, with fine sand, with lime, with crushed potsherd, and with a brick or the lid of an earthenware barrel that one crushed. But one may not cover the blood with thick manure, nor with thick, clumped sand, nor with a brick or the lid of an earthenware barrel that one did not crush. Neither may one merely turn a vessel over the blood. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel stated a principle: With regard to a substance in which plants grow, one may cover blood with it; and with regard to a substance in which plants do not grow, one may not cover blood with it.